英国大学 marketing strategy mangement report 的 sample 适合英国商业管理课程的留学生用，主要 Lego (Case study)分析如何应用 marketing 来推广并在激烈的市场竞争中获得它今天的地位Background of the CompanyLEGO was founded by Ole Kirk Christiansen in 1934. The name LEGO wastaken from two Danish words – LEG and GODT, which mean „play well‟. Playis considered as an important element in the development of a child. Playstimulates imagination, encourages creative expression and facilitates theemergence of ideas. LEGO believes that „good play‟ enriches a child‟s life andits subsequent adulthood. LEGO Group has developed and marketed a widerange of products, all founded on the same basic philosophy of learning anddeveloping through play.Global Marketing Communications PlanMarketing communication is the collective term for all communicationfunctions used in marketing a product. The purpose of marketingcommunications is to add persuasive value to a product for customers(Kitchen and de Pelsmacker 2004, p. 20). Yeshin (1998, p. 3) definesmarketing communication as the process by which the marketer develops andpresents an appropriate set of communications stimuli to a defined targetaudience with the intention of eliciting a desired set of responses.Organizations who utilize marketing communication often use different toolssuch as advertising, public relations (PR), sales promotions, direct marketing,personal selling, and internet marketing. Together these tools make up themarketing communication mix. Each component of the mix has a specific taskto achieve and the message is greatly enhanced if it is reinforced by othertools in the mix (Yeshin 1998 cited in Kitchen and de Pelsmacker 2004, p. 20).LEGO‟s Marketing Communication MessageThe company is founded on the philosophy of „good play‟. Good playaccording to LEGO enriches a child‟s life – and its subsequent adulthood(LEGO Group 2009). Therefore, the basic principle of LEGO which will bereflected on its global communication strategy is centered on „learning anddeveloping through play‟. The marketing communications message that willbe sent to the target audience for the global marketing communicationstrategy is „learning and developing through play‟. This message will includethe different attributes of the LEGO brand namely creativity, innovation, fun,play, and imagination.LEGO PosterscapesIn 2005, an advertising campaign for LEGO in the form of postercapes madea stir in Chile. The idea behind the postercapes is to bring LEGO to life. Theposters for LEGO as shown below made chunks of the everyday environment
appear as if they were constructed from LEGO. These posters made use ofmodern technology to make powerful, attention-grabbing environmentalillusion. These posters continue to be circulated on the internet as somethingthat attract attention and awaken creativity. The project, which was launchedin Santiago Chile, was composed of two formats. The first relied on blendingin with a landscape people were familiar with, and catching people out withthe image of missing LEGO bricks as pedestrians and drivers passed by(Springer 2007).These type of posters that capture the interest of those that see them can beused in a more global scale by the company. The marketing and advertisingdepartment of LEGO can use posterscapes as an advertising tool. Theposterscapes can be strategically located in different key cities around theworld. These poeterscapes can be used to communicate the core values andattributes of LEGO brand which are creativity, innovation, play, fun andimagination.Exhibitions and Trade ShowsExhibitions and trade shows will provide an opportunity for LEGO to displayand demonstrate its products. These events can also be used by LEGO tocommunicate with consumers and potential purchasers, bringing the brandand the products closer to them.Public RelationsMarketing public relations is defined by Harris (1993) as the process ofplanning, executing and evaluating programs that encourage purchase andconsumer satisfaction through credible communications of information andimpressions that identify companies and their products with the needs, wantsand concerns and interests of the consumers. Griswold (1995) defines publicrelations as the management function, which evaluates public attitudes,identifies the policies and procedures of an individual or an organization withthe public interest, and plans and executes a program of action to earn publicunderstanding and acceptance.LEGO Community SupportAs part of the global communication campaign of LEGO, it can use variouspublic relations strategies. One of these is supporting LEGO communities offans and hobbyists. LEGO must intensify its support to local and internationalclubs and exhibitions where members showcase their creative designs.LEGO Inside TourAs part of the company‟s global marketing communication strategy, LEGOcan sponsor similar programs and events. These programs should center oneducation and should provide opportunities for LEGO products to bepromoted. LEGO can also sponsor an competition in which differentparticipants from around the world can participate. The international
competition can follow the same format as the FIRST in which LEGO productscan be used by the participants in creating solutions for world issues. In orderto ensure that this will become a key element of LEGO‟s global marketingcommunication strategy, the international competition can be held in differentcountry each year.Sponsorships is an important tool in the global marketing communication ofLEGO because it has the potential to develop a strong image in consumers‟minds. Sponsorships also allow LEGO to promote its products and tostrengthen its core values and philosophy and connecting them with theneeds of the consumers and issues that concern them.Internet MarketingThe internet can be used to send messages, transfer data, monitor news andopinions, search and browse, and post, host and present information (Keeler1995). Because of these, the internet is now considered as a powerfulmarketing tool. LEGO can make use of the internet to communicate with theconsumers. The primary internet communication tool that LEGO uses is itswebsite. Opportunities for LEGO to communicate with the consumers abound.LEGO.comLEGO.com is the official website of the LEGO Group. The aim of the websiteif to create a virtual LEGO universe in which users can enjoy one of the mostintense LEGO experiences. The website is also used by the Group as a placefor children, parents and LEGO fans of all ages can play and learn aboutLEGO Group values and ideas through games, stories, activities andexperiences (LEGO 2008). The LEGO.com website will still be a key elementin the company‟s internet marketing in the succeeding years. The website canbe employed to update the consumers about LEGO‟s new products.LEGOfactory.comThe LEGO Group now gives children the opportunity to build their own virtualmodels on the computer and then have the bricks to the physical LEGOmodel sent by post. At LEGOfactory.com children and other buildingenthusiasts can build virtual LEGO models using the professional softwareapplication, LEGO Digital Designer (LEGO 2008).Builders of TomorrowLEGO‟s website, „builders of tomorrow‟ can also be used in the globalmarketing communication strategy. The website is important in reachingparents, especially mothers and encourage them to educate their childrenusing LEGO products. The builders of tomorrow campaign must continue itsobjective of helping parents in choosing toys for their children. The websitemust continue to offer advice and tips to parents on playtime. The website canalso be used to promote LEGO products and communicate to the parents thebenefits of learning and playing with LEGO. Through the builders of tomorrow
website, the company can communicate the core values and philosophy ofLEGO. It can also be used to strengthen the image of LEGO as a “good play”toy.Relationship MarketingRelationship marketing is a concept that stresses the importance ofdeveloping long-term win-win relationships with prospects and customers. It isa marketing communications approach that is aimed at establishing profitablerelationships with loyal customers. Relationship marketing according toDuncan (2002) is marketing seen as relationships, network and interaction. Itis aimed at establishing long-term relationships with customers.The relationship marketing strategy of LEGO will focus on the different playmaterials that it offers based on the market segments. The play materials thatLEGO offers are:1. Play materials (0-5) consists of LEGO Primo (sets of toys for children frombirth to 36 months) and LEGO Duplo which targets basic bricks and themedsets at children in the 18 month to six-years old age group.2. Play materials (4-9) is aimed at am older age group. The traditional LEGOBasic and LEGO System, which has more than 150 different sets based on arange of themes designed to appeal to boys. Included in this segment areZnap, Scala, and System Belville.3. Play materials (7-16+) pffers a range of LEGO Technic products, based ona technical design and construction system. This has recently been joined byLEGO MIndstorms, a new kind of system using a microcomputer which allowschildren and adults to build robots that are capable of moving.Strengthening Lego‟s Brand Image and ReputationLEGO group has embarked on a research in order to find out how consumersconnect with the LEGO brand. In conjunction with LEGO‟s revision of brandarchitecture, the company did a research, which aimed to study howconsumers see and connect with the LEGO brand. It has been found throughresearch that consumers‟ images of the LEGO brand differed by marketsegment. European and North American consumers view LEGO as a highlytrusted brand that is creative. The Asian and Latin American consumers, onthe other hand, view LEGO as an innovative and fun brand.In order for the company to dig deeper into the differing opinions ofconsumers and to have more understanding of how parents and childrenconnect with the brand, the Global Branding unit initiated ethnographic studiesof families with children in many locations around the world. These studiesreveal that in every culture, play is an important aspect of childhooddevelopment and of life. The studies also reveal that parents and childrenassociate the LEGO brand with bricks, construction, creativity, imagination,and the experiences of authenticity and autonomy.
In order to strengthen LEGO‟s brand image and reputation, the companystarted its corporate branding strategy in the 90s. Corporate branding, simplydefined, is the use of one corporate brand for all products. Corporate brandingfocuses attention on the company (Iacobuccid 2001). This is applicable forexperiential brands such as LEGO.LEGO was a strong umbrella brand, guiding the company though extensiveinternational growth as well as product innovation. However, in the 1980s andthe 1990s, brand extensions and product sub-categories have resulted to afragmented LEGO brand. In order to deal with the challenges facing LEGO ofmaintaining the company heritage and at the same time allowing continuousinnovation and expansion, the company employed a corporate brand strategy.The corporate brand strategy of LEGO was made up of 4 cycles. The firstcycle focused on stating the foundation for the corporate brand and linking itto corporate vision. The second cycle focused on linking vision to culture andimage. The third cycle focused on involving stakeholders through culture andimage. Lastly, the fourth cycle focused on integrating vision, culture andimage (Schultz and Hatch 2003).In the next three years, corporate branding will remain as a strategy tostrengthen the LEGO brand and the reputation of the company. In the nextthree years the LEGO brand will create a strong image and reputation in theminds of the consumers by the different offerings of the company. Thecompany will still focus on the consumer experience with LEGO that servesas communicator of the LEGO brand. Consumer experience is categorizedinto: Explore – where young children explore themselves and the world around them through play; Make and Create – where consumers engage in construction and building processes creating their own universe; Stories and Action – where consumers involve themselves in predefined stories, characters or universes NEXT – where consumers find the most innovative construction play material that go considerably beyond the brick.It is important that throughout the consumer experience, the core values ofLEGO are communicated to the consumers. Strengthening the LEGO brandalso requires strengthening LEGO organizational culture. The brand valuesmust also be communicated to the employees. The employees must embracethe organizational culture. The organizational culture must be founded on thecore values of LEGO. The core values of LEGO that will be communicated tothe employees and will be embedded to the organizational culture are self-expression, endless ideas, playful learning, active fun and trust. These are thecore values that will be promoted to the employees. The organization willencourage the employees to display these core values in their work.Market Research Approaches
As part of the company‟s 3-year global marketing communication campaign,market research must be aligned with the goals and objectives of thecompany. The primary purpose of market research according to Baines andChansarkar (2002) is to gather information which will allow a company of anorganization to make better, more informed decisions. Market research isclosely linked to the marketing concept as it implies a customer focus, that thecustomer is central to the activities of the company, and the opinions of thecustomer are highly valued and useful aid in decision-making (p. 4). TheMarket Research Society of the United Kingdom defines market research as“the collection and analysis of data from a sample of individual ororganizations relating to their characteristics, behavior, attitudes, opinions orpossessions. It includes all forms of marketing and social research such asconsumers and industrial surveys, psychological investigations, observationaland panel studies” (MRS 2000 cited in Baines and Chansarkar 2002).In order to LEGO‟s market research to be successful, the company mustbecome more consumer-centric. The company must focus its researchinitiatives on the consumers rather than its competitors. Discussed below aresome of the market research methods that LEGO can use in its 3-year globalmarketing communication strategy.Focus GroupsFocus groups or group discussions is one of the most popular form of marketresearch. A focus group according to Baines and Chansarkar (2002) is aninformal discussion conducted with approximately eight to twelve people whoare assembled by a business or research agency to discuss some aspect ofmarketing. They are usually conducted for consumer research purposes (p.67). The focus group research method can be used by LEGO in assessingand studying consumer preferences, needs and wants. Focus groups can beused by LEGO to determine which products and product features must bedeveloped and improved. According to Baines and Chansarkar (2002), focusgroups can be assembled to discuss the following:1. New product concepts, or proposed product changes2. Changes in customer tastes and requirements3. Individual marketing mix issues4. Advertising concepts and copy to determine its receipts among theintended audience5. Branding issuesin-depth Interview
Another popular market research method is in-depth interview. An interview isconcerned with gaining insights and determining meaning from aninteractional relationship between interviewer and interviewee. In-depthinterview is the communication between an interviewer and the individualparticipants. In-depth interviews may be conducted in the home of theinterviewee. In-depth interviews usually lasts for an hour and the interviewermay ask open-ended questions. The objective of the in-depth interview is toprobe the respondent‟s answers in order to identify underlying reasons andmotivations. A pre-structured questionnaire is not used as it is in surveyresearch. The interviewer is free to let the respondent explore a number ofissues related to the central themes of the questions (Baines and Chansarkar2002).Like focus groups, the data that can be gathered in in-depth interviews tend tobe subjective. In-depth interviews are helpful in gaining knowledge of what theconsumers‟ opinions are. However, the interviewer cannot solely rely on theresults of the in-depth interviews. In-depth interviews are limited in scope asthey only represent a small slice of the consumer population.Desk ResearchAs stated above, the researcher cannot rely solely on the results of interviewsand focus groups. One useful research method, which can be used to presentsupporting evidences, data and information, is desk research. Desk researchaccording to Baines and Chansarker (2002) is conducted from the office, acomputer, or a library using existing sources of information and can servemarketing managers‟ needs for information on their markets, environments,competitors, and customers (p. 43). Desk research can be used by MarketResearchers at LEGO as a first step in the market research process. Deskresearch can be used in obtaining data and information that may guide theflow of market research the company will conduct. Desk research can be usedby marketers at LEGO to obtain information by gathering existing internal orexternal sources.Desk research according to Baines and Chansarker (2002) is used toaccomplish the following objectives: To assist at various stages in the marketing research process To monitors the business environment To make forecast and estimate the size of a market To develop an understanding of current and potential customers To investigate international marketsIn the global marketing communication strategy of LEGO, desk research canplay an important role, since the company will need to gather data fromdifferent markets around the world to guide its marketing initiatives. Sinceconducting primary research such as focus groups and in-depth interviews indifferent markets around the world, require more time, effort, and resources ofLEGO, a desk research can be used to obtain existing data from reliablesources.
Internet Market ResearchLEGO, judging from its current marketing strategies, recognizes theimportance of the internet in achieving success. It is expected that the useand contribution of internet in marketing will continue to grow. It is thenjustifiable that LEGO employ the internet in researching about its consumersand markets.The internet according to Baines and Chansarker (2002) has become aprimary source of information for researchers. The world wide web providesready access to secondary data on all aspects of business, includingestimates of the number of consumers connected to the internet, analyses ofspecific market sectors, marketing intelligence reports and competitorsprofiles (p. 225). The internet offers so many for market researchers. For onething, the internet can be a tool for obtaining primary data in the form of onlinepolls or online surveys. These can be informal ways of obtaining data,however, because of the increasing usage of internet around the world, LEGOcan make use of the internet to analyze the demands and wants ofconsumers from across the globe.The internet can also be used for more serious kinds of research such as: Estimating potential consumers (on- or off-line) for product or service Audience gratification study Consumer satisfaction survey Product or service design and testingThe internet can be used at all stages of the marketing research process:finding potential respondents; questioning respondents; following up initialsurveys; and disseminating research summaries to interested parties.ObservationIn observation studies, the researcher observes the behavior of consumers.The applications of observation studies are relatively limited in marketingresearch, although extremely useful in collecting behavioral data, as opposedto attitudinal data. This allows marketing researchers to collect data on whatpeople actually do, rather than what they say they will do (Baines andChansarker 2002).LEGO can make use of observation in investigating how consumers areinteracting with its products. This may help LEGO to identify new products.