Outline• Documentary of Interpretation – Nat• Telling the Code – Nick• Actionable Interaction and the Inevitability of Interpretation – Kye
The documentary method of Interpretation• “consists of treating an actual appearance as the document of, as pointing to as standing on behalf of a presupposed underlying pattern. Not only is the underlying pattern derived from its individual documentary evidence, in their turn, are interpreted on the basis of what is known about the underlying pattern. Each is used to elaborate the other.• Garfinkel 2002 Studies in Ethnomethodology 78
People don’t say exactly what they mean• “Where can I find “I’m not going to that meeting that meeting because I am interested in where I can get participating in the program of half way house. Im going to that meeting an overnight just because I would like to collect pass” the reward of an overnight pass and for no other reason. Im not a kiss VS. ass. Everyone who is in hearingWeilder, 1974 Language distance should understand that Imand Social Reality: The not kissing up to staff. I am stillCase of telling the code. conforming to the code.” Etc, etc…160
Codes • Codes are the way we understand socialinteractions. A code can be defined as the rules of the specific social situation to which they apply.
Codes Continued• Codes can be either broad or specific rules depending on the situation.• Broad codes provide the guidelines or rules for standard social interaction.• Specific codes are codes that apply to a particular social interaction, such as a social interaction that takes place in a specific location or with a specific person.
Example of a Broad Code – Barney Stinson’s Bro Code (HIMYM)Others call it religion, I Is it okay to hug a bro? If I’mcall it bro Code invited to his wedding, do I Violation of need to bring a gift? Can I article 41: A Bro sleep with a bro’s little sister never cries or mother
Codes continued• Codes are internal.• Codes can be both interpretive or descriptive and generative or constitutive.• Codes are sense making devices.• Codes can be applied to a situation either retroactively or proactively.• Codes can shape people and people can shape codes. • Jimerson, J. &. (2006). Telling the Code of the Street : An Ethnomethodological Ethnography. Journal of Contemporary Ethnography, p.28.
Exceptions• Exceptions to codes can exist where although the codes that apply to the situation require or at least expect a specific response, that response is not always given.• Eg. Someone doesn’t respond to a friendly hello.• “He mustnt of seen me”
Justification of CodesThe situations that develop when codes are broken make us wonder why the code was broken. We instinctively want to make sense of the situation and explain away the behaviour.Codes are how we make sense of social interactions and help us justify to ourselves why a code was broken.
Application of Codes• Codes are applied instinctively and are generally understood by those within the system that the code applies to but not always understood by those on the outside.• Sometimes though a code is not even understood by the person who is applying it.
Summary of Codes• In a sense the ability to understand and act within the social code of a particular situation is the ability to have the appropriate social skills for the situation.
Its Kyes Turn!Topics:1. Actionable interaction.2. “The inevitability of interpretation.”3. The social and moral order of talk.
Actionable Interaction“Telling the code” creates a social reality.→ WE HAVE TO UNDERSTAND.Codes shape action, but also used to make sense of action.→ Produced in a way that determines their own intelligibility.
The Inevitability of InterpretationThis ties in to the documentary method. In essence, if something strange happens within your own inter-actionable social reality, you try to interpret the meaning behind their action.
The Social Order of TalkCodes, social facts and other influences on action and behaviour within social realities form social ties or place individuals within a collective social hierarchy.→Remember Nicks “Bro Code”?Codes carry a level of instruction for interpreting these social orders.
The Moral Order of TalkWhen something wrong occurs in a social interaction, blame is placed upon human participants.What just happened with Natalie?→ Were you thinking, “why me?”Time for a language lesson!→ 日本語を教えるよ！
So, to Finish... Accountings of social action are methods of giving and receiving embedded instructions for seeing and describing a social order. The interpersonal existence of social orders and their availability toperception and description is the achievement of the various methods entailed in an accounting of social action. [pp.172]Wieder, DL 1974, Telling the code, in Ethnomethodology: Selected Readings, Penguin Education, Hardmondsworth, pp. 144-172