INTERNATIONAL AND U.N. AGENCIES:
STRUCTURE, AND ROLE

Lecture-4
Anwar Islam, PhD.
Adjunct Professor,
School of Health Poli...
Topics for Discussion
 INTERNATIONAL AGENCIES: Their Nature
 STRUCTURE AND FUNCTIONS
 UN AGENCIES AND HEALTH
UN AGENCIES
INTERNATIONAL
NGOs
TYPES of
Organizations

MULTILATERAL
Organizations
MULTINATIONAL
Corporations
PRIVATE
Found...
UN AGENCIES/ORGANIZATIONS
UN AGENCIES (Health Related):
WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION
UNICEF
UNFPA
UNDP
ALL PART OF UN DEVELOP...
INTERNATIONAL NGOs
International NGOs:
CARE
OXFAM
Population Council
MSF: Medicins Sans Frontier
MI: Micro-nutrient Initia...
INTERNATIONAL NGOs
International NGOs:
Save the Children
Helen Keller Foundation
GAVI: Global Alliance for Vaccines and Im...
UN AGENCIES
UN AGENCIES: NATURE
PUBLIC ORGANIZATIONS
GLOBAL PRESENCE
WORKS WITH GOVERNMENTS
GLOBAL ACCOUNTABILITY
REGIONAL...
World Health Organization
WHO:
• Established April 7, 1948
• HQ: Geneva
• Mandate: Steward for Global Public Health
• Gove...
World Health Organization
WHO Principles:
1. Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social
well-being and not ...
WHO Principles
5. Unequal development in different countries in the promotion
of health and control of disease is a common...
WHO Constitution
• ACCEPTING THESE PRINCIPLES, the Constitution of the
WHO was adopted by all parties to promote and prote...
World Health Organization
WHO FUNCTIONS:
• Providing Leadership in Matters Related to Health
and Engaging in Partnerships ...
GLOBAL POLICY

STANDARDS

Steward
GLOBAL FINANCE

ROLES
TECHNICAL SUPPORT

HS STRENGTHENING

13
Flag of the World Health Organization
14
World Health Organization
World Health Organization
‫منظمة الصحة العالمية‬
世界卫生组织
Organisation mondiale de la santé
Всемир...
Abbreviations:
WHO
OMS
Formation: 7 April 1948 [World Health Day]
Type: Specialized agency of the United Nations
Legal sta...
Regional Headquarters of WHO
 Africa: Brazzaville, Republic of Congo AFRO
[includes most of Africa, with the exception of...
Regional Headquarters of WHO
 Eastern Mediterranean: Cairo, Egypt
EMRO
[Includes the countries of Africa that are not inc...
World Health Organization
WHO: Finance
 Core Budget:
- Membership Fees from Member States
- Membership Fee varies by Fina...
World Health Organization
WHO: Finance
 Other interesting annual contributors:
- Canada
$15 Million
- China
$14.8 M
- Net...
World Health Organization
WHO: Finance
 Selected Developing Countries’ annual contributors:
- Indonesia
$1.1 Million
- Ir...
World Health Organization
Some Major Special Programs Include:
Roll Back Malaria
Stop TB
Global Polio Eradication Initi...
World Health Organization
Special Program/Project Contributions:
 Bilateral agencies like USAID, JICA, DfID,
NORAD, SIDA,...
World Health Organization

Assessed Membership
Contributions
CORE BUDGET
WHO
Finance

Special Program
Contribution

ADDITI...
World Health Organization
Finance Issues:
CORE Budget is “controlled” by the governing body of
WHO – the World Health Ass...
World Health Organization
Finance Issues:
The “additional funding” is for specific specialized /
vertical programs and is...
World Health Organization
Finance Issues:
 Since the 1980s, the special funds are
increasing more rapidly than the “core”...
World Health Organization
Finance Issues:
 For example, the combined 2012-2013 budget
proposed a total expenditure of $3....
World Health Organization
Other Issues:
 HQ versus the Regional Offices: Distribution of
power and financial resources
 ...
WHO Milestones
WHO: Major Milestones:
The Alma Ata Declaration of 1978
Promising Health for All (HFA) by 2000
Move to D...
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Lecture 4 international un agencies and health

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  1. 1. INTERNATIONAL AND U.N. AGENCIES: STRUCTURE, AND ROLE Lecture-4 Anwar Islam, PhD. Adjunct Professor, School of Health Policy and Management, Faculty of Health, York University
  2. 2. Topics for Discussion  INTERNATIONAL AGENCIES: Their Nature  STRUCTURE AND FUNCTIONS  UN AGENCIES AND HEALTH
  3. 3. UN AGENCIES INTERNATIONAL NGOs TYPES of Organizations MULTILATERAL Organizations MULTINATIONAL Corporations PRIVATE Foundations BILATERAL Agencies 3
  4. 4. UN AGENCIES/ORGANIZATIONS UN AGENCIES (Health Related): WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION UNICEF UNFPA UNDP ALL PART OF UN DEVELOPMENT GROUP 4
  5. 5. INTERNATIONAL NGOs International NGOs: CARE OXFAM Population Council MSF: Medicins Sans Frontier MI: Micro-nutrient Initiative GAIN: Global Alliance for Improved Nutrition Action Aid International ICRC and Red Crescent Societies 5
  6. 6. INTERNATIONAL NGOs International NGOs: Save the Children Helen Keller Foundation GAVI: Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization World Vision International HCI: Human Concern International Amnesty International PLAN International IUCN: International Union for Conservation of Nature Greenpeace 6
  7. 7. UN AGENCIES UN AGENCIES: NATURE PUBLIC ORGANIZATIONS GLOBAL PRESENCE WORKS WITH GOVERNMENTS GLOBAL ACCOUNTABILITY REGIONAL/COUNTRY LEVEL PRSENCE 7
  8. 8. World Health Organization WHO: • Established April 7, 1948 • HQ: Geneva • Mandate: Steward for Global Public Health • Governance: World Health Assembly – each member-state is a member with equal voting rights • Executive Board: 34 members elected for 3 years by the WHA to run day-to-day operations of the WHO • Director General: the Chief Executive elected by the EB and endorsed by the WHA 8
  9. 9. World Health Organization WHO Principles: 1. Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity 2. The enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health is one of the fundamental rights of every human being without distinction of race, religion, political belief, economic or social condition 3. The health of all peoples is fundamental to the attainment of peace and security and is dependent upon the fullest co-operation of individuals and States 4. The achievement of any State in the promotion and protection of health is of value to all 9
  10. 10. WHO Principles 5. Unequal development in different countries in the promotion of health and control of disease is a common danger 6. Healthy development of the child is of basic importance for all of humanity 7. The extension to all peoples of the benefits of medical, psychological and related knowledge is essential to the fullest attainment of health 8. Informed opinion and active co-operation on the part of the public are essential for improvement of the health of all 9. Governments have a responsibility for the health of their peoples which can be fulfilled only by the provision of adequate health and social measures 10
  11. 11. WHO Constitution • ACCEPTING THESE PRINCIPLES, the Constitution of the WHO was adopted by all parties to promote and protect the health of all peoples • The Constitution was adopted by the International Health Conference held in New York from 19 June to 22 July 1946, signed on 22 July 1946 by the representatives of 61 States and entered into force on 7 April 1948 • Amendments adopted by the Twenty-sixth, Twenty-ninth, Thirty-ninth and Fifty-first World Health Assemblies (resolutions WHA26.37, WHA29.38, WHA39.6 and WHA51.23) came into force on 3 February 1977, 20 January 1984, 11 July 1994 and 15 September 2005 respectively 11
  12. 12. World Health Organization WHO FUNCTIONS: • Providing Leadership in Matters Related to Health and Engaging in Partnerships when needed • Sharing Research and Data • Setting norms and standards and promoting and monitoring their implementation • Articulating Ethical and Evidence-based Policy Options • Providing Technical Support and Building Sustainable Institutional Capacity • Monitoring Health Situation and Assessing Health Trends 12
  13. 13. GLOBAL POLICY STANDARDS Steward GLOBAL FINANCE ROLES TECHNICAL SUPPORT HS STRENGTHENING 13
  14. 14. Flag of the World Health Organization 14
  15. 15. World Health Organization World Health Organization ‫منظمة الصحة العالمية‬ 世界卫生组织 Organisation mondiale de la santé Всемирная организация здравоохранения Organización Mundial de la Salud Six Official Languages: English Chinese French Arabic Russian Spanish 15
  16. 16. Abbreviations: WHO OMS Formation: 7 April 1948 [World Health Day] Type: Specialized agency of the United Nations Legal status: Active Headquarters: Geneva, Switzerland Current Head/DG: Dr. Margaret Chan Parent organization: United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) Websitewww.who.int 16
  17. 17. Regional Headquarters of WHO  Africa: Brazzaville, Republic of Congo AFRO [includes most of Africa, with the exception of Egypt, Sudan, South Sudan, Tunisia, Libya, Somalia and Morocco (all fall under EMRO)  Europe: Copenhagen, Denmark [includes most of Europe and Israel] EURO  South-East Asia: New Delhi, India SEARO [includes all countries of South-east Asia. Pakistan is under EMRO. North Korea is served by SEARO] 17
  18. 18. Regional Headquarters of WHO  Eastern Mediterranean: Cairo, Egypt EMRO [Includes the countries of Africa that are not included in AFRO, as well as the countries of the Middle East, except for Israel. Pakistan is served by EMRO]  Western Pacific: Manila, Philippines WPRO [Covers all the Asian countries not served by SEARO and EMRO, and all the countries in Oceania. South Korea is served by WPRO]  The Americas: Washington D.C., USA . PAHO [Also known as the Pan American Health 18 Organization (PAHO), and covers the Americas]
  19. 19. World Health Organization WHO: Finance  Core Budget: - Membership Fees from Member States - Membership Fee varies by Financial Status - Largest Contributor: U.S.  Five “big” annual contributors (2012): - U.S. $110 Million - Japan $85 M - Germany $37 M - U.K. $31 M - France $31 M  Special/Project Contribution by bilateral agencies/foundations/donors 19
  20. 20. World Health Organization WHO: Finance  Other interesting annual contributors: - Canada $15 Million - China $14.8 M - Netherlands $ 8.6 M - Australia $ 8.9 M - Italy $23.2 M - Mexico $10.9 M - South Korea $10.5 M - Russia $ 7.4 M - India $ 2.4 M - Brazil $ 7.5 M 20
  21. 21. World Health Organization WHO: Finance  Selected Developing Countries’ annual contributors: - Indonesia $1.1 Million - Iran $1.1 M - Malaysia $1.2 M - Pakistan $ 380,830 - Philippines $ 417,580 - Peru $ 417,980 - Egypt $ 436,560 - Bangladesh $ 46,440 - Tanzania $ 37,160 - Zambia $ 18,580 - Sierra Leone $ 4,650 21
  22. 22. World Health Organization Some Major Special Programs Include: Roll Back Malaria Stop TB Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) EPI Safe Motherhood Other programs on: - Non-communicable Diseases - Research and Training on Tropical Diseases - Mental Health - Road Traffic Safety 22
  23. 23. World Health Organization Special Program/Project Contributions:  Bilateral agencies like USAID, JICA, DfID, NORAD, SIDA, DFATD (Canada), GTZ  Foundations: Bill and Melinda Gates, Rockefeller, Ford, Bloomberg, HP Foundation  Philanthropists: - Ted Turner - Warren Buffett - Li Ka-shing 23
  24. 24. World Health Organization Assessed Membership Contributions CORE BUDGET WHO Finance Special Program Contribution ADDITIONAL FUNDS 24
  25. 25. World Health Organization Finance Issues: CORE Budget is “controlled” by the governing body of WHO – the World Health Assembly It is placed in and approved by the WHA The EB may periodically review the core budget and report to the WHA In other words, the WHA is accountable for the Core Budget 25
  26. 26. World Health Organization Finance Issues: The “additional funding” is for specific specialized / vertical programs and is “controlled” by oversight committee set to oversee such programs “Donors” represent and often dominate such Oversight Committees WHA has little “knowledge” and/or “control” over such special funds 26
  27. 27. World Health Organization Finance Issues:  Since the 1980s, the special funds are increasing more rapidly than the “core” contributions by member states  The core Budget is now only 25% of the total expenditure by the WHO  In short, WHA has little “control” over the greater part of WHO annual expenditure/budget 27
  28. 28. World Health Organization Finance Issues:  For example, the combined 2012-2013 budget proposed a total expenditure of $3.96 Billion  Only $944 Million of this total (24%) is from Assessed Contributions from Member States  In other words, “Voluntary” contributions constituted 76% of the total expenditure  Member states, through the WHA, had control or oversight over only 24% of the total WHO expenditure  Challenge: How to strengthen accountability 28
  29. 29. World Health Organization Other Issues:  HQ versus the Regional Offices: Distribution of power and financial resources  Regionalization of WHO: Myth and Reality  Role of NGOs as partners  Coordination with other UN Agencies  Coordination with Bilateral Agencies  Coordination with Multilateral Organizations especially the World Bank 29
  30. 30. WHO Milestones WHO: Major Milestones: The Alma Ata Declaration of 1978 Promising Health for All (HFA) by 2000 Move to Define and Strengthen Health Systems (2000) Addressing Global Health Workforce Issues: JLI Report, 2004; and WHR 2006 Promoting Universal Health Care (WHR 2010) 30
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