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    1prjct 1prjct Document Transcript

    • PROJECT OnHow people (contributors) have found solutions to challenges they have faced, and how they practiced “designing solutions” By studying a contributor case Prepared By Bhavik Shah 1
    • Steven Paul Jobs (1955to 2011)Introduction:Steven Paul "Steve" Jobs (February 24, 1955 – October 5, 2011)was an American businessman, designerand inventor. He is best known as the co-founder, chairman, and chief executive officer of Apple Inc.Occupation:Co-founder, Chairman and CEO,Apple Inc.Co-founder and CEO,PixarCo-founder and CEO,NeXT Inc.  Job’s life was full of challenges and hurdles right from his early life to his death.Early life and educationSteven Paul Jobs was born in San Francisco on February 24, 1955 to two university students,Joanne Carole Schieble and Syrian-born Abdulfattah "John" Jandali, who were both unmarriedat the time. Jandali, who was teaching in Wisconsin when Steve was born in 1955, said he hadno choice but to put the baby up for adoption because his girlfriends family objected to theirrelationship. The baby was adopted at birth by Paul Reinhold Jobs (1922–1993) and Clara Jobs(1924–1986), an Armenian-Americanwhose maiden name was Hagopian. Later, when askedabout his "adoptive parents," Jobs replied emphatically that Paul and Clara Jobs "were myparents."The Jobs family moved from San Francisco to Mountain View, California when Steve was fiveyears old. The parents later adopted a daughter, Patti. Paul was a machinist for a company that 2
    • made lasers, and taught his son rudimentary electronics and how to work with his hands.Thefather showed Steve how to work on electronics in the family garage, demonstrating to his sonhow to take apart and rebuild electronics such as radios and televisions. As a result, Stevebecame interested in and developed a hobby of technical tinkering.Jobs was an intelligent and innovative thinker, but his youth was riddled with frustrations overformal schooling. At Monta Loma Elementary school in Mountain View, he was a pranksterwhose fourth-grade teacher needed to bribe him to study. Jobs tested so well, however, thatadministrators wanted to skip him ahead to high school—a proposal his parents declined.Jobs then attended Cupertino Junior High and Homestead High School in Cupertino,California.At Homestead, Jobs became friends with Bill Fernandez, a neighbor who shared thesame interests in electronics. Fernandez introduced Jobs to another, older computer whiz kid,Stephen Wozniak (also known as "Woz"). In 1969 Woz started building a little computer boardwith Fernandez that they named “The Cream Soda Computer”, which they showed to Jobs; heseemed really interested.[40] Jobs frequented after-school lectures at the Hewlett-PackardCompany in Palo Alto, California, and was later hired there, working with Wozniak as a summeremployee.Following high school graduation in 1972, Jobs enrolled at Reed College in Portland, Oregon.Reed was an expensive college which Paul and Clara could ill afford. They were spending muchof their life savings on their son’s higher education.[ Jobs dropped out of college after sixmonths and spent the next 18 months dropping in on creative classes. He continued auditingclasses at Reed while sleeping on the floor in friends dorm rooms, returning Coke bottles forfood money, and getting weekly free meals at the local Hare Krishna ."If I had never dropped in on that single calligraphy course in college, the Mac would havenever had multiple typefaces or proportionally spaced fonts."Early careerIn 1974, Jobs took a job as a technician at Atari, Inc. in Los Gatos, California.He traveled to Indiain mid-1974 to visit NeemKaroli Baba at his Kainchi Ashram with a Reed College friend (and,later, an early Apple employee), Daniel Kottke, in search of spiritual enlightenment. When theygot to the NeemKaroli ashram, it was almost deserted as NeemKaroli Baba had died inSeptember 1973. Then they made a long trek up a dry riverbed to an ashram of HariakhanBaba. In India, they spent a lot of time on bus rides from Delhi to Uttar Pradesh and back, thenup to Himachal Pradesh and back.Jobs then returned to Atari, and was assigned to create a circuit board for the arcadevideogameBreakout. According to Atari co-founder Nolan Bushnell, Atari offered $100 for each chipthat was eliminated in the machine. At that time, Jobs had little specialized knowledge of circuit 3
    • board design and made a deal with Wozniak to split the fee evenly between them if Wozniakcould minimize the number of chips. Much to the amazement of Atari engineers, Wozniakreduced the number of chips by 50, a design so tight that it was impossible to reproduce on anassembly line. According to Wozniak, Jobs told him that Atari gave them only $700 (instead ofthe offered $5,000), and that Wozniaks share was thus $350. Wozniak did not learn about theactual bonus until ten years later, but said that if Jobs had told him about it and had said heneeded the money, Wozniak would have given it to him.In the early 1970s, Jobs and Wozniak were drawn to technology like a magnet. Wozniak haddesigned a low-cost digital "blue box" to generate the necessary tones to manipulate thetelephone network, allowing free long-distance calls. Jobs decided that they could make moneyselling it. The clandestine sales of the illegal "blue boxes" went well, and perhaps planted theseed in Jobs mind that electronics could be fun and profitable.In 1976, Jobs and Wozniak formed their own business, which they named “Apple ComputerCompany” in remembrance of a happy summer Jobs had spent picking apples. At first theystarted off selling circuit boards, but eventually they produced a complete computer prototype.Jobs began attending meetings of the Homebrew Computer Club with Wozniak in 1975. Hegreatly admired Edwin H. Land, the inventor of instant photography and founder of PolaroidCorporation, and would explicitly model his own career after that of Lands.Personal lifeJobss birth parents met at the University of Wisconsin. Abdulfattah "John" Jandali, aSyrianMuslim, taught there. Joanne Carole Schieble was his student; they were the same agebecause Jandali had "gotten his PhD really young." Schieble had a career as a speech languagepathologist. Jandali taught political science at the University of Nevada in the 1960s, and thenmade his career in the food and beverage industry, and since 2006, has been a vice president ata casino in Reno, Nevada. In December 1955, ten months after giving up their baby boy,Schieble and Jandali married. In 1957 they had a daughter, Mona. They divorced in 1962, andJandali lost touch with his daughter. Her mother remarried and had Mona take the surname ofher stepfather, so she became known as Mona Simpson.In the 1980s, Jobs found his birth mother, Joanne Schieble Simpson, who told him he had abiological sister, Mona Simpson. They met for the first time in 1985 and became close friends.The siblings kept their relationship secret until 1986, when Mona introduced him at a party forher first book.After deciding to search for their father, Simpson found Jandali managing a coffee shop.Without knowing who his son had become, Jandali told Mona that he had previously managed 4
    • a popular restaurant in the Silicon Valley where "Even Steve Jobs used to eat there. Yeah, hewas a great tipper." In a taped interview with his biographer Walter Isaacson, aired on 60Minutes, Jobs said: "When I was looking for my biological mother, obviously, you know, I waslooking for my biological father at the same time, and I learned a little bit about him and I didntlike what I learned. I asked her to not tell him that we ever met...not tell him anything aboutme."Jobs was in occasional touch with his mother Joanne Simpson, who lives in a nursing homein Los Angeles. When speaking about his biological parents, Jobs stated:"They were my sperm and egg bank. Thats not harsh, its just the way it was, a sperm bankthing, nothing more."Jandali stated in an interview with the The Sun in August 2011, that his efforts to contact Jobswere unsuccessful. Jandali mailed in his medical history after Jobss pancreatic disorder wasmade public that year.In her eulogy to Jobs at his memorial service, Mona Simpson stated: I grew up as an only child, with a single mother. Because we were poor and because I knew my father had emigrated from Syria, I imagined he looked like Omar Sharif. I hoped he would be rich and kind and would come into our lives (and our not yet furnished apartment) and help us. Later, after Id met my father, I tried to believe hed changed his number and left no forwarding address because he was an idealistic revolutionary, plotting a new world for the Arab people. Even as a feminist, my whole life Id been waiting for a man to love, who could love me. For decades, Id thought that man would be my father. When I was 25, I met that man and he was my brother.Jobss first child, Lisa Brennan-Jobs, was born in 1978, the daughter of his longtime partnerChris Ann Brennan, a Bay Area painter. For two years, she raised their daughter on welfarewhile Jobs denied paternity by claiming he was sterile; he later acknowledged Lisa as hisdaughter.[145] Jobs later married Laurene Powell on March 18, 1991, in a ceremony at theAhwahnee Hotel in Yosemite National Park. Presiding over the wedding was Kobun ChinoOtogawa, a Zen Buddhist monk. Their son, Reed, was born September 1991, followed bydaughters Erin in August 1995, and Eve in 1998. The family lives in Palo Alto, California.Jobs was also a fan of The Beatles. He referred to them on multiple occasions at Keynotes andalso was interviewed on a showing of a Paul McCartney concert. When asked about hisbusiness model on 60 Minutes, he replied:My model for business is The Beatles: They were four guys that kept each others negativetendencies in check; they balanced each other. And the total was greater than the sum of theparts. Great things in business are never done by one person; they are done by a team of people. 5
    • Jobs allowed Jackling House to fall into a state of disrepair, planning to demolish the house andbuild a smaller home on the property; but he met with complaints from local preservationistsover his plans. In June 2004, the Woodside Town Council gave Jobs approval to demolish themansion, on the condition that he advertise the property for a year to see if someone wouldmove it to another location and restore it. A number of people expressed interest, includingseveral with experience in restoring old property, but no agreements to that effect werereached. Later that same year, a local preservationist group began seeking legal action toprevent demolition. In January 2007, Jobs was denied the right to demolish the property, by acourt decision. The court decision was overturned on appeal in March 2010, and the mansionwas demolished beginning in February 2011.In a 2011 interview with biographer Walter Isaacson, Jobs revealed at one point he met withU.S. President Barack Obama, complained of the nations shortage of software engineers, andtold Mr. Obama that he was "headed for a one-term presidency." Jobs proposed that anyforeign student who got an engineering degree at a U.S. university should automatically beoffered a green card. After the meeting, Jobs commented, "The president is very smart, but he kept explaining to us reasons why things cant get done....It infuriates me."Health issues Jobs addressing concerns about his health in 2008.In October 2003, Jobs was diagnosed with cancer, and in mid-2004, he announced to hisemployees that he had a cancerous tumor in his pancreas. The prognosis for pancreatic canceris 6
    • usually very poor; Jobs stated that he had a rare, far less aggressive type known as isletcellneuroendocrine tumor. Despite his diagnosis, Jobs resisted his doctors recommendationsfor mainstream medical intervention for nine months, instead consuming a special alternativemedicine diet in an attempt to thwart the disease. According to Harvard researcher Dr. RamziAmir, his choice of alternative treatment "led to an unnecessarily early death". According toJobss biographer, Walter Isaacson, "for nine months he refused to undergo surgery for hispancreatic cancer – a decision he later regretted as his health declined. “Instead, he tried avegan diet, acupuncture, herbal remedies and other treatments he found online, and evenconsulted a psychic. He also was influenced by a doctor who ran a clinic that advised juice fasts,bowel cleansings and other unproven approaches, before finally having surgery in July 2004."He eventually underwent a "Whipple procedure" in July 2004, that appeared to successfullyremove the tumor. Jobs apparently did not receive chemotherapy or radiation therapy. DuringJobss absence, Tim Cook, head of worldwide sales and operations at Apple, ran the company.In early August 2006, Jobs delivered the keynote for Apples annual Worldwide DevelopersConference. His "thin, almost gaunt" appearance and unusually "listless" delivery, together withhis choice to delegate significant portions of his keynote to other presenters, inspired a flurry ofmedia and Internet speculation about his health. In contrast, according to an ArsTechnicajournal report, Worldwide Developers Conference (WWDC) attendees who saw Jobs in personsaid he "looked fine". Following the keynote, an Apple spokesperson said that "Steves health isrobust."Two years later, similar concerns followed Jobss 2008 WWDC keynote address. Apple officialsstated Jobs was victim to a "common bug" and was taking antibiotics, while others surmised hiscachectic appearance was due to the Whipple procedure. During a July conference calldiscussing Apple earnings, participants responded to repeated questions about Jobss health byinsisting that it was a "private matter". Others, however, voiced the opinion that shareholdershad a right to know more, given Jobss hands-on approach to running his company. The NewYork Times published an article based on an off-the-record phone conversation with Jobs,noting that "While his health problems amounted to a good deal more than a common bug,they werent life-threatening and he doesnt have a recurrence of cancer."On August 28, 2008, Bloomberg mistakenly published a 2500-word obituary of Jobs in itscorporate news service, containing blank spaces for his age and cause of death. (News carrierscustomarily stockpile up-to-date obituaries to facilitate news delivery in the event of a well-known figures death.) Although the error was promptly rectified, many news carriers and blogsreported on it, intensifying rumors concerning Jobss health. Jobs responded at ApplesSeptember 2008 Lets Rock keynote by quoting Mark Twain: "Reports of my death are greatlyexaggerated." At a subsequent media event, Jobs concluded his presentation with a slidereading "110/70", referring to his blood pressure, stating he would not address furtherquestions about his health.On December 16, 2008, Apple announced that marketing Vice-president Phil Schiller woulddeliver the companys final keynote address at the Macworld Conference and Expo 2009, again 7
    • reviving questions about Jobs’ health. In a statement given on January 5, 2009, on Apple.com,Jobs said that he had been suffering from a "hormone imbalance" for several months.On January 14, 2009, in an internal Apple memo, Jobs wrote that in the previous week he had"learned that my health-related issues are more complex than I originally thought", andannounced a six-month leave of absence until the end of June 2009, to allow him to betterfocus on his health. Tim Cook, who previously acted as CEO in Jobs’ 2004 absence, becameacting CEO of Apple, with Jobs still involved with "major strategic decisions."In April 2009, Jobs underwent a liver transplant at Methodist University Hospital TransplantInstitute in Memphis, Tennessee. Jobs’ prognosis was described as "excellent".On January 17, 2011, a year and a half after Jobs returned from his liver transplant, Appleannounced that he had been granted a medical leave of absence. Jobs announced his leave in aletter to employees, stating his decision was made "so he could focus on his health". As duringhis 2009 medical leave, Apple announced that Tim Cook would run day-to-day operations andthat Jobs would continue to be involved in major strategic decisions at the company. Despitethe leave, he made appearances at the iPad 2 launch event (March 2), the WWDC keynoteintroducing ICloud (June 6), and before the Cupertino city council (June 7).Jobs announced his resignation as Apples CEO on August 24, 2011. "Unfortunately, that dayhas come," wrote Jobs, for he could "no longer meet [his] duties and expectations as ApplesCEO". Jobs became chairman of the board and named Tim Cook his successor. Jobs had workedfor Apple until the day before his death.DeathMemorial candles and iPads to Steve Jobs outside the Apple Store in Palo Alto California shortlyafter his death 8
    • Jobs died at his California home around 3 p.m. on October 5, 2011, due to complications from arelapse of his previously treated islet-cell neuroendocrine pancreatic cancer, resulting inrespiratory arrest. He had lost consciousness the day before, and died with his wife, childrenand sister at his side.His greatest love was for his wife, Laurene, and his family. Our hearts go out to them and to allwho were touched by his extraordinary gifts.Jobs is survived by Laurene, his wife of 20 years, their three children, and Lisa Brennan-Jobs, hisdaughter from a previous relationship. His family released a statement saying that he "diedpeacefully".According to Simpson, Jobs "looked at his sister Patty, then for a long time at his children, thenat his lifes partner, Laurene, and then over their shoulders past them". His last words, spokenhours before his death, were: "Oh wow. Oh wow. Oh wow."For two weeks following his death, Apples corporate Web site displayed a simple page,showing Jobss name and lifespan next to his grayscale portrait. Clicking on the image led to anobituary, which read:Apple has lost a visionary and creative genius, and the world has lost an amazing human being.Those of us who have been fortunate enough to know and work with Steve have lost a dearfriend and an inspiring mentor. Steve leaves behind a company that only he could have built,and his spirit will forever be the foundation of Apple.Also dedicating its homepage to Jobs was Pixar, with a photo of Jobs, John Lasseter and EdwinCatmull, and the eulogy they wrote:Steve was an extraordinary visionary, our very dear friend, and our guiding light of the Pixarfamily. He saw the potential of what Pixar could be before the rest of us, and beyond whatanyone ever imagined. Steve took a chance on us and believed in our crazy dream of makingcomputer animated films; the one thing he always said was to make it great. He is why Pixarturned out the way we did and his strength, integrity, and love of life has made us all betterpeople. He will forever be part of Pixars DNA. Our hearts go out to his wife Laurene and theirchildren during this incredibly difficult time.A small private funeral was held on October 7, 2011, of which details were not revealed out ofrespect to Jobss family. Apple announced on the same day that they had no plans for a publicservice, but were encouraging "well-wishers" to send their remembrance messages to an emailaddress created to receive such messages. Sunday, October 16, 2011, was declared "Steve JobsDay" by Governor Jerry Brown of California. On that day, an invitation-only memorial was heldat Stanford University. Those in attendance included Apple and other tech company executives, 9
    • members of the media, celebrities, close friends of Jobs, and politicians, along with Jobssfamily. Bono, YoYo Ma, and Joan Baez performed at the service, which lasted longer than anhour. The service was highly secured, with guards at all of the universitys gates, and ahelicopter flying overhead from an area news station.A private memorial service for Apple employees was held on October 19, 2011, on the AppleCampus in Cupertino. Present were Cook, Bill Campbell, Norah Jones, Al Gore, and Coldplay,and Jobss widow, Laurene, was in attendance. Some of Apples retail stores closed briefly soemployees could attend the memorial. A video of the service is available on Apples website.Bloomberg Businessweek also published a commemorative issue. The cover of the magazinefeatures Apple-style simplicity, with a black-and-white, up-close photo of Jobs and his years ofbirth and death. The issue was published without advertisements. It featured extensive essaysby Steve Jurvetson, John Sculley, Sean Wisely, William Gibson, and Walter Isaacson.Although reporters wrote glowing elegies after Jobs died, Los Angeles Times media critic JamesRainey reported that they "came courtesy of reporters who—after deadline and off therecord—would tell stories about a company obsessed with secrecy to the point of paranoia.They remind us how Apple shut down a youthful fanboy blogger, punished a publisher thatdared to print an unauthorized Jobs biography and repeatedly ran afoul of the most basictenets of a free press."Apple "has taken stances that, in my opinion, are outright hostile to the practice of journalism,"said longtime Silicon Valley reporter Dan Gillmor. Under Jobs, Apple sued three "small fry"bloggers who reported tips about the company and its unreleased products and tried to use thecourts to force them to reveal their sources. Under Jobs, Apple even sued a teenager, NicholasCiarelli, who wrote enthusiastic speculation about Apple products beginning at age 13. Hispopular blog, ThinkSecret, was a play on Apples slogan "Think Different." Rainey wrote thatApple wanted to kill ThinkSecret as "It thought any leaks, even favorable ones, diluted thepunch of its highly choreographed product launches with Jobs, in his iconic jeans and mockturtleneck outfit, as the star."  Despite of numerous ups and downs of life, he never gave up and served till the last day of his life!Career 10
    • Apple ComputerJobs and Steve Wozniak met in 1971, when their mutual friend, Bill Fernandez, introduced 21-year-old Wozniak to 16-year-old Jobs. In 1976, Wozniak invented the Apple I computer. Jobs,Wozniak, and Ronald Wayne founded Apple computer in the garage of Jobss parents in orderto sell it.They received funding from a then-semi-retired Intel product-marketing manager andengineer Mike Markkula.In 1978, Apple recruited Mike Scott from National Semiconductor to serve as CEO for whatturned out to be several turbulent years. In 1983, Jobs lured John Sculley away from Pepsi-Colato serve as Apples CEO, asking,"Do you want to sell sugar water for the rest of your life, or do you want to come with me andchange the world?"In the early 1980s, Jobs was among the first to see the commercial potential of XeroxPARCsmouse-driven graphical user interface, which led to the creation of the Apple Lisa. Oneyear later, Apple employee JefRaskin invented the Macintosh.The following year, Apple aired a Super Bowl television commercial titled "1984". At Applesannual shareholders meeting on January 24, 1984, an emotional Jobs introduced the Macintoshto a wildly enthusiastic audience; Andy Hertzfeld described the scene as "pandemonium".While Jobs was a persuasive and charismatic director for Apple, some of his employees fromthat time described him as an erratic and temperamental manager. Disappointing sales causeda deterioration in Jobss working relationship with Sculley and it eventually became a powerstruggle between Jobs and Sculley.Sculley learned that Jobs—believing Sculley to be "bad for Apple" and the wrong person to leadthe company—had been attempting to organize a boardroom coup, and on May 24, 1985,called a board meeting to resolve the matter. Apples board of directors sided with Sculley andremoved Jobs from his managerial duties as head of the Macintosh division. Jobs resigned fromApple five months later and founded NeXT Inc. the same year.In a speech Jobs gave at Stanford University in 2005, he said being fired from Apple was thebest thing that could have happened to him; "The heaviness of being successful was replaced by the lightness of being a beginner again, lesssure about everything. It freed me to enter one of the most creative periods of my life."And he added, "Im pretty sure none of this would have happened if I hadnt been fired fromApple. It was awful-tasting medicine, but I guess the patient needed it." 11
    • NeXT ComputerAfter leaving Apple, Jobs founded NeXT Computer in 1985, with $7 million. A year later, Jobswas running out of money and with no product on the horizon, he appealed for venture capital.Eventually, he attracted the attention of billionaire Ross Perot who invested heavily in thecompany. NeXT workstations were first released in 1990, priced at $9,999. The NeXTworkstation was known for its technical strengths, chief among them its object-orientedsoftware development system. Tim Berners-Lee invented the World Wide Web on a NeXTcomputer at CERN.Pixar and DisneyThe first film produced by the partnership, Toy Story, with Jobs credited as executive producer,brought fame and critical acclaim to the studio when it was released in 1995. In the years 2003and 2004, as Pixars contract with Disney was running out, Jobs and Disney chief executiveMichael Eisner tried but failed to negotiate a new partnership, and in early 2004, Jobsannounced that Pixar would seek a new partner to distribute its films after its contract withDisney expired.In October 2005, Bob Iger replaced Eisner at Disney, and Iger quickly worked to patch uprelations with Jobs and Pixar. On January 24, 2006, Jobs and Iger announced that Disney hadagreed to purchase Pixar in an all-stock transaction worth $7.4 billion. When the deal closed,Jobs became The Walt Disney Companys largest single shareholder with approximately sevenpercent of the companys stock. Jobss holdings in Disney far exceeded those of Eisner, whoholds 1.7 percent, and of Disney family member Roy E. Disney, who until his 2009 death heldabout one percent of the companys stock and whose criticisms of Eisner — especially that hesoured Disneys relationship with Pixar — accelerated Eisners ousting. Jobs joined thecompanys board of directors upon completion of the merger and also helped oversee Disneyand Pixars combined animation businesses from a seat on a special six-person steeringcommittee.Return to AppleLogo for the Think Different campaign initiated by Jobs after his return to Apple Computer in 1997 12
    • In 1996, Apple announced that it would buy NeXT for $427 million. The deal was finalized in late1996, bringing Jobs back to the company he co-founded. Jobs became de facto chief after then-CEO Gil Amelio was ousted in July 1997. He was formally named interim chief executive inSeptember. In March 1998, to concentrate Apples efforts on returning to profitability, Jobsterminated a number of projects, such as Newton, Cyberdog, and OpenDoc. In the comingmonths, many employees developed a fear of encountering Jobs while riding in the elevator,"afraid that they might not have a job when the doors opened. The reality was that Jobsssummary executions were rare, but a handful of victims was enough to terrorize a wholecompany." Jobs also changed the licensing program for Macintosh clones, making it too costlyfor the manufacturers to continue making machines.Jobs was both admired and criticized for his consummate skill at persuasion and salesmanship,which has been dubbed the "reality distortion field" and was particularly evident during hiskeynote speeches (colloquially known as "Stevenotes") at Macworld Expos and at AppleWorldwide Developers Conferences. In 2005, Jobs responded to criticism of Apples poorrecycling programs for e-waste in the US by lashing out at environmental and other advocatesat Apples Annual Meeting in Cupertino in April. A few weeks later, Apple announced it wouldtake back iPods for free at its retail stores. The Computer TakeBack Campaign responded byflying a banner from a plane over the Stanford University graduation at which Jobs was thecommencement speaker.The banner read "Steve, dont be a mini-player—recycle all e-waste".ResignationIn August 2011, Jobs resigned as CEO of Apple, but remained with the company as chairman ofthe companys board. Hours after the announcement, Apple Inc. (AAPL) shares droppedfive percent in after-hours trading. This relatively small drop, when considering the importanceof Jobs to Apple, was associated with the fact that his health had been in the news for severalyears, and he had been on medical leave since January 2011. It was believed, according toForbes, that the impact would be felt in a negative way beyond Apple, including at The WaltDisney Company where Jobs served as director. In after-hours trading on the day of theannouncement, Walt Disney Co. (DIS) shares dropped 1.5 percent.Business lifeWealthJobs earned only $1 a year as CEO of Apple, Jobs held 5.426 million Apple shares worth $2.1billion, as well as 138 million shares in Disney (which he received in exchange for Disneysacquisition of Pixar) worth $4.4 billion. Jobs quipped that the $1 per annum he was paid byApple was based on attending one meeting for 50 cents while the other 50 cents was based on 13
    • his performance. Forbes estimated his net wealth at $8.3 billion in 2010, making him the 42ndwealthiest American.Stock options backdating issueIn 2001, Jobs was granted stock options in the amount of 7.5 million shares of Apple with anexercise price of $18.30. It was alleged that the options had been backdated, and that theexercise price should have been $21.10. It was further alleged that Jobs had thereby incurredtaxable income of $20,000,000 that he did not report, and that Apple overstated its earnings bythat same amount. As a result, Jobs potentially faced a number of criminal charges and civilpenalties. The case was the subject of active criminal and civil government investigations,[103]though an independent internal Apple investigation completed on December 29, 2006, foundthat Jobs was unaware of these issues and that the options granted to him were returnedwithout being exercised in 2003.Management styleJobs was a demanding perfectionist who always aspired to position his businesses and theirproducts at the forefront of the information technology industry by foreseeing and settingtrends, at least in innovation and style. He summed up that self-concept at the end of hiskeynote speech at the Macworld Conference and Expo in January 2007, by quoting ice hockeyplayer Wayne Gretzky:Theres an old Wayne Gretzky quote that I love. I skate to where the puck is going to be, notwhere it has been. And weve always tried to do that at Apple.Fortune wrote that he was "considered one of Silicon Valleys leading egomaniacs".Commentaries on his temperamental style can be found in Michael Moritzs The Little Kingdom,The Second Coming of Steve Jobs, by Alan Deutschman; and iCon: Steve Jobs, by Jeffrey S. Young& William L. Simon. In 1993, Jobs made Fortunes list of Americas Toughest Bosses in regard tohis leadership of NeXT.NeXT Cofounder DanlLewin was quoted in Fortune as saying of that period, "The highs wereunbelievable ... But the lows were unimaginable", to which Jobss office replied that hispersonality had changed since then.In 2005, Jobs banned all books published by John Wiley & Sons from Apple Stores in responseto their publishing an unauthorized biography, iCon: Steve Jobs. In its 2010 annual earningsreport, Wiley said it had "closed a deal ... to make its titles available for the iPad." JefRaskin, aformer colleague, once said that Jobs "would have made an excellent king of France", alludingto Jobss compelling and larger-than-life persona. Floyd Norman said that at Pixar, Jobs was a"mature, mellow individual" and never interfered with the creative process of the filmmakers. 14
    • Jobs had a public war of words with Dell Computer CEO Michael Dell, starting in 1987 whenJobs first criticized Dell for making "un-innovative beige boxes".On October 6, 1997, in aGartner Symposium, when Michael Dell was asked what he would do if he ran then-troubledApple Computer, he said "Id shut it down and give the money back to the shareholders." In2006, Jobs sent an email to all employees when Apples market capitalization rose above Dells.The email read:Team, it turned out that Michael Dell wasnt perfect at predicting the future. Based on todaysstock market close, Apple is worth more than Dell. Stocks go up and down, and things may bedifferent tomorrow, but I thought it was worth a moment of reflection today. Steve.Inventions and designsHis design sense was greatly influenced by the Buddhism which he experienced in India whileon a seven-month spiritual journey. His sense of intuition was also influenced by the spiritualpeople with whom he studied.As of October 9, 2011, Jobs is listed as either primary inventor or co-inventor in 342 UnitedStates patents or patent applications related to a range of technologies from actual computerand portable devices to user interfaces (including touch-based), speakers, keyboards, poweradapters, staircases, clasps, sleeves, lanyards and packages. Most of these are design patents(specific product designs) as opposed to utility patents (inventions). He has 43 issued USpatents on inventions. The patent on the Mac OS X Dock user interface with "magnification"feature was issued the day before he died.Apple Computer IThe first significant invention of Steve Jobs was the Apple I which came along in 1976. SteveJobs and Steve Wozniak, who was at the time working for HP, scraped together some cash forprinted circuit boards. Then they planned to sell the machine as a kit for $666.66. A store calledthe Byte Shop ordered 50 fully assembled devices, and sold them all.Apple II computerDuring 1976, Steve Wozniak begins work on the Apple II, and then he left HP to join Applecomputer. In March 1977, Apple Computer moves from Jobs garage to an office in Cupertino.Apple Computer delivers its first Apple II system, for US$1295 in April 1977. Steve Jobs oncesaid the Apple II could be described as an "appliance" computer. The Apple II was the firstcomputer to be enclosed in plastic. Jobs insisted that molded plastic was essential to thecomputer as a consumer item. The desired effect was evidently achieved. The Apple II was“elegantly styled" and it became compared to an "overgrown pocket calculator". 15
    • The Macintosh ComputerThe Macintosh was introduced in January 1984. The computer had no “Mac” name on thefront, but rather just the Apple logo.The Macintosh has a friendly appearance since it wasmeant to be easy to use. The disk drive is below the display, the Macintosh was taller,narrower, more symmetrical, and far more suggestive of a face.The NeXT computerAfter Jobs was forced out of Apple in 1985, he started a company that built workstationcomputers. The NeXT computer was introduced in 1989. The world’s first web browser wascreated on the NeXT computer. The NeXT computer was the basis for today’s MacintoshOS Xand iPhone operating system (iOS).iMacApple iMac was introduced in 1998, it symbolized the return of Steve Jobs to the top spot in thecompany. iMac’s colorful appearance showed how high Steve Jobs immediately set the bar forinnovative and disruptive design. Apple claimed "the back of our computer looks better thanthe front of anyone elses".The first cartoonlike iMac, clad in Bondi Blue plastic, caused a stir. In1999, Apple introduced Graphite gray Apple iMac.And then it switched to all-white of today.Also the design revolutions created an connection with the user, including the handle and whenthe computer went to sleep, iMac become a breathing light. The Apple iMac sold for $1,299 atthat time. There was some technical revolutions for iMac too. The USB ports being the onlydevice inputs on the iMac.iPodThe first generation of iPod released in October 23, 2001. The innovations of iPod were its smallsize. The capacity of the first generation iPod ranged from 5G to 10 Gigabytes. The iPod sold forUS$399 and more than 100,000 iPods were sold before the end of 2001 . Steve Jobs achieved asuperior listening pleasure and functional pocket-sized music player by the invention of iPod.After the introduction of iPod, Apple has taken a big bite out of the music industry. [136] Also, theiPod’s success prepared the way for the iTunes music store and the iPhone. After the 1stgengeration of iPod, Apple released the hard drive-based iPod classic, the touchscreen iPodTouch, video-capable iPod Nano, screenless iPod Shuffle in the following years.iPhoneSteve Jobs began work on the first iPhone in 2005. After many months of hard work, the firstiPhone was released on June 29, 2007. There was a survey that said six out of ten Americanswere aware about the release of the iPhone. Just a year later, the iPhone 3G was released inJuly 2008. The key feature for the iPhone 3G was it supported assisted GPS, 3G data and quad-band UMTS/HSDPA. In June 2009, the iPhone 3GS, which supported voice control, a better 16
    • camera, and a faster processor was introduced by Steve Jobs. iPhone 4 was described as “thischanges everything, again", by Steve Jobs in June 2010. It is thinner than previous models.PhilanthropyArikHesseldahl of BusinessWeek magazine stated that "Jobs isnt widely known for hisassociation with philanthropic causes", compared to Bill Gatess efforts. In contrast to his peersin the technology business such as Mark Zuckerberg or Gates, Jobs did not sign the GivingPledge of Warren Buffett which challenged the world’s richest billionaires to give at least halftheir wealth to charity. In an interview with Playboy in 1985, Jobs said in respect to money that“The challenges are to figure out how to live with it and to reinvest it back into the world whichmeans either giving it away or using it to express your concerns or values.”Jobs also added that when he has some time we would start a public foundation but for nowhe does charitable acts privately.After resuming control of Apple in 1997, Jobs eliminated all corporate philanthropy programsinitially.Jobs’ friends told The New York Times that he felt that expanding Apple would havedone more good than giving money to charity. Later, under Jobs, Apple signed to participate inProduct Red program, producing red versions of devices to give profits from sales to charity.Apple has gone on to become the largest contributor to the charity since its initial involvementwith it. The chief of the Product Red project, singer Bono cited Jobs saying there was "nothingbetter than the chance to save lives," when he initially approached Apple with the invitation toparticipate in the program. Through its sales, Apple has been the largest contributor to theGlobal Fund to fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, according to Bono.Honors and public recognitionAfter Apples founding, Jobs became a symbol of his company and industry. When Time namedthe computer as the 1982 "Machine of the Year", the magazine published a long profile of Jobsas "the most famous maestro of the micro".Jobs was awarded the National Medal of Technology by President Ronald Reagan in 1985, withSteve Wozniak (among the first people to ever receive the honor), and a Jefferson Award forPublic Service in the category "Greatest Public Service by an Individual 35 Years or Under" in1987.On November 27, 2007, Jobs was named the most powerful person in business by Fortunemagazine. On December 5, 2007, California GovernorArnold Schwarzenegger and First LadyMaria Shriver inducted Jobs into the California Hall of Fame, located at The California Museumfor History, Women and the Arts. 17
    • In August 2009, Jobs was selected as the most admired entrepreneur among teenagers in asurvey by Junior Achievement, having previously been named Entrepreneur of the Decade 20years earlier in 1989, by Inc. magazine. On November 5, 2009, Jobs was named the CEO of thedecade by Fortune magazine.In November 2010, Jobs was ranked No.17 on Forbes: The Worlds Most Powerful People. InDecember 2010, the Financial Times named Jobs its person of the year for 2010, ending itsessay by stating, "In his autobiography, John Sculley, the former PepsiCo executive who onceran Apple, said this of the ambitions of the man he had pushed out: Apple was supposed tobecome a wonderful consumer products company. This was a lunatic plan. High-tech could notbe designed and sold as a consumer product.". The Financial Times closed by rhetoricallyasking of this quote, "How wrong can you be."At the time of his resignation, and again after his death, Jobs was widely described as avisionary, pioneer and geniusperhaps one of the foremost—in the field of business,innovation.and product design, and a man who had profoundly changed the face of the modernworld, revolutionized at least six different industries, and who was an "exemplar for all chiefexecutives”.After his resignation as Apples CEO, Jobs was characterized as the Thomas Edison and HenryFord of his time. In his The Daily Show eulogy, Jon Stewart said that unlike others of Jobss ilk,such as Thomas Edison or Henry Ford, Jobs died young. He felt that we had, in a sense, "wrungeverything out of" these other men, but his feeling on Jobs was that"were not done with you yet." Statue of Jobs at Graphisoft Park, BudapestOn December 21, 2011, Graphisoftcompany in Budapest presented the worlds first bronzestatue of Steve Jobs, calling him one of the greatest personalities of the modern age.In January 2012, when young adults (ages 16 – 25) were asked to identify the greatestinnovator of all time, Steve Jobs placed second behind Thomas Edison. 18
    • On February 12, 2012, Jobs was posthumously awarded the Grammy Trustees Award, an awardfor those who have influenced the music industry in areas unrelated to performance.In March 2012, global business magazine Fortune named Steve Jobs the "greatest entrepreneurof our time", describing him as "brilliant, visionary, inspiring", and "the quintessentialentrepreneur of our generation" 19