Chapter 24Evolution and Diversity of   Plants
Evolution and                               Diversity of Plants     OutlineEvolutionary History Alternation of Generation...
Evolution and                                     Diversity of Plants     Evolutionary History of PlantsMore than 98% of a...
Representatives of theFour Major Groups of       Plants
Evolution and                                 Diversity of Plants    Evolutionary History of PlantsSeedless vascular plant...
Evolutionary History of        Plants
Evolution and                                   Diversity of PlantsLife cycle involves of Generations      Alternation alt...
Alternation ofGenerations
Evolution and                                Diversity of Plants    Alternation of GenerationsAppearance of generations va...
Reduction in the Size of the      Gametophyte
Evolution and                              Diversity of Plants     Other Terrestrial AdaptationsVascular tissue transports...
Protection of Eggs and      Embryos
Leaves of Vascular    Plants
Evolution and                              Diversity of Plants    Nonvascular PlantsNonvascular plants (bryophytes)Lack sp...
Evolution and                             Diversity of Plants    Nonvascular PlantsHornworts (phlym Anthocerophyta) have s...
Hornwo  rt
Liverwort,Marchantia
Moss ( Polytrichum ) Life         Cycle
Evolution and                             Diversity of Plants     Vascular PlantsXylem conducts water and dissolved minera...
Cooksonian  Fossil
Vascular Tissue
Evolution and                                Diversity of Plants    Seedless Vascular PlantsClub Mosses (phylum Lycophyta)...
Club Moss,Lycopodium
Evolution and                                Diversity of Plants    Seedless Vascular PlantsFerns and Allies Horsetails (...
Horsetail,Equisetum
Evolution and                             Diversity of Plants    FernsWhisk Ferns (phylum Psilotophyta) Branched rhizome ...
Whisk fern,Psilotum
Diversity of   ferns
Fern Life Cycle
Evolution and                                 Diversity of Plants     Seed PlantsSeed plants are the most plentiful plants...
SeedPlants
Evolution and                           Diversity of Plants    GymnospermsGymnosperms have ovules and seeds exposed on the...
Evolution and                               Diversity of Plants    ConifersConifers, as well as other gymnosperm phyla, be...
Pine Life Cycle
Evolution and                             Diversity of Plants     CycadsCycads (phylum Cycadophyta)Large, finely divided l...
Cycad  ConesFigure 24.19
Evolution and                             Diversity of Plants     GinkgoesGinkgoes (phylum Ginkgophyta)Dioecious Some tre...
The Ginkgo   Tree
Ephedr   aFigure 24.21
Welwitschia miribilis
Evolution and                               Diversity of Plants    GnetophytesGnetophytes (phylum Gnetophyta) Have simila...
Evolution and                            Diversity of Plants    AngiospermsAngiosperms (phylum Anthophyta)An exceptionally...
Amborellatrichopoda
Evolution and                             Diversity of Plants    Monocots and EudicotsTwo classes of flowering plants Mon...
FlowerDiversity
Evolution and                               Diversity of Plants     The FlowerPeduncle (flower stalk) expands at tip into ...
Evolution and                              Diversity of Plants    The FlowerEach stamen consists of an anther and a filame...
Generalized  Flower
Flowering plant life      cycle
Evolution and                              Diversity of Plants    Flowers and DiversificationWind-pollinated flowers are u...
Evolution and                               Diversity of Plants     ReviewEvolutionary History Alternation of Generations...
Ending Slide Chapter 24Evolution and Diversity of   Plants
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  • Biology, 9th ed, Sylvia Mader Evolution and Diversity of Plants Slide # Chapter 24
  • Biology, 9th ed, Sylvia Mader Evolution and Diversity of Plants Slide # Chapter 24
  • Ap bio lecture ch24 evolution and diversity of life

    1. 1. Chapter 24Evolution and Diversity of Plants
    2. 2. Evolution and Diversity of Plants OutlineEvolutionary History Alternation of GenerationsNonvascular PlantsVascular Plants Seedless Seed Angiosperms ­ Monocots and Eudicots ­ Flowers
    3. 3. Evolution and Diversity of Plants Evolutionary History of PlantsMore than 98% of all biomass is plantsMulticellular photosynthetic eukaryotes280,000 known speciesThought to have evolved from freshwater algae over 500 myaEvolution of plants marked by four evolutionary events associated with four major groups of plants  Nonvascular Plants ­ Advent of nourishment of a multicellular embryo
    4. 4. Representatives of theFour Major Groups of Plants
    5. 5. Evolution and Diversity of Plants Evolutionary History of PlantsSeedless vascular plants  Advent of vascular tissueGymnosperms and angiosperms Produce seedsFlowering Plants Attract pollinators that give rise to fruits
    6. 6. Evolutionary History of Plants
    7. 7. Evolution and Diversity of PlantsLife cycle involves of Generations Alternation alternation of generations  Multicellular 1n individuals (gametophytes) produce multicellular 2n individuals (sporophytes)  Multicellular 2n individuals (sporophytes) produce multicellular 1n individuals (gametophytes)Sporophyte (2n):  Multicellular individual that produces spores by meiosis  Spore is haploid cell that will become the gametophyteGametophyte (1n):  Multicellular individual that produces gametes  Gametes fuse in fertilization to form zygote
    8. 8. Alternation ofGenerations
    9. 9. Evolution and Diversity of Plants Alternation of GenerationsAppearance of generations varies widely  In ferns, female portions are archegonia and are fertilized by flagellated sperm  In angiosperm, female gametophyte (embryo sac), consists of an ovule ­ Following fertilization, ovule becomes seed  In seed plants, pollen grains are mature sperm-bearing male gametophytes
    10. 10. Reduction in the Size of the Gametophyte
    11. 11. Evolution and Diversity of Plants Other Terrestrial AdaptationsVascular tissue transports water and nutrients to the body of the plantCuticle provides an effective barrier to water lossStomata bordered by guard cells that regulate opening, and thus water loss
    12. 12. Protection of Eggs and Embryos
    13. 13. Leaves of Vascular Plants
    14. 14. Evolution and Diversity of Plants Nonvascular PlantsNonvascular plants (bryophytes)Lack specialized means of transporting water and organic nutrientsDo not have true roots, stems, and leavesGametophyte is dominant generation Produces eggs in archegonia Produces flagellated sperm in antheridia Sperm swim to egg in film of water to make zygote
    15. 15. Evolution and Diversity of Plants Nonvascular PlantsHornworts (phlym Anthocerophyta) have small sporophytes that carry on photosynthesisLiverworts (phylum Hepatophyta) have either flattened thallus or leafy appearanceMosses (phylum Bryophyta) usually have a leafy shoot, although some are secondarily flattened Can reproduce asexually by fragmentation Dependent sporophyte consists of foot,
    16. 16. Hornwo rt
    17. 17. Liverwort,Marchantia
    18. 18. Moss ( Polytrichum ) Life Cycle
    19. 19. Evolution and Diversity of Plants Vascular PlantsXylem conducts water and dissolved minerals up from rootsPhloem conducts sucrose and other organic compounds throughout the plantLignin strengthens walls of conducting cells in xylemMost seedless vascular plants are homosporous Windblown spores are dispersal agentsAll seed plants are heterosporous and have male and female gametophytes Seeds disperse offspring
    20. 20. Cooksonian Fossil
    21. 21. Vascular Tissue
    22. 22. Evolution and Diversity of Plants Seedless Vascular PlantsClub Mosses (phylum Lycophyta) Typically, branching rhizome sends up short aerial stems Leaves are microphylls (have only one strand of vascular tissue) Sporangia occur on surfaces of sporophylls ­ Grouped into club-shaped strobili
    23. 23. Club Moss,Lycopodium
    24. 24. Evolution and Diversity of Plants Seedless Vascular PlantsFerns and Allies Horsetails (phylum Sphenophyta) ­ Rhizome produces tall aerial stems ­ Contains whorls of slender, green branches ­ Small, scalelike leaves also form whorls at the joints
    25. 25. Horsetail,Equisetum
    26. 26. Evolution and Diversity of Plants FernsWhisk Ferns (phylum Psilotophyta) Branched rhizome has rhizoids Mutualistic mycorrhizal fungus helps gather nutrientsFerns (phylum Pterophyta) Large conspicuous fronds ­ Divided into leaflets ­ Dominant sporophyte produces windblown spores
    27. 27. Whisk fern,Psilotum
    28. 28. Diversity of ferns
    29. 29. Fern Life Cycle
    30. 30. Evolution and Diversity of Plants Seed PlantsSeed plants are the most plentiful plants in the biosphere Seed coat and stored food allow an embryo to survive harsh conditions during long period of dormancy Heterosporous ­ Drought-resistant pollen grains ­ Ovule develops into seed
    31. 31. SeedPlants
    32. 32. Evolution and Diversity of Plants GymnospermsGymnosperms have ovules and seeds exposed on the surface of sporophylls Confiers Cycads Ginkgoes Gnetophytes
    33. 33. Evolution and Diversity of Plants ConifersConifers, as well as other gymnosperm phyla, bear cones Tough, needlelike leaves of pines conserve water with a thick cuticle and recessed stomata ­ Considered a “soft” wood because it consists primarily of xylem tissue
    34. 34. Pine Life Cycle
    35. 35. Evolution and Diversity of Plants CycadsCycads (phylum Cycadophyta)Large, finely divided leaves that grow in clusters at the top of the stem Pollen and seed cones on separate plants Pollinated by insects
    36. 36. Cycad ConesFigure 24.19
    37. 37. Evolution and Diversity of Plants GinkgoesGinkgoes (phylum Ginkgophyta)Dioecious Some trees producing seeds Others producing pollenOne surviving species ( Gingko biloba )
    38. 38. The Ginkgo Tree
    39. 39. Ephedr aFigure 24.21
    40. 40. Welwitschia miribilis
    41. 41. Evolution and Diversity of Plants GnetophytesGnetophytes (phylum Gnetophyta) Have similarly structured xylem None have archegonia Strobili have similar construction
    42. 42. Evolution and Diversity of Plants AngiospermsAngiosperms (phylum Anthophyta)An exceptionally large and successful group of plantsOvules are always enclosed within diploid tissuesBecame dominant group of plants in the late Cretaceous and early Paleocene periods
    43. 43. Amborellatrichopoda
    44. 44. Evolution and Diversity of Plants Monocots and EudicotsTwo classes of flowering plants Monocotyledones (Monocots) ­ One cotyledon in seed Eudicotyledones (Dicots) ­ Two cotyledons in seed
    45. 45. FlowerDiversity
    46. 46. Evolution and Diversity of Plants The FlowerPeduncle (flower stalk) expands at tip into a receptacle Bears sepals, petals, stamens, and carpels, all attached to receptacle in whorls Calyx (collection of sepals) protect flower bud before it opens Corolla (collection of petals)
    47. 47. Evolution and Diversity of Plants The FlowerEach stamen consists of an anther and a filament (stalk)Carpel has three major regions Ovary - Swollen base ­ Fruit Style - Elevates stigma Stigma - Sticky receptor of pollen grains
    48. 48. Generalized Flower
    49. 49. Flowering plant life cycle
    50. 50. Evolution and Diversity of Plants Flowers and DiversificationWind-pollinated flowers are usually not showyBird-pollinated flowers are often colorfulNight-blooming flowers attract nocturnal mammals or insects Usually white or cream-coloredFruits of flowers protect and aid in dispersal Utilize wind, gravity, water, and animals
    51. 51. Evolution and Diversity of Plants ReviewEvolutionary History Alternation of GenerationsNonvascular PlantsVascular Plants Seedless Seed Angiosperms ­ Monocots and Eudicots ­ Flowers
    52. 52. Ending Slide Chapter 24Evolution and Diversity of Plants
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