Tim Boileau, PhD
Building Media Literacy
Skills for 21st Century
July 30-31, 2014 - #inspires2014
What do you want to get out of this Workshop?
❖ Who are you?!
❖ What do you do for a living and where?!
❖ What’s your deﬁnition of Media Literacy?!
❖ Why did you sign up for this workshop?!
❖ What do you hope to get out of this experience?
❖ Five Digital Literacies!
❖ Locating & Filtering!
❖ Sharing & Collaborating!
❖ Organizing & Curating!
❖ Creating & Generating!
❖ Reusing & Repurposing
Digital literacies represent in whole the essential skills
for managing information and communication in the
rapidly changing and increasingly digital world that is
the 21st century.
❖ Wednesday 8:30-3:30 – Digital Curation Skills!
❖ We will learn ways to collect, organize, manage, and assess digital materials, in
order to create more meaningful learning experiences for yourself and for your
students; by building your Personal Learning Network (PLN).!
❖ Thursday 8:30-3:30 – Digital (Media) Literacy Skills!
❖ We will build a framework of 8 skills to model and teach digital media literacy
skills in the classroom.
Set of interdisciplinary activities for collection,
preservation, maintenance, and archiving of
digital information and research data, in order to
add value to the information and data throughout
Accumulation of Knowledge by Mankind:!
❖ 1 - 1500 CE: Doubled in 1500 years (x2)!
❖ 1500 - 1750: Doubled in 250 years (x4)!
❖ 1750 - 1900: Doubled in 150 years (x8)!
❖ Today: The accumulated knowledge of mankind
doubles every 1-2 years (x16, x32, x64, x128,…)
(1000 miles)(3,346 Feet)
Digital Curation - Historical Perspective
Digital Curation - Domains
Digital Curation - Individuals
❖ Everyone is a curator; enabled by social media-based
❖ Despite technology, humans face innate cognitive limitations!
❖ Required skills for digital curation include:
Assessement Knowledge Construction
Critical Thinking Conceptualization
Distributed Cognition Trans-Media Navigation
Investigation Collective Intelligence
Individual Digital Curation - PLN
❖ Painful truth: Knowledge has an expiration date!
❖ Leverage social media to build your personal learning
❖ Use your social media account(s) to curate and post
content to own personal learning network #inspires2014!
❖ Get Started! Edublog Teacher Challenge: Create a PLN
Digital Curation - Institutions
❖ Concept of curation is not new: e.g., institutional
memory, archives, knowledge management!
❖ What is new: stakeholders expect access to knowledge
repositories; to contribute to, and access archived
Institutional Curation - DCC
Digital Curation Centre (DCC) was established in the UK in 2004, with a
focus on the preservation and curation of data collected from research
conducted on a global basis. The primary aims of the DCC are:!
❖ to promote an understanding of the need for digital curation among
communities of scientists and scholars; !
❖ to provide services to facilitate digital curation; !
❖ to share knowledge of digital curation among the many disciplines
for which it is essential; !
❖ to develop technology in support of digital curation; and, !
❖ to conduct long-term research into all aspects of digital curation.
DCC Curation Processes
1. Conceptualize: conceive and plan the creation of digital objects, including data capture methods and storage
2. Create: produce digital objects and assign administrative, descriptive, structural and technical archival metadata.!
3. Appraise and select: evaluate digital objects and select those requiring long-term curation and preservation.
Adhere to documented guidance, policies and legal requirements.!
4. Ingest: transfer digital objects to an archive, trusted digital repository, data centre or similar, again adhering to
documented guidance, policies and legal requirements.!
5. Preservation action: undertake actions to ensure the long-term preservation and retention of the authoritative
nature of digital objects. !
6. Store: keep the data in a secure manner as outlined by relevant standards. !
7. Access and use: ensure that designated users can easily access digital objects on a day-to-day basis. Some digital
objects may be publicly available, whilst others may be password protected. !
8. Transform: create new digital objects from the original, for example, by migration into a different form.!
9. Dispose: rid systems of digital objects not selected for long-term curation and preservation. Documented
guidance, policies and legal requirements may require the secure destruction of these objects.
Digital Curation - Society
Three Global Trends in Digital Curation (end of 2013):!
❖ The rise of individual access enabled by smartphones
❖ The end of content scarcity as digital distribution has
become ubiquitous, and!
❖ The shift away from content ownership, facilitated by
always-on networks, to services.
Digital Literacies & ICT
Information & Communication Technologies
(and related tools)
Internet search, research, tagging
Wikipedia, Google Search, Google Scholar, Zotero, Diigo
Social bookmarking, online document productivity, wikis, blogs, social networking, AR, MUVEs, identity and
privacy management, Creative Commons
Diigo, Google Drive, Google Sites, Wikispaces, Blogger, Wordpress, Google+, Twitter, Facebook, Edmodo, Ning, !
Second Life, OpenSim, Gravatar
E-portfolios, social bookmarking, wikis, blogs, microblogging, AR
LiveBinder, Diigo, Wordpress, Twitter, Tweeted Times, Scoop.IT, Paper.li
Wikis, blogs, podcasts, e-portfolios, MUVEs, Creative Commons
Google Sites, Wikispaces, Podbean, YouTube, SchoolTube, TeacherTube, iTunes U, WeVideo, Layar, Second Life, OpenSim
Virtual globes, interactive time lines, mashups, remix, fan ﬁction
Google Earth, Google Maps, Dipity, Ficly, TimeGlider
Digital Literacies in Practice
❖ Locating and Filtering!
❖ Organizing and Curating!
❖ Sharing and Collaborating!
❖ Creating and Generating!
❖ Reusing and Repurposing
Digital Literacy Skills
Digital literacy skills relate to the use of digital
technology tools in activities that locate, create,
communicate, and evaluate information within a
networked (online) environment, mediated by
digital computing technologies.
Why Teach Digital Literacy Skills?
❖ Digital technology usage in and out the classroom has
❖ Learner motivation tied to perceptions!
❖ Close the digital divide
Teaching Digital Literacy Skills
❖ Requires a different epistemological framework than
teaching other forms of literacy!
❖ Not the same thing as teaching how to use technology!
❖ What is lacking are the skills to discriminate between
good information and bad information
Digital Literacy - Best Practices
❖ Digital literacy should be pedagogically led and
integrated soundly into the curriculum;!
❖ Educators should use social software and collaborative
technologies to encourage learners to work together;!
❖ Educators should focus on skills that facilitate lifelong
learning and transferable skills, and !
❖ Learners should use technology tools to create
Mallon & Gilstrap, 2014
Teaching Digital Literacy (1 of 3)
❖ Functional Skills – hands-on, experiential learning to
develop competency in basic ICT skills.!
❖ Creativity – in reference to how learners think, construct
knowledge objects, and apply methods for sharing and
distribution of knowledge.!
❖ Collaboration – meaningful learning requires dialogue,
discussion, and exchange of ideas with and in relation to
others for socially constructed meaning-making to occur.
Hague & Payton, 2010
Teaching Digital Literacy (2 of 3)
❖ Communication – digital literacy requires additional higher order
communication skills in a world where much communication is
mediated by digital technology. !
❖ Ability to Find and Select Information – related pedagogy is
inquiry-based learning; these are fundamental skills that are
essential for knowledge development as learners learn how to learn.!
❖ Critical Thinking and Evaluation – critical thinking is at the core of
digital literacy; it includes analysis and transformation of
information to create new knowledge; and requires reﬂection to
evaluate and consider different interpretations.
Hague & Payton, 2010
Teaching Digital Literacy (3 of 3)
❖ Cultural and Social Understanding – provides learners
with a language and context for digital literacy to
promote broader understanding and interaction in the
creation of meaning.!
❖ E-safety – in teaching digital literacy, educators have an
obligation to support learners in development of skills,
knowledge, and understanding that will enable them to
make informed decisions in order to protect themselves
on an ongoing basis.
Hague & Payton, 2010
❖ Need - derived from need assessment; identify a problem / start with the
end in mind.
❖ Action Step - what must be done in order to meet the need?
❖ Rationale - justify the action.
❖ Deadlines - in order to ensure actions are taken and progress is made.
❖ Materials and resources required - essential for budgeting and resource
❖ Stakeholders/people involved and their roles - get them involved up front in
❖ Likely Challenges - face the facts
❖ Training Required - particularly for professional development leaders/
❖ Communication Plans - how will you communicate with faculty and other
Digital Literacy Standards
❖ International Society for Technology in Education (ISTE)!
❖ NETS for Teachers, Students and Administrators!
❖ American Association for School Librarians (AASL)!
❖ Standards for the 21st Century Learner!
❖ Partnership for 21st Century Skills!
❖ Framework for 21st Century Learning
Creating Digital Fluency
❖ Critical thinking – evaluative techniques!
❖ Net savviness – knowing how the web works!
❖ Diversity of sources – preponderance of the evidence
Miller & Bartlett, 2012
Currency: The timeliness of the information • Do you know when the information was
published, posted, or last updated?
• Is the information current for your topic and field of study?
Relevance: The importance of the information for your needs • Is the information appropriate
for a college-level course?
• Is this an adequately in-depth discussion of the topic?
• Has Canadian perspective or content been provided?
Authority: The source of the information • Have the author's credentials or organizational
affiliations been identified?
• Is the author (or authors) qualified to write on the topic?
• Has the piece been published by a well-known and respected publisher or organization?
Accuracy: The reliability and correctness of the informational content • Have the author's
sources been clearly cited so that you can easily find (and verify) them?
• Are there spelling, grammar, or other typographical errors?
Purpose: The reason the information exists • Do the authors/sponsors make their intentions
or purpose clear?
• Does the point of view appear objective, unbiased and impartial?
• Does the author acknowledge alternative versions of the issues or facts?
CRAAP Test Exercise