The Creed of Muslims pdf

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After having been fully reviewed, the creed set out in this booklet has been accredited & stamped with the seal of approval by the Fundamentals of the Religion Academy of Al-Azhar Al-Shariff, as being …

After having been fully reviewed, the creed set out in this booklet has been accredited & stamped with the seal of approval by the Fundamentals of the Religion Academy of Al-Azhar Al-Shariff, as being in accordance with the correct creed of Muslims.

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  • 1. The Creed of Muslims [1] Q: What is the Personal Obligatory Knowledge of Islam? A: The personal Obligatory Knowledge of Islam is a necessary portion of Islamic knowledge which is obligatory upon every accountable person to acquire. Neglecting it is sinful. Such knowledge entails matters of belief in Allah, His Angels, His Books, His Messengers, the Day of Judgement, destiny, and the like. It also includes matters of purification, prayer, fasting, zakah (a financial obligation) upon the obligated, pilgrimage upon the able, and the sins of the heart, hands, eyes and the like. Allah said: ﴾(٩) ۗ‫﴿ قل ھل يستوى ٱلَّذِين ي ۡعلمُون وٱلَّذِين ال ي ۡعلمُون‬ َ َ َ َ َ َ َ َ َ َ َِ َۡ ۡ َ ُۡ (Suratuz-Zumar, Ayah 9) means: [Those who acquire the knowledge of Islam are not considered as the same level as those who do not acquire it.] Prophet Muhammad said: <<Seeking the knowledge of the Religion is obligatory upon every Muslim (i.e., male and female)>>, related by al-Bayhaqiyy. [2] Q: What is the wisdom in creating humans and jinn? A: Allah created the humans and jinn to order them to worship Him. Allah said: ۡ ۡ ﴾(٥٦) ‫﴿وما خل ۡقت ٱلجنَّ وٱإلنس إِال لِي ۡعبدون‬ ِ ُ ُ َ َّ َ ِ َ ِ ُ َ َ َ َ (Suratudh-Dhariyat, Ayah 56) means: [Allah has created jinn and mankind, only to order them to worship Him.] The Prophet said: <<The greatest right due to Allah upon His slaves is for them to worship Him without associating partners with Him>>, related by al-Bukhariyy and Muslim. [3] Q: How is worship (^Ibadah) accepted? A: Worshipping Allah is accepted only from the believers. The believers believe in the existence of Allah, and do not liken Him to any of His creations. Allah said: َ َ َ ﴾(١١) ‫﴿ل ۡيس كم ِۡثلِهِۦ شىء‬ ٌۖ ۟ ۡ َ 2
  • 2. (Suratush-Shura, Ayah 11) means: [Nothing is like Allah in any way.] The Prophet Al-Ansariyy. said: <<Do not attempt to imagine the Self of Allah>>, related by Abul-Qasim The scholar Al-Ghazaliyy said: <<Worship is valid only after one has correct knowledge and belief in the One Who deserves to be worshipped [Allah]. >> [4] Q: Why did Allah send messengers? A: Allah sent messengers to educate people about their well being in this life and in the Hereafter, as well as to call them to worship Allah alone without associating partners with Him. Allah said: َ َ ََ ﴾(٢١٣) ‫﴿فبعث ٱ َّ ُ ٱلنبي ِّۧـن مبشرين ومُنذِرين‬ َ ِ َ َ ِ ِّ َ ُ َ ِ َّ (Suratul-Baqarah, Ayah 213) means: [Allah sent messengers carrying good tidings and warnings.] In a hadith related by al-Bukhariyy the Prophet said: << The best word uttered by me and by the prophets before me is: ‘No one is God except Allah.’ >> [5] Q: What does Tawhid (Oneness of God) mean? A: Imam Al-Junayd said: <<Tawhid is differentiating the Eternal [Allah] from the created.>> Allah is Eternal, meaning His Existence is without a beginning; whereas, the created exists with a beginning. Allah said: َ َ َ ﴾(١١)ُ ‫﴿ل ۡيس كم ِۡثلِهِۦ شىء‬ ٌۖ ۟ ۡ َ (Suratush-Shura, Ayah 11) means: [Nothing is like Allah in any way.] Al-Bukhariyy related that: <<The Prophet was asked about the best of the deeds, to which he replied: ‘The belief in Allah and His Messenger.’>> [6] Q: Discuss the Existence of Allah. A: Allah exists. There is no doubt about His Existence. He exists without being attributed with a manner of being (how) or a place. No creation resembles Him, and He is not comparable to any of them. Allah said: ۟ ﴾(١٠) ‫﴿أَفِى ٱ َّ ِ شك‬ ٌّ َ 3
  • 3. (Suratu-Ibrahim, Ayah 10) means: [There is no doubt about the Existence of Allah.] The Prophet said: <<Allah existed eternally, and eternally nothing else existed>>, related by al-Bukhariyy and others. [7] Q: What does (Suratul-Hadid, Ayah 4) mean: ُ ُ َ َ ُ ََ َ َ ﴾(٤) ۚ ۡ‫﴿وھُو معكمۡ أَ ۡين ما كنتم‬ [Wa Huwa ma^akum aynama kuntum.]? A: This part of the Ayah refers to the fact that Allah has knowledge of us wherever we may be. This meaning was stated by Sufyan ath-Thawriyy, ash-Shafi^iyy, Ahmad, Malik, and others. It is against the creed of Ahlus-Sunnah and blasphemous to believe that this Ayah means: Allah is physically with us wherever we may be. Allah said: ﴾(١٢) ‫﴿ وأَنَّ ٱ َّ َ ق ۡد أَحاط بكل شىء عِ ۡلما‬ َ ۢ ٍ ۡ َ ِّ ُ ِ َ َ َ َ (Suratut-Talaq, Ayah 12) means: [The Knowledge of Allah includes everything.] The Prophet said: <<You are not calling upon the One Who does not hear or know. In fact you are calling upon the Lord Who hears and knows all>>, related by al-Bukhariyy. [8] Q: What is the most enormous sin? A: The most enormous sin is blasphemy. Shirk is a type of blasphemy; it is to worship other than Allah. In (Surat Luqman, Ayah 13) Allah informs us of Luqman’s advice to his son: ﴾(١٣) ‫﴿ي ٰـبنىَّ ال تشرك بٱ َّ ِۖ إِنَّ ٱلشرك لظ ۡلم عظِ يم‬ ٌ ۟ َ ٌ ُ َ َ ۡ ِّ ِ ۡ ِ ۡ ُ َ َُ َ It means: [O my son! Do not associate partners with Allah, for shirk is extreme injustice.] It was narrated that: <<The Prophet was asked: ‘What is the most enormous sin?’ He said: ‘To attribute partners with Allah, the One Who created you’>>, related by al-Bukhariyy and others. [9] Q: What does worship (^Ibadah) mean? A: Worship is the ultimate submission and humility, as described by al-Hafidh as-Subkiyy. Allah ta^ala said: 4
  • 4. ﴾(٢٥) ‫﴿ال إِل ٰـه إِال أ ََن ۟ا فٱعبدون‬ ِ ُ ُ ۡ َ ٓ َّ َ َ ٓ َ (Suratul-Ambiya’, Ayah 25) means: [No one is God except Me [Allah], so worship Me alone.] The Prophet said: <<The greatest right due to Allah upon His slaves is for them to worship Him without associating partners with Him>>, related by al-Bukhariyy and Muslim. [10] Q: Can the term du^a’ be defined as worship? A: Yes. Du^a’ has many meanings in the Arabic language, among which are to worship and to supplicate. Worship means the ultimate submission and humility. This is only due to Allah. Allah said: ﴾(٢٠) ‫﴿قل إِنما ٓ أَ ۡدعُوا ربِّى وال أُشرك بهۦۤ أَح ً۟دا‬ َ ِِ ُ ِ ۡ َٓ َ َ ْ َ َّ ۡ ُ (Suratul-Jinn, Ayah 20) means: [Say, ‘I only make du^a’ to my Lord and do not associate anyone with Him.’] Here, du^a’ means worship. Allah said: َ ََ ﴾(١٨) ‫﴿فال ت ۡدعُوا مع ٱ َّ ِ أَح ً۟دا‬ َ َ َ ْ (Suratul-Jinn, Ayah 18) means: [So do not make du^a’ to (worship) anyone along with Allah.] Prophet Muhammad said: <<Du^a’ is worship>>, related by al-Bukhariyy. [11] Q: Can du^a’ be defined as anything other than worship? A: Yes, it can mean to call. Allah ta^ala said: َ َ ِ ﴾(٦٣) ‫﴿ال تجعلُوا دعآء ٱلرَّ سُول ب ۡينڪُمۡ كدعآء ب ۡعضِ كم ب ۡعضً ا‬ ۚ ۟ َ ُ َ ِ َ َُ َ َ ُ ْ َ ۡ َ َّ (Suratun-Nur, Ayah 63) means: [Do not make du^a’ (the calling) of the Prophet among you as your calling of one another.] [12] Q: What is the judgement concerning calling the Prophet or righteous Muslims even in their absence, or asking them for something which may be out of the ordinary? A: This matter is permissible because to merely call or ask someone for something, does not count as worshipping other than Allah. Similarly, to merely say “O Messenger of Allah” is not associating partners with Allah. 5
  • 5. It is confirmed that Bilal Ibn al-Harith approached the grave of the Prophet in the year of the Ramadah (drought), during the caliphate of ^Umar and said: <<O Messenger of Allah, ask of Allah rain for your nation as they are in ruins>>, related by al-Bayhaqiyy and others. Neither ^Umar nor anyone else denounced his words. In fact they praised his act. Allah said: َ َ َ ۡ َ َ ُ َ ََ ُ َ َ ُ ٓ َ َّ َُُ ََ ۡ َ َ َّ ‫﴿ول ۡو أ ََّنھُمۡ إِذ ظلمُو ْا أَنفسھُمۡ جآءُوك فٱس َت ۡغفرُ و ْا ٱ َّ َ وٱس َت ۡغفر لھم ٱلرَّ سُول لوجدو ْا ٱ‬ َ ً۟ ﴾(٦٤) ‫توَّ ا ً۟با رَّ حِيما‬ (Suratun-Nisa’, Ayah 64) means: [If only, when they are unjust to themselves, they come to you and ask Allah for forgiveness, and the Messenger asks forgiveness for them, they will find Allah Forgiving and Most Merciful.] An additional proof is in the hadith related by al-Bukhariyy in Al-Adab Al-Mufrad. It reveals that when Ibn ^Umar’s leg became paralyzed, in his call for help he said: “O Muhammad.” His call was answered with a cure. [13] Q: Clarify the meanings of the two types of calls for help known as Istighathah and Isti^anah. A: Istighathah is calling for help particularly when in hardship. Isti^anah is more inclusive and broader in its definition of calling for help. Allah said: ﴾(٤٥) ۚ‫﴿وٱستعِينوا بٱلص َّۡبر وٱلصل ٰوة‬ ِ َ َّ َ ِ ِ ْ ُ َ ۡ َ (Suratul-Baqarah, Ayah 45) means: [Seek help (wasta^inu) through patience and prayer.] The Messenger of Allah said: <<The sun shall near the heads of people on Judgement Day and whilst in that state they will call upon Adam for help (istaghathu bi Adam). >> This hadith indicates clearly that it is acceptable to ask for the help of other than Allah, with the firm belief that Allah is the Creator of benefit and harm. [14] Q: Discuss asking Allah by the Prophet (Tawassul). A: Asking Allah by the Prophet is deemed permissible by the consensus of the top scholars (mujtahids). Tawassul is seeking to gain benefit or to alleviate harm, from Allah, by mentioning a Prophet or a righteous Muslim, in honor of the mentioned, with the firm belief that Allah is the Creator of benefit and harm. Allah said: 6
  • 6. ََ َۡ ِ ْ ُٓ َ ۡ َ ﴾(٣٥) ‫﴿وٱبتغوا إِلَ ۡيه ٱلوسِ يلة‬ (Suratul-Ma’idah, Ayah 35) means: [Seek the means of obedience to Allah.] In the hadith related and authenticated by At-Tabaraniyy, the Prophet taught the blind man to ask Allah by him (the Prophet). The blind man did so, and Allah returned his sight to him. [15] Q: Discuss asking Allah by the righteous Muslims (Tawassul). A: Asking Allah by the righteous Muslims is permissible. No one on the right path, from the Salaf or Khalaf objected to this. The Salaf are those who lived in the first three centuries dating from the migration of the Prophet. The Khalaf are those who came after them. It is narrated in the hadith related by al-Bukhariyy, that during his caliphate in the year of the drought, ^Umar asked Allah for rain by al-^Abbas saying: <<O Allah, we ask You by the uncle of our Prophet. >> [16] Q: Explain the meaning of the Hadith of the Slave-Woman (Hadithul-Jariyah). A: The hadith is classified as inconsistent (mudtarib). This means that it was reported in a number of ways with variations in the text. The scholars of hadith judge the hadith whose narrations, in their apparent meaning, cannot be reconciled as a weak hadith. Nevertheless, even the scholars who deemed it acceptable did not take it to mean that Allah occupies the sky. In explaining the hadith, an-Nawawiyy said that the question ‘aynallah?’ is a question about the rank not the location. Allah is not bound by locations. (NB: ‘ayna’ in its literal meaning is a query about location. According to the Arabic language it can also mean a query about status). The question means: “How much do you glorify Allah?” The slave-woman’s response ‘fis-sama’ affirmed her belief in Allah having a high status. It did not imply restricting Allah to a location. It is not permissible to believe that the Prophet asked her about the location, nor is it permissible to believe that she meant Allah occupies the sky. In the book Ar-Risalah Al-Qushayriyyah by Abul-Qasim al-Qushayriyy, Imam ^Aliyy said: <<The question of ‘where’ (i.e., location) does not apply to the One Who created the whereabouts. >> Abu Hanifah stated in his book Al-Fiqh Al-Absat: <<Allah existed eternally before creating the places. He existed and no place or creation existed. He is the Creator of all things. >> Moreover, Allah said: َ َ َ ﴾(١١) ‫﴿ل ۡيس كم ِۡثلِهِۦ شىء‬ ٌۖ ۟ ۡ َ (Suratush-Shura, Ayah 11) means: [Nothing is like Allah in any way.] 7
  • 7. A hadith related by al-Bukhariyy and others also means: <<Allah existed eternally, and eternally nothing else existed. >> [17] Q: Clarify the proof concerning the blasphemy of the one who curses Allah. A: Al-Qadi ^Iyad relayed the scholarly consensus that the one who curses Allah apostatizes even if one was angry, joking, or did not enjoy the utterance. Allah said: ُ ُ ُ َّ ُ َ ُ َ ۡ‫﴿ولٮن سأ َ ۡل َتھُمۡ ل َيقولُنَّ إ َِّنما ڪنا َنخوضُ و َن ۡلعبُ ۚ قل أَبٱ َّ ِ وءا َي ٰـتهِۦ ورسُولِهِۦ كنتم‬ َ َ ِ َ َ ِ ُۡ َ َ َ ِٕ َ َ ُِ َ ﴾(٦٦) ۚ ۡ‫تست ۡہزءُون )٥٦( ال ت ۡعتذروا ق ۡد كفرتم ب ۡعدَ إِيم ٰـنكم‬ َ ُ ََۡ َ ْ ُ َِ َ َ َ ِ َ َۡ (Suratut-Tawbah, Ayahs 65 and 66) means: [If you question those who have blasphemed, they will say: ‘We were only babbling and kidding.’ Say to them: ‘Do you make mockery of Allah, His Verses and His Messenger? Make no excuses, for you have blasphemed after having displayed being Muslim.’] The Messenger of Allah said: <<A slave may utter a word which he thinks harmless, that results in his falling the depth of seventy years into Hellfire>>, related by at-Tirmidhiyy. This depth is the bottom of Hellfire and a place for the blasphemers only. [18] Q: What is the proof for the permissibility of men and women visiting the grave? A: The Prophet al-Bayhaqiyy. said: << Visit the graves, as they remind you of the Hearafter>>, related by [19] Q: How does one enter Islam? A: One enters Islam by uttering the two Testifications of Faith with the intention to enter into Islam. The Testifications of Faith are “I testify that no one is God except Allah, and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah.” One does not enter into Islam by just asking Allah for forgiveness. Allah said: ُ َّ َ ْ ُ ِ َ ۡ ُ ُ َ ﴾(١٠) ۡ‫﴿فق ۡلت ٱست ۡغفروا ربكم‬ (Surat Nuh, Ayah 10) means: [I [Noah] ordered you to seek a valid forgiveness from your Lord.] This means that Prophet Noah ordered his people to seek forgiveness by embracing Islam, i.e., by believing in Allah as their God and in Noah as His Prophet. [20] Q: Clarify the judgement related to praising the Prophet. 8
  • 8. A: Praising the Prophet is permissible by the scholarly consensus. In addressing the Prophet, Allah said: ﴾(٤) ‫﴿وإِنك لعلى خلُق عظِ يم‬ ٍ ۟ َ ٍ ُ ٰ َ َ َ َ َّ َ (Suratul-Qalam, Ayah 4) means: [Indeed you have great manners.] Allah also said: ۡ ُُ َ ٕ َ ۙ ُ ََ َ ﴾(١٥٧) ‫﴿وعزروهُ ونصروهُ وٱتبعُوا ٱلنور ٱلَّذِى أُنزل معه ۥۤ أ ُْول ٰـٓٮك ھم ٱلم ُۡفلِحُ ون‬ َ َ ُّ ْ َ َّ َ ُ َ َ َ ُ َّ َ َ ِ ِ ٓ (Suratul-A^raf, Ayah 157) means: [Those who praise the Prophet, honor him, help him and follow the light that was brought with him; will surely succeed.] A hadith related by at-Tabaraniyy means: <<Some women praised the Prophet presence by saying: ‘How wonderful it is to be the neighbors of Muhammad.’>> in his In addition, it has been confirmed that many companions have praised the Prophet including Hassan Ibn Thabit and others. The Prophet approved it. did not denounce their action; in fact he [21] Q: Discuss the torture of the grave. A: It is obligatory to believe in the torture of the grave. This matter has been confirmed by scholarly consensus (Ijma^). Whoever denies it blasphemes. Allah said: َّ َ َ َ ۡ َ َ ِ ُ َ ‫﴿ٱلنار ي ُۡعرضُون عل ۡيہا غد ًّ۟وا وعشِ ًّ۟ي ۖا و َي ۡوم َتقوم ٱلسَّاعة أَ ۡدخل ُٓو ْا ءال فِرع ۡون أَشد‬ َ َ ُُ َ ََ َ َ ُ َّ ُ ُ َ َ ﴾(٤٦) ‫ٱلعذاب‬ ِ ََ ۡ (Surat Ghafir, Ayah 46) means: [Pharaoh and his followers will be exposed to Hellfire in the early morning and in the late afternoon [whilst in the grave], and on the Day of Judgement they will be admitted to the severest torture in Hellfire.] A hadith related by al-Bukhariyy means: <<Ask Allah for refuge from the torture of the grave. >> [22] Q: What is the first of the creations? A: Water is the first of the creations. Allah said: ﴾(٣٠) ۖ ٍّ‫﴿وجع ۡلنا مِن ٱلمآء كل شىء حى‬ َ ٍ ۡ َ َّ ُ ِ َ ۡ َ َ َ َ َ 9
  • 9. (Suratul-Ambiya’, Ayah 30) means: [Allah created from water every living [and non-living] thing.] A hadith related by Ibn Hibban means: <<Everything was created from water. >> [23] Q: Discuss the types of innovations (bid^ahs). What is the proof for the validity of the innovation of guidance? A: Linguistically, the innovation (bid^ah) is something newly introduced, for which there is no previous example. Religiously, an innovation is of two types; an innovation of guidance and an innovation of misguidance. Allah said: َۡ ً ِ َ َۡ َ ﴾(٢٧) ِ َّ ‫﴿ورھبانيَّة ٱبتدَ عُوھا ما كت ۡبن ٰـھا عل ۡيھمۡ إِال ٱبتِغآء رضوٲن ٱ‬ ِ َ ۡ ِ َ َ ۡ َّ ِ َ َ َ َ َ َ َ َ (Suratul-Hadid, Ayah 27) reports about the true followers of Prophet ^Isa [Jesus]. It means: [The state of abstinence from worldly pleasure and dedication to worship (rahbaniyyah) which they innovated for themselves, Allah did not ordain upon them. They embraced it only to seek reward from their Lord.] Allah praised the actions of these true followers of Jesus for detaching themselves from the permissible pleasures; only in quest of reward from Allah. A hadith related by Muslim indicates that the Prophet said: <<He who innovates a good innovation in Islam has its reward and the reward of those who practice it until the Day of Judgement without lessening the reward of those who practice it. >> The companions and those who followed them introduced many innovations into Islam. The Muslim nation received these innovations with acceptance. Such innovations include having a niche (mihrab) in each mosque in the direction of prayer, additional call for the Friday prayer, and the commemoration of the birth of Prophet Muhammad . [24] Q: Discuss the practice of sorcery. A: Practicing sorcery and witchcraft is Islamically prohibited. Allah said: ﴾(١٠٢) ‫﴿وما ڪفر سل ۡيم ٰـنُ ولَ ٰـكِنَّ ٱلشي ٰـطِ ين كفروا يُعلِّمُون ٱلناس ٱلسِّحر‬ َ ۡ َ َّ َ َ ْ ُ َ َ َ َ َّ َ َ َُ َ ََ َ َ (Suratul-Baqarah, Ayah 102) means: [Sulayman (Solomon) did not blaspheme. However, the devils blasphemed. They attributed sorcery to Sulayman, deemed it permissible and taught it to people.] 10
  • 10. Imam Muslim related that the Prophet said: <<Avoid the seven destructive sins. They said: ‘What are they, O Messenger of Allah?’ He said: ‘Associating partners with Allah (shirk), sorcery,..’>>. [25] Q: What is the proof that, the person who throws a paper containing the name of Allah in the trash in belittlement, blasphemes? A: It is not permissible to throw a paper that contains the name of Allah in the trash. He who commits this with belittlement, blasphemes. Allah said: ُ ُ ُ َّ ُ َ ُ َ ۡ‫﴿ولٮن سأ َ ۡل َتھُمۡ ل َيقولُنَّ إ َِّنما ڪنا َنخوضُ و َن ۡلعبُ ۚ قل أَبٱ َّ ِ وءا َي ٰـتهِۦ ورسُولِهِۦ كنتم‬ َ َ ِ َ َ ِ ُۡ َ َ َ ِٕ َ َ ُِ َ ﴾(٦٦) ۚ ۡ‫تست ۡہزءُون )٥٦( ال ت ۡعتذروا ق ۡد كفرتم ب ۡعدَ إِيم ٰـنكم‬ َ ُ ََۡ َ ْ ُ َِ َ َ َ ِ َ َۡ (Suratut-Tawbah, Ayahs 65 and 66) mean: [Say to them: ‘Do you make mockery of Allah, His Verses and His Messenger? Make no excuse, for you have blasphemed after having displayed being Muslim.’] Ibn ^Abidin said: <<Whoever throws the Qur’an in the trash blasphemes, even without the intention of belittlement, because the action itself indicates belittlement. >> [26] Q: What is the Islamic judgement in relation to making a vow (nadhr)? A: It is permissible to make a vow in matters that are acts of obedience to Allah. Moreover, it is obligatory to fulfill the vow. On the other hand, vows in matters that are sinful are not permitted and fulfilment of such vows is not an obligation. Allah said: ﴾(٧) ‫﴿يُوفون بٱلن ۡذر‬ ِ َّ ِ َ ُ (Suratul-Insan, Ayah 7) means: [They honor and fulfill their vows.] The Prophet said: <<Whoever vows to obey Allah must obey Him, and whoever vows to disobey Allah must not disobey Him>>, related by al-Bukhariyy. [27] Q: What is the proof for the general rule that the woman’s voice is not ^awrah (i.e., a matter to be concealed)? A: In addressing the wives of the Prophet, Allah said: ﴾(٣٢) ‫﴿وق ۡلن ق ۡوالً مَّعرو ً۟فا‬ ُ ۡ ۟ َ َ ُ َ 11
  • 11. (Suratul-Ahzab, Ayah 32) means: [And say good words.] The hadith related by al-Hakim in his book Al-Mustadrak mentions that: <<Al-Ahnaf Ibn Qays said: ‘I heard the hadith from the mouths of Abu Bakr, ^Umar, ^Uthman and ^Aliyy, and I did not hear it as beautiful as I heard it from the mouth of ^A’ishah.’>> [28] Q: Discuss Allah’s attribute of Speech (Kalam). A: The Speech of Allah, like all His Attributes, is an Eternal and Everlasting Attribute. His Speech is not letters, sounds, or a language. Allah said: َ ٰ َ ً۟ ﴾(١٦٤) ‫﴿وكلَّم ٱ َّ ُ مُوسى تڪۡلِيما‬ َ َ َ (Suratun-Nisa’, Ayah 164) means: [Allah spoke to Musa (Moses) with His Eternal Kalam.] Imam Abu Hanifah mentioned in his book Al- Fiqhul-Absat: <<Allah’s Speech (Kalam) is not like our speech. We speak through organs of speech and by letters, whereas Allah’s Eternal Kalam is without an organ or a sound. >> [29] Q: What is the meaning of (Suratu Taha, Ayah 5): ٰ ََ ۡ ِ َۡ ۡ ََ ﴾(٥) ‫﴿ٱلرَّ حم ٰـنُ على ٱلعرش ٱستوى‬ َ ۡ [Ar-Rahmanu ^Alal ^Arshistawa]? A: Imam Malik said: <<Allah said about Himself that He’s attributed with Istiwa’ which befits Him. It is invalid to say ‘how’; and ‘how’ does not apply to Him. >> The ‘how’ connotations are descriptions of the created. Only the created can be described with sitting, settling, and occupying a place. The word istiwa’ has 15 meanings in the Arabic language, some of which befit Allah such as to subjugate, to preserve, and to maintain. On the other hand, the word can also imply physical meanings, which do not befit Allah such as to sit, to settle, and to stabilize. It is blasphemy to apply any of these physical meanings to Allah. The words preserve and subjugate are meanings that comply with the Religion and the Arabic language. Al-Qushayriyy explained the meaning of istawa in this Ayah as, to preserve, subdue, and maintain. It cannot be believed that Allah sits on the Throne as this belies (Suratun-Nahl, Ayah 74): ﴾(٧٤) ۚ‫﴿فال تضربُوا ِ َّ ِ ٱألَمثال‬ َ َۡ ۡ ْ ِ ۡ َ ََ 12
  • 12. It means: [Do not attribute to Allah the attributes of His creation.] Allah said: ۡ ۡ ْ ُ َ َ َ ﴾(٤٨) ‫﴿وبرزوا ِ َّ ِ ٱلوٲحد ٱلقھَّار‬ ِ َ ِِ َ (Surat Ibrahim, Ayah 48) means: [And the slaves will be resurrected to face the Judgement of Allah, the One, the Subduer.] Imam Aliyy said: <<Allah created the Throne as an indication of His power and not to take it as a place for Himself>>, related by Abu Mansur al-Baghdadiyy. [30] Q: Discuss the term ‘Qadar’. A: The Arabic term ‘Qadar’ can mean the Eternal Attribute of Allah – Destining. The term ‘qadar’ can also mean destiny i.e., what has been destined by Allah. The destined includes everything that happens in this world, be it good or evil, obedience or sin, and belief or blasphemy. All of this happens in accordance with the Will, Knowledge, Decree, and Creating of Allah. Although evil, sin, and blasphemy happen by the Will of Allah, they do not happen by the order or acceptance of Allah. Allah said: ﴾(٤٩) ‫﴿إِنا كل شىء خل ۡقن ٰـه بقدَر‬ ٍ َ ِ ُ َ َ َ ٍ ۡ َ َّ ُ َّ (Suratul-Qamar, Ayah 49) means: [Allah created everything according to His Destining.] The Prophet said: <<Everything is predestined, including intelligence and dullness>>, related by Muslim. [31] Q: What is the proof for the judgement that a man’s handshake with a marriageable woman (ajnabiyyah) is Islamically unlawful? A: The Prophet said: <<If Allah willed to punish the man who sinfully touches a marriageable woman, his punishment would be more severe than to be stricken on his head with an iron bar>>, related by ad-Daraqutniyy. The Prophet also said in another hadith related by al-Bukhariyy: <<The adultery of the hands is the forbidden touch (zinal-yadayn). >> [32] Q: Discuss reciting the Qur’an upon the dead. A: Reciting the Qur’an for the dead is a permissible act. Allah said: 13
  • 13. ﴾(٧٧) ‫﴿وٱفعلُوا ٱلخ ۡير‬ َ َ ۡ ْ َ ۡ َ (Suratul-Hajj, Ayah 77) means: [And do good deeds.] A hadith of the Prophet related and authenticated by Ibn Hibban means: <<Recite Surat Ya Sin upon your dead. >> The scholars of the right path agreed unanimously on the validity and benefit of reciting the Qur’an upon the dead. Imam ash-Shafi^iyy said: <<It is good to recite part of the Qur’an at the grave of a Muslim. It is even better to recite the whole Qur’an>>, reported by an-Nawawiyy in Riyadus-Salihin. [33] Q: What is the proof that the dead may benefit from a charity? A: The saying of the Prophet : <<When the [Muslim] son of Adam dies, [the rewards of] his deeds stop except for three; a continuing charity, a benefiting knowledge, and a pious offspring making supplication to Allah for him>>, related by Muslim. This hadith means that the Muslim will continue receiving reward for some deeds after his death. Allah said: ٰ َ َ َ َّ ِ َ ِ َ ﴾(٣٩) ‫﴿وأَن لَّ ۡيس ل ِۡإلنس ٰـن إِال ما سعى‬ َ (Suratun-Najm, Ayah 39) means: [Mankind will be rewarded for the good deeds they acquired.] This Ayah and the previous hadith both indicate that one benefits from his own good deeds; and by the Grace of Allah one can also benefit from the good deeds others do for them. Such is the case with the funeral prayer, the dead Muslim benefits even though the funeral prayer is not their own doing. Similarly, one will also benefit from the supplication of the Prophet is not an act that one has done. for him, even though it An example is the supplication the Prophet made for Ibn ^Abbas, <<O Allah, teach him the knowledge of Hadith and the explanation of the Qur’an>>, related by al-Bukhariyy and Ibn Majah. [34] Q: What is the proof that one is allowed to pray more than eleven cycles (rak^ahs) during the Ramadan Night Prayer? A: In (Suratul-Hajj, Ayah 77) Allah said: 14
  • 14. ُ ﴾(٧٧) ۩ ‫﴿وٱفعلُوا ٱلخ ۡير لعلَّڪُمۡ ت ۡفلِحُ ون‬ َ ََ َ َ ۡ ْ َ ۡ َ It means: [And do good deeds so that you succeed.] The Prophet Bukhariyy. said : << The night prayer is performed in pairs of cycles>>, related by al- The Prophet also said: <<The optional prayer is a great recommendation. He who wishes can pray a few cycles, and he who wishes can pray many cycles>>, related by Muslim. [35] Q: What is the proof that playing the tambourine (duf) is permissible? A: Abu Dawud related that: <<A woman said to the Prophet: ‘I have made a vow to play the tambourine in your presence upon your safe return.’ He said: ‘If you have made a vow, then fulfill your vow.’>> This implies its permissibility. [36] Q: Who is the first Prophet? A: The first Prophet is Adam, peace be upon him. Allah said: ﴾(٣٣) ‫﴿۞ إِنَّ ٱ َّ َ ٱصطفى ءادَ م‬ َ َ ٰٓ َ َ ۡ (Surat Al ^Imran, Ayah 33) means: [Allah chose Adam for Prophethood.] The Prophet said in a hadith related by at-Tirmidhiyy: <<On Judgement Day all prophets, Adam and others, will be under my banner. >> [37] Q: What is necessary to be among the attributes of prophets and what are impossible to be of their attributes? A: It is obligatory to believe that every prophet of Allah must be attributed with truthfulness, trustworthiness, intelligence, virtuous character, courage, and articulation. Consequently, lying, dishonesty, vileness, fornication, other enormous sins, and blasphemy are impossible to be amongst their attributes, both before and after Prophethood. Allah said: َ َ ۡ ََ َ َ ۟ ُ َ ﴾(٨٦) ‫﴿وڪالًّ فض َّۡلنا على ٱلع ٰـلمِين‬ َ (Suratul-An^am, Ayah 86) means: [Allah has given the prophets higher ranks than the rest of the world.] 15
  • 15. The Prophet said in a hadith related by at-Tirmidhiyy: <<Allah did not send a prophet except with a pleasing face and a pleasing voice. >> [38] Q: How is (Suratul-Ikhlas, Ayah 3) explained: َ َ َ َ َ ﴾(٣) ‫﴿لمۡ يل ِۡد ولمۡ يُول ۡد‬ [Lam yalid walam yulad]? A: This Ayah means: [Allah does not have offspring, and He is not an offspring of another.] This Ayah states that Allah is clear of being an origin for others or derived from others. Allah does not dwell in things, nor do things dwell in Him. Imam Ja^far as-Sadiq stated as related by Abul-Qasim al-Qushayriyy in his book Ar-Risalah AlQushayriyyah: <<Whoever claims that Allah is in something, on something, or from something commits shirk (a type of blasphemy). >> [39] Q: What is the proof to the lawfulness of making Salah ^alan-Nabiyy following the call for prayer (adhan)? A: The Salah ^alan-Nabiyy (on the Prophet) is to say a variant of the expression “Allahumma salli ^ala Muhammad”, which means: “O Allah, raise the rank of Prophet Muhammad.” It is lawful to make Salah ^alan-Nabiyy following the call for prayer. No attention should be given to those who claim it to be unlawful. Allah said: ۚ َّ َ َ َ َ َُ َ َ ۡ ‫﴿إِنَّ ٱ َّ َ ومل ٰـٓٮڪ َته ۥ يُصلُّون على ٱلنبىِّ َي ٰـٓأ َُّيہا ٱلَّذِين ءامنو ْا صلُّو ْا عل ۡيه وسلِّمو ْا َتسلِيمًا‬ ُ َ َ ِ ََ ُ َ ِٕ َ َ َ َ َ ِ ﴾(٥٦) (Suratul-Ahzab, Ayah 56) means: [Allah raises the rank of Prophet Muhammad and the angels make Salah on him by asking Allah to raise his rank. O you who believe, make Salah and Salam on him.] The Salam on the Prophet is to ask Allah to protect his nation from that which he fears for it. The Prophet said: <<If you hear the caller for prayer, say what he says then make Salah on me>>, related by Muslim In another hadith related by as-Sakhawiyy the Prophet him make Salah on me. >> 16 said: <<He who mentions me, let
  • 16. [40] Q: What is apostasy (riddah), and into how many categories is it classified? A: Apostasy is what takes one out of Islam. It is classified into three categories: The apostate sayings; such as to swear at Allah, even if in a state of anger or joking. The apostate actions; such as to knowingly toss the Qur’an in the trash, or to knowingly tread on the Qur’an. The apostate beliefs; such as to believe that Allah is a body, spirit, or that He sits on the Throne, or that He dwells in Heaven, or that He occupies a particular place or all places. Allah said: ﴾(٧٤) ۡ‫﴿ولق ۡد قالُوا كلِمة ٱلك ۡفر وڪفروا ب ۡعدَ إِسل ٰـمِھم‬ َ ْ ُ َ َ َ ِ ُ ۡ َ َ َ ْ َ ََ َ ِ َ ۡ (Suratut-Tawbah, Ayah 74) means: [But indeed they uttered the word of blasphemy, and committed blasphemy after having displayed being Muslim.] Also, Allah said: ﴾(٣٧) ‫﴿ال تسجُ دوا لِلشمس وال ل ِۡلقمر‬ ِ َ َ َ َ ِ ۡ َّ ْ ُ ۡ َ َ (Surat Fussilat, Ayah 37) means: [Do not prostrate to the sun or to the moon.] Allah said: ْ َ ۡ َ َ َّ ُ ﴾(١٥) ‫﴿إِنما ٱلم ُۡؤمنون ٱلَّذِين ءامنوا بٱ َّ ِ ورسُولِهِۦ ثم لمۡ يرتابُوا‬ َ َ ِ ْ َُ َ َ َ ُ ِ ۡ َ َّ (Suratul-Hujurat, Ayah 15) means: [The believers are those who believe in Allah and His Messenger, and they do not doubt in that belief.] [41] Q: What is the proof to the lawfulness of celebrating the honorable birth of the Prophet (Mawlidun-Nabiyy)? A: Allah said: ُ ُ ََ َ َ ۡ ْ َ ۡ َ ﴾(٧٧) ۩ ‫﴿وٱفعلُوا ٱلخ ۡير لعلَّڪمۡ ت ۡفلِحُ ون‬ َ (Suratul-Hajj, Ayah 77) means: [And do good deeds so that you succeed.] A hadith of the Prophet means: <<He who innovates a good innovation in Islam has its reward>>, related by Muslim. The honorable, knowledgeable, and righteous ruler al-Mudhaffar, the king of Irbil, initiated this practice about 900 years ago. 17
  • 17. Muslim scholars praised him including the two Egyptian hafidhs: Ibn Hajar al-^Asqalaniyy and Jalalud-Din as-Suyutiyy. The famous scholar of hadith, Abul-Khattab Ibn Dihyah, wrote a book for the king, to be read especially during this celebration. All renowned Muslim scholars praised this innovated celebration. [42] Q: What is the implication of the hadith meaning: <<If you were to ask for something of someone, then ask it of Allah, and if you were to call upon someone for help, then call upon Allah>>? A: This hadith does not suggest a prohibition to request something from the creations; nor a prohibition to ask for their help. It actually means that priority is given to asking of Allah and seeking His help. This hadith resembles the meaning of the hadith related by Ibn Hibban: <<Do not befriend other than a believer, and do not feed your food to other than a pious one. >> This means that one’s company is best given to a believer and one’s food is best fed to the pious. It does not mean that it is unlawful to befriend or to feed a non-believer. In fact, Allah the Almighty has praised some Muslims in the Qur’an in (Suratul-Insan, Ayah 8): ۡ ِّ ٰ َ َ َ َّ َ ِ ۡ َ ﴾(٨) ‫﴿ويُطعمُون ٱلطعام علَى حُ بهِۦ مِسكِي ً۟نا ويتِيما وأَسِ يرً ا‬ َ ً۟ َ َ This Ayah means: [And, out of their love for Allah, they offer their food to the needy, orphaned, and the [non-Muslim] captive.] In addition, Muslim and al-Bukhariyy narrated that three Muslim individuals asked Allah to save them from their hardship by virtue of their righteous deeds. Their supplication was fulfilled. [43] Q: What is the proof for the lawfulness of visiting the grave of the Prophet ? A: Visiting the grave of the Prophet is a Sunnah, which is a preferred and rewardable deed. Al-Qadi ^Iyad and an-Nawawiyy both reported the scholarly consensus (Ijma^) on this issue. Allah said: َ َ َ ۡ َ َ ُ َ ََ ُ َ َ ُ ٓ َ َّ َُُ ََ ۡ َ َ َّ ‫﴿ول ۡو أ ََّنھُمۡ إِذ ظلمُو ْا أَنفسھُمۡ جآءُوك فٱس َت ۡغفرُ و ْا ٱ َّ َ وٱس َت ۡغفر لھم ٱلرَّ سُول لوجدو ْا ٱ‬ َ ً۟ ﴾(٦٤) ‫توَّ ا ً۟با رَّ حِيما‬ 18
  • 18. (Suratun-Nisa’, Ayah 64) means: [If only, when they are unjust to themselves, they come to you and ask Allah for forgiveness, and the Messenger asks forgiveness for them, they will find that Allah is Forgiving and Most Merciful.] The Prophet said: <<He who visits my grave, will be granted my intercession. >> This hadith is reported by ad-Daraqutniyy and strengthened by al-Hafidh as-Subkiyy. The Prophet also said: <<Eagerness to travel for prayer should be directed to these three mosques: the Mosque of Al-Haram [in Makkah], the Mosque of Al-Aqsa [in Jerusalem] and my mosque [in Madinah]. >> This hadith means that if a person wants to travel to pray in a mosque, then those three mosques should be his first choice in travel because the reward for prayer in them is multiplied. This is strictly a recommendation not an obligation. Moreover, the hadith refers to travelling strictly for the matter of prayer and does not suggest that one cannot travel to visit the grave of the Prophet . [44] Q: What is the proof for the permissibility of seeking the blessings (tabarruk) by certain creations? A: Seeking the blessings from the Prophet Yusuf, in (Surat Yusuf, Ayah 93), Allah said: and his relics is permissible. In narration about ۟ َ ِ َ َِ ْ َ ۡ ﴾(٩٣) ‫﴿ٱذھبُوا بقمِيصِ ى ھ ٰـذا فأ َ ۡلقوهُ على وجه أَبى ي ۡأت بصِ يرً ا‬ ِ ِ ۡ َ ََٰ ُ َ َ َ It means: [Take my kaftan1 and cast it over the face of my father. His sight will return to him.] Al-Bukhariyy and Muslim narrated a hadith in which the Prophet after cutting his hair divided it and distributed it amongst the people. Obviously, he did not give his hair to be eaten, but for people to seek blessings by it. [45] Q: What is the proof for the permissibility of wearing hirz (i.e., certain inscriptions of Ayahs and/or specific religious phrases), which is unlike the artifacts that contain certain forbidden talismanic characters? A: Allah said: ٌ ۟ َ ۡ َ َ ٌ ۟ َ َ َ ِ َ ۡ ُ ۡ َ ُ ِّ َ ُ َ ﴾(٨٢) ۙ‫﴿وننزل مِن ٱلقرءان ما ھُو شِ فآء ورحمة لِّ ۡلم ُۡؤمنِين‬ َ ِ 1 A full-length garment with elbow-length or long sleeves, worn chiefly in Eastern Mediterranean countries. 19
  • 19. (Suratul-Isra’, Ayah 82) means: [Allah sends down Ayahs of the Qur’an>> in which there is healing and mercy for the believers.] It is also narrated that the great companion, ^Abdullah Ibn ^Umar said: <<We taught our kids to recite specific words that help gain protection by the Will of Allah. As for those who had not reached puberty, we inscribed these words on paper and hung them (around their necks) on their chests>>, related by at-Tirmidhiyy. [46] Q: Discuss mentioning the Name of Allah during funerals. A: Mentioning Allah during funerals is a rewardable act of worship, agreed upon by scholarly consensus. Allah said: ۟ َِ ۟ ۡ ْ ُ ُ ۡ ْ َُ َ َ ﴾(٤١) ‫﴿ي ٰـٓأ َُّيہا ٱلَّذِين ءامنوا ٱذكروا ٱ َّ َ ذِكرً ا كثيرً ا‬ َ َ (Suratul-Ahzab, Ayah 41) means: [O you who believe mention Allah frequently.] Another Ayah praises the act of mentioning Allah in every situation is in (Surat Al ^Imran, Ayah 191): ۟ ۟ ﴾(١٩١) ۡ‫﴿ٱلَّذِين ي ۡذكرون ٱ َّ َ قي ٰـما وقعُودا وعلى جُ نوبھم‬ َ ُ ُ َ َ ِ ِ ُ ٰ َ َ َ ً ُ َ ً َِ It means: [They are the ones who mention Allah while standing, sitting, and lying down on their sides.] A hadith related by Muslim also means: <<The Prophet used to mention Allah in all situations. >> [47] Q: Discuss ta’wil? A: Ta’wil is to dismiss the apparent and literal meaning of the phrase and to assign to it a specific meaning in accordance with the religion and the language. This is permissible in every Ayah or hadith whose apparent meanings may imply that Allah has physical hands or face, or that He sits on the Throne, that He occupies a certain direction, or that He is attributed with attributes of the creation. Allah said: ۡ َّ ُ َ ِ َ ُ َ َ َ َ ﴾(٧) ‫﴿وما ي ۡعلم ت ۡأويله ۥۤ إِال ٱ َّ ۗ ُ وٱلرَّ ٲسِ خون فِى ٱلع ِۡلم‬ َ ُ َ ِ (Surat Al ^Imran, Ayah 7) means: [No one knows the true meaning of these verses except Allah and the people who are firmly rooted in the knowledge of the Religion.] Ibn ^Abbas, for whom the Prophet made a supplication, said: <<I am among those who are firmly rooted in the knowledge of the Religion. >> 20
  • 20. The hadith related by al-Bukhariyy, Ibn Majah, and al-Hafidh Ibn al-Jawziyy relays that the Prophet supplicated Allah for Ibn ^Abbas by saying: <<O Allah, teach him the knowledge of Hadith and the ta’wil of the Book (i.e., the true meanings of the Qur’anic verses).>> [48] Q: What is the proof that the proper belief is a condition for the acceptance of good deeds? A: Allah said: َ َ َ َّ َ ۡ َ ُ َ ِٕ َ َ ۟ ِ ‫﴿ومن َي ۡعمل مِن ٱلص َّٰـلِح ٰـت مِن ذڪر أَ ۡو أُن َثى وھُو م ُۡؤمنٌ فأ ُ ْول ٰـٓٮك َي ۡدخلُون ٱلجنة وال‬ ِ َ َ َ ٰ َ ۡ َ َ َ ٍ َ َ ۟ َِ َ َ ۡ ﴾(١٢٤) ‫يُظلمُون نقيرً ا‬ (Suratun-Nisa’, Ayah 124) means: [Those who do good deeds, be they male or female while they are believers, shall enter Paradise. They will never be inflicted with a spec of injustice.] The Prophet said: <<The best of the deeds is the belief in Allah and His Messenger>>, related by al-Bukhariyy. [49] Q: What is the explanation of (Suratul-Qasas, Ayah 88): ﴾(٨٨) ‫﴿كل شىء ھالِك إِال وجھه ۥ‬ ۚ ُ َ ۡ َ َّ ٌ َ ٍ ۡ َ ُّ ُ [kullu shay’in halikun illa Wajhah]? A: Imam al-Bukhariyy said the term [illa Wajhah] means “except His Dominion.” Imam Sufyan Ath-Thawriyy said that the term [illa Wajhah] means “except the righteous deeds done in sincerity to gain reward from Allah.” So the meaning of the Ayah becomes either, “Everything will come to an end except the Dominion of Allah” or “Only the righteous deeds done in sincerity to Allah will deliver reward.” It is blasphemy to explain the term ‘Wajhah’ as a physical ‘face’ attributed to Allah. Allah is clear of the physical attributes. [50] Q: What is the explanation of (Suratul-Mulk, Ayah 16): ُ َ ﴾(١٦) ‫﴿ءأَمِنتم مَّن فِى ٱلسمآء أَن يخسِ ف بكم ٱألَرض‬ َ ۡ ۡ ُُِ َ َۡ ِ َ َّ [A’amintum man fis-sama’i ayyakhsifa bikumulard]? A: This Ayah means: [Do you feel secure that the angels in the sky will not shake the Earth from under you and get you swallowed in a landslide, upon the order of Allah?] 21
  • 21. The interpreter of the Qur’an, al-Fakhr ar-Raziyy, in his explanation, and Abu Hayyan alAndalusiyy, in his book Al-Bahr Al-Muhit, both stated that the term “man fis-sama’i” refers to “the angels in the sky” and it does not mean that Allah dwells in the sky. [51] Q: What is the explanation of the term ‘aydin’ in (Suratudh-Dhariyat, Ayah 47): َ َّ َ ﴾(٤٧) ‫﴿وٱلسمآء بن ۡين ٰـھا بأ َ ۡي ْي ٍ۟د وإِنا لمُوسِ عُون‬ َ ِ َ َ َ َ َ َ َّ َ [was-sama’a banaynaha bi aydin wa inna la musi^un]? A: This Ayah means: [Allah created the heavens by His Power.] Ibn ^Abbas said that ‘aydin’ in this Ayah means “Power”. Aydin here does not denote physical hands because Allah is clear of having such body parts. ‘Aydin’ is the Arabic plural of the term ‘yad’ which has many meanings in the Arabic language, some of which do not befit Allah like the physical hand, and others which befit Allah, like Power and Endowment. Allah knows best. 22