Typhoon Group- Global Warming


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Man, whether or not he admits it, is hastening the speed of the heating of the Earth. Here are some facts on global warming, true case studies, prevention techniques and analyses on failing government solutions to the problem we often pretend is not there.

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  • Bubbly songClimate change videoIntro to Greenhouse gases – BeaAnthropological Sources/ Case Studies – everyoneHuman Activities – ChristianIssues / failed solutions – TiffySuggestions – ClaudPromise-making
  • A. Intro to Greenhouse Gases (Bea)
  • Main greenhouse gases (Earth's atmosphere, also available in other planet’s atmospheres) are: (interestingly) water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and ozone…chlorofluorobarbonsOthers such as hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs),perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) result exclusively from human industrial processes.
  • Function: "greenhouse effect->Shorter-wavelength solar radiation from the sun passes through Earth's atmosphere, then is absorbed by the surface of the Earth, causing it to warm-> Part of the absorbed energy is then reradiated back to the atmosphere as long wave infared radiation(Little of this long wave radiation escapes back into space;   the radiation cannot pass through the greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. The greenhouse gases selectively transmit the infared waves, trapping some and allowing some to pass through into space.)-> The greenhouse gases absorb these waves and reemits the waves downward, causing the lower atmosphere to warm
  • Greenhouse gases are naturally good: meant to regulate earth’s warmth (degrees C)-> BUT too much was harmful
  • (don’t enumerate anymore)BASICALLY- the greenhouse gases are increasing in a rate very unusual compared to thousands or hundreds of years ago
  • Numerous theories about the cause of global warming: Al Gore’s greenhouse gases/ tilt of the earth -> but one thing is certain: CO2 increase is already unnatural~-> Man’s contribution ain’t negligible-> Maybe we can’t fully stop it; but we should do what we can!
  • B. Anthropogenic Sources (Bea)- These are some case studies of how communities and YOU contribute to the already bad problem…
  • There is yet a permanent, sustainable waste disposal manner to be found as landfills will not cut it for the remaining years to come
  • A discouraging majority retain the mindset that their trash will do little to contribute to the Earth’s growing pains but such numbers have a large effect on community cleanliness
  • The La Mesa Watershed has been receiving numerous pledges of support and constant visitors wishing to do their part in preserving Mother Nature. Also, the Watershed has rebuffed some plans to build a residential subdivision in its area in favor of continuing the tree-planting endeavor
  • There are a number of industrial zones who apparently have no qualms about releasing their waste into the atmosphere or into the water of the area as evidenced by the stench and state of the creek along my grandmother’s house.
  • CASE STUDY: Antipolo City’s Contribution to Climate ChangeThe practice of burning dead leaves and biodegradable debris in order to ward off mosquitoes, and also to easily dispose of said trash.  This has been a nasty habit of most Antipolo residents, despite the fact that the local government is encouraging them to collect and donate their dead leaves and biodegradable trash to Material Recovery Facilities (MRFs) so that they can be converted into compost that can be sold in place of nitrogenous fertilizers. Most subdivisions and private residential areas already banned such practice, but the surrounding slum areas and sitios still do this on a daily basis. 
  • Tricycle fever Antipolo city is well known for its tricycle industry, and was once said to be the “tricycle capital” of Luzon. However, tricycles contribute much to both air and noise pollution, and the industry had already been considered an environmental hazard. Despite this, many tricycle owners still continue with their business, and the local government is hesitant to do anything about it, since the tricycle industry is one of the city’s main livelihoods, and shutting it down would affect the city’s economy gravely. 
  • Incessant deforestation and quarryingIn the past, Antipolo was devoted to its forests, and protected nature fervently. Today, however, discover of viable mining areas resulted to quarrying, which soon led to the destruction of land and steady decrease of trees. Subdivisions are being built one after the other, as well as new roads, and even memorial gardens are being built. As the city is becoming more urbanized, more infrastructures are appearing one after the other.  
  • HinulugangTaktak controversy The once majestic waterfall has fallen far from its original splendor. Piles of trash litter the banks, and more trash can be seen floating around. With different types of trash reacting with one another, there’s bound to be chemical reactions where greenhouse gases are released as products or by-products. And what’s depressing is the local government is doing very little in regard to this matter.
  • 1. Poor traffic management manages to do not much more than increase CO2 emissions.
  • 2. Use of plastic bags still wins over the use of paper/recyclable bags.
  • 3. Great dependence on electricity and under-utilization of natural resources.
  • 4. At the rate we consume paper products, we might as well be burning our forests.
  • Sagada – old Baguio
  • 1. Cutting down greenery for urbanization and residential areas.
  • hiking
  • 2. Mining/ Quarrying for gold/ minerals -> destroy the terraces3. Children are leaving -> no more maintenanceNo more CO2 absorbersLandslide danger
  • C. Human Activities - Christian
  • There are many human activities that worsten global warming, but we will only focus on 11 major areas 
  • 1. FOSSIL FUELSFossil fuels: created from decay of plants from million years agocoal, oil and natural gas -> contain carbon -> when burned, combine with oxygen -> forming CO2- statistic-> impact: philippines has contributed more than we think
  • - CO2 mainly became a problem during the industrial advancement (increased CO2 concentration levels from the pre-industrial era (1750): 280 ppm to around 387 ppm)
  • Don’t forget: define the sinc
  • agricultural activities, including the use of fertilizers, that lead to higher nitrous oxide (N2O) concentrations.Methane is a colorless, odorless, flammable gas.   It is formed when plants decay and where there is very little air.  It is often called swamp gas because it is abundant around water and swamps.  Bacteria that breakdown organic matter in wetlands and bacteria that are found in cows, sheep, goats, buffalo, termites, and camels produce methane naturally.  Since 1750, methane has doubled, and could double again by 2050.  Each year we add 350-500 million tons of methane to the air by raising livestock, coal mining, drilling for oil and natural gas, rice cultivation, and garbage sitting in landfills.(www.envirolink.org/orgs/edf/sitemap.html)  It stays in the atmosphere for only 10 years, but traps 20 times more heat than carbon dioxide.  Livestock such as cows, sheep, goats, camels, buffaloes, and termites release methane as well.  Bacteria in the gut of the animal break down food and convert some of it to methane. When these animals belch, methane is released.  In one day, a cow can emit ½ pound of methane into the air.  Imagine 1.3 billion cattle each burping methane several times per minute!Nitrogen based fertilizer use has doubled in the past 15 years.  These fertilizers provide nutrients for crops; however, when they breakdown in the soil, nitrous oxide is released into the atmosphere.  In automobiles, nitrous oxide is released at a much lower rate than carbon dioxide, because there is more carbon in gasoline than nitrogen. 
  • According the UN, livestock is responsible for 18% of the world’s greenhouse gas emissions. Deforestation for grazing areas and natural emissions as a result of digestion & decomposition greatly contribute to methane and nitrous oxide concentrations.
  • D. Issues (Tiffy)
  • Solar radiation managementMain article: Solar radiation managementSee also: Stratospheric sulfur aerosols (geoengineering) and AlbedoSolar radiation management[28] (SRM) projects seek to reduce the amount of sunlight hitting the Earth and thus counteract global warming. Creating stratospheric sulfur aerosolsCool roof – using pale-coloured roofing and paving materialsCloud reflectivity enhancement – using fine sea water spray to whiten clouds and increase cloud reflectivity.Space sunshade - obstructing solar radiation with space-based mirrors or other structuresCloud seeding of cirrus clouds, possibly using airliners.[29][edit]Greenhouse gas remediationMain articles: Greenhouse gas remediation and Carbon sequestrationGreenhouse gas remediation projects seek to remove greenhouse gases from the atmosphere, and thus tackle the root cause of global warming.Ocean nourishment including Iron fertilisation of the oceansCreating biochar (anaerobic charcoal) and burying it to create terra pretaBio-energy with carbon capture and storageCarbon air capture to remove carbon dioxide from ambient air[edit]Arctic geoengineeringMain article: Arctic geoengineeringVarious hydrological geoengineering projects aim to change the climate without directly or indirectly removing greenhouse gases, or directly influencing solar radiation. These principally act by limiting Arctic sea ice loss. Keeping the Arctic ice is seen by many commentators as vital,[30] due to its role in the planet's albedo and in keeping methane, which is an important greenhouse gas, locked up in permafrost.[31][edit]Heat transportThe use of vertical ocean pipes to mix cooler deep water and warmer surface water has been proposed. This technology has also been suggested for the disruption of hurricanes by Bill Gates and others in a recent patent application.[32] [33] Modification of hurricanes may be considered weather modification rather than geoengineering, depending on the definition used.
  • Food vs fuel is the dilemma regarding the risk of diverting farmland or crops for biofuels production in detriment of the food supply on a global scale.In 2008 the British anti-poverty charity War on Want released a report linking the demand for biofuels and other 'green' alternatives to petroleum to violent land seizures taking place in Colombia. The report outlines how the production of biofuels, specifically palm oil, has led to the forced displacement of thousands of Afro-Colombians from the south-west region of ColombiaDemand for biofuel has led to clearing land for Palm Oil plantations.[10] In Sumatra and Borneo, over 4 million hectares of forest have been converted to palm farms and tens of millions more hectares are scheduled for clearance in Malaysia and Indonesia.
  • Focus on economy -> so when people become rich, we can afford envi costsFocus on environment -> let the economy down (for the future!)WORK ON THEM SIDE BY SIDE-> Green industrialization-> SUSTAINABIITY AND COST-CUTTING
  • Hydro power, currently supplying only six percent of the world's energy, is a renewable energy source. Energy is produced by hydraulic turbines that rotate with the force of rushing water (higher to lower elevation).  It is one of the most clean and cheapest way of producing energy, but it can also change the flow of rivers and increase sediment which kills fish.  It is a large investment for developing countries. (www.abcnews.com/sections/us/global106)
  • Denmark is currently the world leader in wind power.  By 2030, fifty percent of Denmark's energy could be produced by wind power.  Randall Swisher, executive director of the American WInd Energy Association says, "If this country made an aggressive development push, by 2020 eighteen percent of the country's energy could be supplied by wind power."  (www.abc.com/sections/us/global106.html)  Wind power emits no greenhouse gases, but it takes up large amounts of land.  In order for it to be a reliable source, scientists must develop better power storage techniques.  Another concern of people is noise pollution that the large windmills produce along with the reliability of wind.
  • Solar power uses photovoltaic cells (PV's) to gather thermal energy directly from the sun and use it to produce electricity.  One community could be supplied by one field of PV's .  Passive solar cells could also be used to heat water, replacing the need for today's hot water heaters.  PV's do not emit any greenhouse gases, but they are very expensive and more development is needed in order for this to be realistic energy source for the future.
  • Nuclear power is strong is Europe with about forty-two percent of their energy produced by fission. Nuclear generation provides about 17% of world electricity, avoiding the emission of up to 2.3 billion tonnes of carbon dioxide annually. France produces 76% and Lithuania produces 85.6% of its energy by nuclear fission.(http://infoweb.magi.com/~dwalsh/wfsesr.html)  In the United States, people are antinuclear because of 3 Mile Island in 1979 and Chernobyl in 1986.  However, many experts say that it is a safe, clean, and reliable source of energy.  Nuclear Fission produces no greenhouse gases, but does produce highly toxic radioactive wastes.
  • E. Recommendations (Claud)
  • LOOK- big majority is actually the private car use!
  • 1. Do your part to reduce waste by choosing reusableproducts instead of disposables. Buying products with minimal packaging (including the economy size when that makes sense for you) will help to reduce waste. And whenever you can, recycle paper, plastic, newspaper, glass and aluminum cans. If there isn't a recycling program at your workplace, school, or in your community, ask about starting one. By recycling half of your household waste, you can save 2,400 pounds of carbon dioxide annually.2. Adding insulation to your walls and attic, and installing weather stripping or caulking around doors and windows can lower your heating costs more than 25 percent, by reducing the amount of energy you need to heat and cool your home.Turn down the heat while you're sleeping at night or away during the day, and keep temperatures moderate at all times. Setting your thermostat just 2 degrees lower in winter and higher in summer could save about 2,000 pounds of carbon dioxide each year.3. Wherever practical, replace regular light bulbs with compact fluorescent light (CFL) bulbs. Replacing just one 60-watt incandescent light bulb with a CFL will save you $30 over the life of the bulb. CFLs also last 10 times longer than incandescent bulbs, use two-thirds less energy, and give off 70 percent less heat.If every U.S. family replaced one regular light bulb with a CFL, it would eliminate 90 billion pounds of greenhouse gases, the same as taking 7.5 million cars off the road.4. Less driving means fewer emissions. Besides saving gasoline, walking and biking are great forms of exercise. Explore your community mass transit system, and check out options for carpooling to work or school.When you do drive, make sure your car is running efficiently. For example, keeping yourtires properly inflated can improve your gas mileage by more than 3 percent. Every gallon of gas you save not only helps your budget, it also keeps 20 pounds of carbon dioxide out of the atmosphere.5. When it's time to buy a new car, choose one that offers good gas mileage. Home appliances now come in a range of energy-efficient models, and compact florescent bulbs are designed to provide more natural-looking light while using far less energy than standard light bulbs.Avoid products that come with excess packaging, especially molded plastic and other packaging that can't be recycled. If you reduce your household garbage by 10 percent, you can save 1,200 pounds of carbon dioxide annually.
  • 6. Set your water heater at 120 degrees to save energy, and wrap it in an insulating blanket if it is more than 5 years old. Buy low-flow showerheads to save hot water and about 350 pounds of carbon dioxide yearly. Wash your clothes in warm or cold water to reduce your use of hot water and the energy required to produce it. That change alone can save at least 500 pounds of carbon dioxide annually in most households. Use the energy-saving settings on your dishwasher and let the dishes air-dry.7. Save electricity and reduce global warming by turning off lights when you leave a room, and using only as much light as you need. And remember to turn off your television, video player, stereo and computer when you're not using them.It's also a good idea to turn off the water when you're not using it. While brushing your teeth, shampooing the dog or washing your car, turn off the water until you actually need it for rinsing. You'll reduce your water bill and help to conserve a vital resource.8. If you have the means to plant a tree, start digging. During photosynthesis, trees and other plants absorb carbon dioxide and give off oxygen. They are an integral part of the natural atmospheric exchange cycle here on Earth, but there are too few of them to fully counter the increases in carbon dioxide caused by automobile traffic, manufacturing and other human activities. A single tree will absorb approximately one ton of carbon dioxide during its lifetime.9. Many utility companies provide free home energy audits to help consumers identify areas in their homes that may not be energy efficient. In addition, many utility companies offer rebate programs to help pay for the cost of energy-efficient upgrades.10. Share information about recycling and energy conservation with your friends, neighbors and co-workers, and take opportunities to encourage public officials to establish programs and policies that are good for the environment.These 10 steps will take you a long way toward reducing your energy use and your monthly budget. And less energy use means less dependence on the fossil fuels that create greenhouse gases and contribute to global warming.
  • A carbon footprint is "the total set of greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions caused by an organization, event or product" [1]. For simplicity of reporting, it is often expressed in terms of the amount of carbon dioxide, or its equivalent of other GHGs, emitted.The concept name of the carbon footprint originates from ecological footprint discussion.[2] The carbon footprint is a subset of the ecological footprint and of the more comprehensive Life Cycle Assessment (LCA).An individual, nation, or organization's carbon footprint can be measured by undertaking a GHG emissions assessment. Once the size of a carbon footprint is known, a strategy can be devised to reduce it, e.g. by technological developments, better process and product management, changed Green Public or Private Procurement (GPP), Carbon capture, consumption strategies, and others.The mitigation of carbon footprints through the development of alternative projects, such as solar or wind energy or reforestation, represents one way of reducing a carbon footprint and is often known as Carbon offsetting.
  • Typhoon Group- Global Warming

    1. 1. Brought to you<br />by Group Bubbly!<br />Climate<br />Change<br />
    2. 2. Global Warming<br />“It is the increase of the average global temperature thus influencing weather patterns and is directly proportional to the frequency rate of natural calamities such as floods, droughts and typhoons around the world.”<br />
    3. 3. (movie)<br />
    4. 4. Greenhouse gases?<br />What are <br />
    5. 5. GRAPH 1http://woody.typepad.com/files/greenhouse_gases_in_atmosphere.jpg<br />
    6. 6.
    7. 7. <ul><li>naturally present in the Earth’s atmosphere.
    8. 8. keep the planet 33 degrees Celsius warmer than it would be without said gases.</li></li></ul><li>CO2<br />- 27 billion tonnes per year<br />CH4<br /><ul><li>since 1750 has increased by 151%</li></ul>N2O<br />- since 1750 has increased by 17% <br />PCFs/ HFCs<br /><ul><li>Industrial development</li></ul>NOx, CO, NMVOC<br />- indirect greenhouse gases<br />
    9. 9. In fact!<br />An average increase of global temperature of a little less than one degree Celsius is enough to create major increase in storms, floods and forest fires in a span of ten years<br />19 out of the 20 of the Earth’s hottest years have occurred since 1980 and the 3 hottest years have been recorded in the last ten years<br />
    10. 10. As compared to the pre-industrial era, human activities have greatly increased the amount/concentration of greenhouse gases in the Earth’s atmosphere.<br />
    11. 11. Gallery<br />Climate Change<br />
    12. 12. Here comes the sun<br />
    13. 13. “Ondoy” by jsants<br />Only Second To The River Styx<br />
    14. 14. Before & After, Earth Edition<br />The famous Microsoft platform wallpaper photo was taken in Napa, in 1995. The second photo was taken in the same place 12 years later.<br />
    15. 15. Pepeng, the Unruly Usurper<br />
    16. 16. Picture (left): A Filipino boy holding a ruined corncob, a grim result of the fierce El Niño in the country. Surrounding him are dried corn stalks, their produce wasted and no longer marketable.<br />
    17. 17. Picture (left): Shows three American men braving the ferocious storm as they move towards a shelter. Behind them, a two-story house is being washed away by the strong waves of the flash flood.<br />
    18. 18. Picture (left): In Kenya, a worker tries to lift a weakened cow that lies among the dozens of corpses of the drought-stricken animals whose bodies gave away because of the extreme heat and lack of nutrient. <br />
    19. 19. I’m lost…<br />
    20. 20. Picture (above): A Filipino farmer picks up empty coconut shells on a piece of several parched land, where, because of the absence of enough water, the soil had started cracking.<br />
    21. 21. Picture (above): Shows people traveling through the muddy and flooded streets of Manila during the Ondoy tragedy. People are flocking and moving towards the shelters where food and dry sleeping quarters await them. The police move around to ensure the order and safety of the evacuating people.<br />
    22. 22.
    23. 23.
    24. 24. “3 Meters from School.”<br />“3 Meters from School.”<br />
    25. 25. Anthropogenic Sources<br />
    26. 26. Case Study: Quezon<br />
    27. 27.
    28. 28.
    29. 29. Case Study: Marikina<br />
    30. 30. Case Study: Antipolo<br />
    31. 31.
    32. 32.
    33. 33.
    34. 34. Case Study: Makati<br />
    35. 35.
    36. 36.
    37. 37.
    38. 38. Case Study: Sagada<br />
    39. 39.
    40. 40.
    41. 41.
    42. 42.
    43. 43.
    44. 44. Activities that Contribute to the Increased Rate of Greenhouse Gas Emission<br />
    45. 45. SOURCE: http://www.opencarbonworld.com/646pxGreenhouse_Gas_by_Sector.png/image_preview<br />
    46. 46. GRAPH 3SOURCE: http://www.newgencoal.com.au/resources.ashx/SystemRadControlAssets/26/Name/A66F99518DACF5938672BEC4F1DBA5A4/Global-GHG-Emissions.jpg<br />
    47. 47. Burning fossil fuels<br />Forestry<br /> Agriculture<br /> Livestock<br /> Cement Manufacture<br /> Aerosols<br />Waste Disposal & Treatment<br /><ul><li> Transportation Fuels
    48. 48. Land use & Biomass burning
    49. 49. Residential/Commercial</li></ul>HUMAN ACTIVITIES<br />HUMAN ACTIVITIES<br />
    50. 50. Burning Fossil fuels<br />The World Energy Council : The increase from developing countries was three times that from developed countries. Middle East carbon dioxide emissions from burning of fossil fuels increased 35%, Africa increased 12%, and Eastern Europe increased rates by 75% from 1990-1995.<br />
    51. 51. Burning Fossil fuels<br /><ul><li>Mainly due to industrial advancement: 280 ppm to around 387 ppm.</li></li></ul><li>Forestry<br />Causes: logging for lumber, pulpwood, and fuel wood, clearing new land for farming and pastures used for animals such as cows<br />Forests and wooded areas are natural carbon sinks<br /> About 860 acres, the size of Central Park in New York, is destroyed every 15 minutes in the tropics.<br />
    52. 52. FORESTRY<br />Deforestation (especially in tropical areas) and other forms of land use change are responsible for up to 1/3 of total anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions.<br />
    53. 53. Agriculture<br />Use of fertilizers<br />-> higher nitrous oxide (N2O) concentrations<br />-> leaching (pollution)<br />
    54. 54. LIVESTOCK:<br /><ul><li>UN:livestock is responsible for 18% of the world’s greenhouse gas emissions
    55. 55. Deforestation for grazing areas and natural emissions as a result of digestion & decomposition greatly contribute to methane and nitrous oxide concentrations
    56. 56. Animal feces</li></li></ul><li>CEMENT MANUFACTURE:<br /><ul><li>responsible for 5% of man-made greenhouse gases
    57. 57. For every 1000kg of cement produced, 900kg of carbon dioxide is released
    58. 58. gas is produced during the manufacture process and when calcium carbonate is heated.</li></li></ul><li>AEROSOLS:<br /><ul><li>Chlorofluorocarbons are often used in refridgeration systems and fire suppression systems.
    59. 59. Halonsare also often used in fire suppression systems.</li></li></ul><li>OTHER ANTHROPOGENIC SOURCES:<br /><ul><li> Waste Disposal & Treatment
    60. 60. Transportation Fuels
    61. 61. Land use & Biomass burning
    62. 62. Residential/Commercial</li></li></ul><li>BIG-TIME Solutions and their Issues<br />
    63. 63. Geo-engineering<br />the search for new processes such that we manipulate our environment to suit our needs for resources in a sustainable and non-harmful manner<br />Solar radiation management<br />Greenhouse remediation<br />Arctic geoengineering<br />Heat transport<br />Should not induce laziness!<br />
    64. 64. Biofuels<br />Goal: Neutral Carbon<br />Food vs. Fuel debate<br />Abuse: violent land seizures taking place in Colombia<br />Clearing of plantations- Sumatra and Borneo (4 M hectares of forest converted to palm farms)<br />-> BALANCE!<br />
    65. 65. Dominance and Change in the Arctic<br />exploration of the Arctic for petroleum<br />Represents 13% of the undiscovered oil in the world<br />Oil drilling controversy<br />-> Look long term.<br />
    66. 66. Kyoto Protocol<br />held in Kyoto, Japan, between December 1-11, 1997<br />Emissions Trading, Joint Implementation and Clean Development Mechanism<br />Non-signatories: US, China<br />Results:   most developed nations doing most of the reducing<br />emissions trading<br />-> INITIATION AND COOPERATION!<br />
    67. 67. WHY: Environment vs. Economy?<br />
    68. 68. International and Local Partnerships<br />International and Local partnerships – any individual effect to benefit the environment shall be increased dramatically within a group or organization<br />
    69. 69. Gov’t: Alternative sources<br /> Hydro power<br />
    70. 70. Wind power<br />
    71. 71. Solar power<br />
    72. 72. Nuclear power<br />
    73. 73. What now?Recommendations<br />
    74. 74. GRAPH 4http://www.ibuyeco.com.au/about/why-go-carbon-neutral.jsp<br />
    75. 75. Conservation<br /> – the reduction of consumption of natural resources <br /><ul><li>leads to less waste produced and a greater chance for preservation of finite materials exploited by man</li></ul>1. Reduce, Reuse, Recycle<br />2. Use Less Heat and Air Conditioning<br />3. Change a Light Bulb<br />4. Drive Less and Drive Smart<br />5. Buy Energy-Efficient Products<br />
    76. 76. 6. Use Less Hot Water<br />7. Use the "Off" Switch<br />8. Plant a Tree<br />9. Get a Report Card from Your Utility Company<br />10. Encourage Others to Conserve<br />
    77. 77. Conservation<br />improving home building insulation, installing geothermal heat pumps and compact fluorescent lamps, and choosing energy-efficient vehicles<br />
    78. 78. Carbon Footprinting<br />"the total set of greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions caused by an organization, event or product“<br />Strategies: technological developments, better process and product management, changed Green Public or Private Procurement (GPP), Carbon capture, consumption strategies, and others.<br />
    79. 79. DISASTER KIT!<br />
    80. 80.
    81. 81.
    82. 82.
    83. 83.
    84. 84. Now, it’s your turn.<br />(o^_^o)<br />
    85. 85. SOURCES:<br /><ul><li> http://www.umich.edu/~gs265/society/greenhouse.htm
    86. 86. http://www.bgs.ac.uk/education/carboncapture/Anthropogenic.html
    87. 87. http://woody.typepad.com/files/greenhouse_gases_in_atmosphere
    88. 88. http://www.opencarbonworld.com/646pxGreenhouse_Gas_by_Sector.png/image_preview
    89. 89. http://www.newgencoal.com.au/resources.ashx/SystemRadControlAssets/26/Name/A66F99518DACF5938672BEC4F1DBA5A4/Global-GHG-Emissions.jpg
    90. 90. http://www.ibuyeco.com.au/about/why-go-carbon-neutral
    91. 91. IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) (2007a). "Summary for Policymakers." Climate Change 2007: Synthesis Report, edited by Rajendra K. Pachaurl, et al., pp. 1- 22. Cambridge and New York:Cambridge University Press.
    92. 92. "Estimation of Emissions of Carbon Dioxide at the local level: A Low cost approach for local authorities."  Atmospheric Research and Information Center. http://doc.mmu.ac.uk/aric/gcc/cell.html#pos6 (March 8, 1998)
    93. 93. "Global Warming is Happening."  Envirolink. http://www.envirolink.org/prgs/edf/sitemap.html  (March 8, 1998)
    94. 94. "Global Warming Campaign."  Sierra Club.  http://www.toowarm.org/factsheets/basfact.html  (March 12, 1998)
    95. 95. "Methane" World Book Encyclopaedia.  Volume 7. Friend, 1982, p. 270
    96. 96. "Fluorocarbons"  World Book Encyclopedia.  Volume 13.  Hatch, 1982, p. 358
    97. 97. "Clinton: We're Energy Hogs."  ABC News.  http://www.abcnews.com/sections/us/global106.html  (March 8, 1998)
    98. 98. "Global Warming."  United States Environmental Protection Agency.  http://www.epa.gov/globalwarming/ (March 8, 1998)
    99. 99. "The Kyoto Protocol on Climate Change."  U.S.  Department of State http://www.state.gov/www/global/oes/fs_kyoto_climate_980115.html (March 9, 1998)
    100. 100. Sylvan H. Wittwer.  "It's Good for Food Production" The Global Environment.   http://www.comnett.net/~wit/food.html  (March 8, 1998)
    101. 101. "Greenhouse Effect" Encyclopaedia Britannica. Volume 5.  1988, p. 470
    102. 102. "Photosynthesis"  Encyclopaedia Britannica.  Volume 25.   1988, pp.808-816</li>