Minerals & Rocks


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This is an introduction presentation about Chapters 3 & 4, Rocks and Minerals.

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  • Add picture from p. 64
  • Minerals & Rocks

    1. 1. Chapter 3 & 4
    2. 2. <ul><li>Section 1: What Is A Mineral? </li></ul>
    3. 3. <ul><li>Is It A Mineral? It might be, if you can answer yes to the following questions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is it a solid? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is it formed in nature? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is it nonliving material? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Does it have a crystalline structure? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A mineral is a naturally formed, inorganic solid with a crystalline structure. </li></ul>http://www.flickr.com/photos/mheisel/2936798136/
    4. 4. <ul><li>Minerals can’t be gases or liquids! </li></ul>No Air & No Water
    5. 5. <ul><li>Crystalline materials made by people aren’t classified as minerals. </li></ul>No Man Made Gemstones & No Tires
    6. 6. <ul><li>A mineral is inorganic, meaning it isn’t made of living things. </li></ul>No Teeth & No Bones
    7. 7. <ul><li>Minerals are crystals, which have a repeating inner structure that is often reflected in the shape of the crystal. Minerals generally have the same chemical composition throughout. </li></ul>www.rblewis.net/.../WebQuests/atoms/atoms.jpg
    8. 8. <ul><li>Lets break it down: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Minerals are made up of Elements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Elements are pure substances that can’t be broken down into simpler substances </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Atoms are the smallest part of an element </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. <ul><li>More than one type of atom stuck together is a compound </li></ul><ul><li>Most minerals are made up of compounds of different atoms </li></ul>Halite z.about.com/d/chemistry/1/0/Y/6/halite.jpg
    10. 10. <ul><li>When atoms are held in a set structure it is called a crystal (or a crystalline structure) </li></ul>http://www.flickr.com/photos/alishav/3221701134/
    11. 11. <ul><li>SILICATE </li></ul><ul><li>Minerals that contain Silicon and Oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>90% of Earth’s crust is made up of Silicate Minerals </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: Feldspar, Biotite Mica & Quartz </li></ul><ul><li>NONSILICATE </li></ul><ul><li>Minerals that do not contain Silicon & Oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: Native copper, Gold, Diamond, Calcite, Fluorite and Galena. </li></ul>mrbarlow.files.wordpress.com/2009/02/diamond.jpg
    12. 12. <ul><li>Section 2: Identifying Minerals </li></ul>
    13. 13. <ul><li>Now that you know your sample is a mineral… we need to learn how to identify what mineral it is </li></ul><ul><li>Properties to ID Minerals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Color </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Luster </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Streak </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cleaving & Fracture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hardness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Density </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Special Properties </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. <ul><li>Not a good indicator for ID </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Pyrite (Fool’s Gold) has a golden color normally – but when exposed to weather for a long time it turns black </li></ul>www.3dchem.com/imagesofmolecules/pyrite2.jpg
    15. 15. <ul><li>Luster is the way a surface reflects light </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Dull or Shiny </li></ul><ul><li>Types of Luster: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Metallic/Glassy (Shiny) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Submetallic (Dull) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nonmetallic (Dull) </li></ul></ul>www.thunderhealing.org/rock/anglesite.jpg
    16. 16. <ul><li>Streak is the color of a mineral’s powdered form </li></ul><ul><li>More reliable than Color because weathering doesn’t change the Streak Color </li></ul>geology.csupomona.edu/alert/mineral/streak.jpg
    17. 17. <ul><li>Minerals break in certain ways depending on how the atoms are arranged </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cleaving: When minerals break along flat surfaces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. Diamonds and Rubies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fracture: When minerals break unevenly or irregularly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. Quartz </li></ul></ul></ul>
    18. 18. <ul><li>Hardness refers to a mineral’s resistance to being scratched </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Diamond is the hardest mineral </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Moh’s Hardness Scale: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Scale 1 – 10 Reference Minerals – p. 66 </li></ul></ul></ul>z.about.com/.../1/0/W/A/1/magnetitemassive.jpg
    19. 19. <ul><li>Density is how much matter there is in a given amount of space </li></ul><ul><li>Density of Water: 1 g/cm 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Specific Gravity = Object’s Density/Density of Water </li></ul><ul><li>The specific gravity of an unknown mineral can tell you it’s identity </li></ul>
    20. 20. <ul><li>Some minerals have unique properties: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Taste (ex. Halite) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fluorescence (ex. Calcite & Fluorite) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chemical Reaction (ex. Calcite) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Optical Properties (ex. Calcite) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Radioactivity (ex. Radium & Uranium can be detected in a mineral) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Magnetism (ex. Magnetite & Pyrrhotite) </li></ul></ul>
    21. 21. <ul><li>Section 3: The Formation & Mining of Minerals </li></ul>
    22. 22. <ul><li>Where a mineral is formed determines its properties </li></ul><ul><li>Minerals can form in </li></ul><ul><li>many places </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Deep Below the Earth’s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>surface, or at or near </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the Earth’s surface </li></ul></ul>http://www.flickr.com/photos/wolfgangstaudt/2241232829/
    23. 23. <ul><li>Minerals can form in: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaporating Saltwater </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limestones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Metamorphic Rocks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hot-water Solutions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pegmatites </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plutons </li></ul></ul><ul><li>See pg. 68 – 69 in your text book and answer the following questions and put the answers on your note sheet!  </li></ul>
    24. 24. <ul><li>This picture shows a mineral deposit at a geyser. Which of the 6 situations on page 68 and 69 explain its formation? </li></ul>http://www.flickr.com/photos/jurek_durczak/312736434/
    25. 25. <ul><li>Name 3 minerals that are formed from magma. </li></ul>http://www.flickr.com/photos/hurtubia/375483426/
    26. 26. <ul><li>How To Mine Minerals </li></ul><ul><li>Two Possibilities: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Surface Mining </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. Open pits or quarries </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. Copper Ore & Aluminum rich minerals </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deep Mining </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. Diamonds & Coal </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Effects of Mining </li></ul><ul><li>Minerals ores are turned into common metals, as seen on pg. 71 </li></ul><ul><li>Harmful Effects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Destroys habit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Waste gets into water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reclamation: turning the mining land back into its original state after mining, required on public land, expensive & time consuming </li></ul></ul>