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  • 1. Sweat Equity Enterprises 5 Step Process
  • 2. (SEE ) Curriculum & Guide Table of Contents Introduction ................................................................................................................................. i Step 1 ...........................................................................................................................................1 Activity 1 Brief ............................................................................................................5 Activity 2 Brief ..........................................................................................................11 Activity 3 Brief ..........................................................................................................17 Activity 4 Brief ..........................................................................................................20 Step 2 ...........................................................................................................................................26 Activity 1 Brief ........................................................................................................31 Activity 2 Brief ........................................................................................................38 Activity 3 Brief ........................................................................................................44 Step 3 ...........................................................................................................................................60 Activity 1 Brief ........................................................................................................65 Activity 2 Brief ........................................................................................................70 Activity 3 Brief ........................................................................................................78 Step 4 ...........................................................................................................................................94 Activity 1 Brief ........................................................................................................99 Activity 2 Brief ......................................................................................................105 Activity 3 Brief ......................................................................................................111 Activity 4 Brief ......................................................................................................115 Step 5 ..........................................................................................................................................128 Activity 1 Brief ......................................................................................................133
  • 3. Introduction to SEE Sweat Equity Enterprises What is SEE? In 2004, Sweat Equity Enterprises (SEE) was founded by Marc Ecko to help youth discover their creative and career potenial. SEE builds ground breaking collaborations between youth and industry. SEE is a youth development program where teens participate in hands-on design projects. Youths gain intensive design, technology and professional training as they develop original graphic, product, or apparel designs in collaboration with a company partner. Through the program companies gain a youth perspective that can help shape their brand, products, and marketing while young designers gain a variety of 21st century skills that are transferable not just to school and career but to every aspect of their lives. Past projects have included bags for Marc Ecko Enterprises, graphics for New York Cares and Abada Capoeira, shoes for Sketchers, watches for Callanen/Timex, package design for Dr. Miracles Hair Care Products, skateboards for Zoo York, outerwear for Marc Ecko Enterprises, cars for Nissan and branding for Best Buy and RadioShack. Introduction iii
  • 4. What is SEE’s learning process? Over the course of approximately three to four months, young designers produce original concepts for corporate clients following our methodology below: 5 Step Design Process 1 KICK OFF IDENTIFY DESIGN CHALLENGE INFORMATION GATHERING 2 RESEARCH INSPIRATION CRITIQUE BRAINSTORM 3 CONCEPT DEVELOPMENT CONCEPT REFINEMENT CRITIQUE FINAL CONCEPTS 4 FINAL CONCEPT DEVELOPMENT REVIEW FINALIZE CRITIQUE/FOCUS GROUP FINAL 5 PRESENTATION CLIENT PRESENTATION Introduction iv
  • 5. What are the skills SEE’s students gain? SEE does not intend to make all participants into designers – but rather build on the proven capacity of design education to give them valuable transferable skills that can be used in every area of their lives. In SEE’s 5 Step Design Process students learn, apply, and understand the following skills: Professional: public speaking, project management, time management, Photoshop & Illustrator, information management, market research, and insight into brands & consumer products. Socio-emotional: problem-solving, communication, constructive self and peer criticism, collaboration, and resiliency. Academic: critical thinking, research, business, literacy, and math Constant Reinforcements Constant Reinforcements and facilitate better learning during the 5 Step Design Process. The purpose of the Constant Reinforcements is to build-in skills and understandings our young designers will use and need during Step 5 Final Presentation and in life. By applying these Constant Reinforcements in each step of the design process SEE’s young designers will be consistently: Reading Readings reinforce design understandings and design terminology. Writing Writing reinforces reflection and understanding of readings, research, and design concepts. Discussion Discussions allow SEE’s young designers to develop their oral skills and enhance their understanding of the Design Process. These discussions also prepare our young designers for presentations and design critiques. Visual Visualizing allows SEE’s young designers to use their understandings about design and manifest them in a visual medium. Mediums for visualization include but are not limited to: sketching, Introduction v
  • 6. vector-based software, image-editing software, images, videos, models/prototypes, mood boards, logos, and presentations. Presentation Client presentations and design critiques end every step in the design process. They reinforce oral and visual skills and encourage professionalism. Design Programs Reinforcing design programs during each step within the design process allows SEE’s young designers to become familiar with various tools and techniques. This familiarity with design programs will enable our young designers to be more prepared during the final steps in the design process when the workload heightens. File Preparation File preparation reinforces organization and documentation during the design process. In additon the process of documentation allows students to reference prior learnings. In this Curriculum & Guide you will find Constant Reinforcement boxes on the Activity Brief pages. The Constant Reinforcement boxes include stars on top of each reinforcement to denote its use in the activity. This is a tool to ensure that our young designers are learning the skills they need to complete their projects and prepare them for their lives after SEE. Introduction vi
  • 7. Step 1 Design Challenge 9 hours 30 minutes Step 1
  • 8. Design Challenge Overview Goal: The goal of Step 1 is for SEE’s young designers to fully understand their design challenge. Through research and an initial client presentation young designers begin to explore the client (the company, its products, market, competitors etc.) and develop a better understand- ing of the project demands and constraints. Throughout this phase young designers practice researching, writing, asking questions, giving and receiving feedback, professional etiquette, presentation skills, and working with design software. Understandings: • Students will understand the importance of preparing for meetings including how to research a client. • Students will understand that the first meeting with the client is their opportunity as designers to extract as much information as they can from the client. • Students will understand that professional behavior and preparation are an important part of making a good professional impression on a client. • Students will understand that note-taking, during research and presentations, is an essential part of organization and documentation in the design process. • Students will understand that clients have constraints based on, but not limited to: time, budget, target consumers, target market, etc. • Students will understand that client constraints impact decision making throughout the design process. 2 Step 1
  • 9. Able to Do/Apply: • Conduct research and present their findings to a group. • Extract and document important information from conducting client research and the client presentation. • Analyze their client research, identify gaps, and prepare clarifying questions for the client. • Discuss project details and identify constraints. • Practice giving and receiving feedback to their peers. • Identify key terms for Step 1 (below). Key Terms Brand Market Research Trend Forecast Client Mission Statement Revenue Competitors Product Survey Constraints Professional (ism) Target Market/Audience Consumer Professional Etiquette Time Lines Step 1 3
  • 10. Design Challenge Activities Activity 1 – Preparing for the Client: Research and Meeting Prep Approximately 5 Hours Activity 2 – Presenting Yourself to the Client: Professional Behaviors Approximately 1 Hour 30 Minutes Activity 3 – Client Presentation Approximately 1 Hour Activity 4 – Client Presentation Debrief & Understanding Client Constraints Approximately 2 Hours Step 1
  • 11. Activity 1 Brief Preparing for the Client: Research and Meeting Prep Objectives: Activity Procedural Overview: • Students will understand the importance 1. Discussion: Design Challenge of preparing for the meetings including 2. Developing Research Questions conducting research on a client and their 3. Conducting Research market. 4. Preparing Short Presentations • Students will understand that the initial 5. Reporting Back Key Findings client meeting is their opportunity as 6. Discussion: Activity Debrief and Client designers to extract as much information Questions as they can from the client. Constant Reinforcements Reading Discussion Presentation File Preparation Writing Visual Design Programs Step 1 5
  • 12. Materials for Facilitator: Materials for Students: • Blackboard/poster board • Computer • Markers/chalk • Computer printer • Internet access • Pen or pencil • Sketchbook/journal Prerequisite: Some prior knowledge of word processing, internet navigation. SEE’s Design and Business Foundations. 6 Step 1
  • 13. 1. Discussion: Design Challenge Notes: Approximately 30 minutes Transition into Step 1, Design Challenge, by reviewing the SEE 5 Step Methodology and walking through the goals and objectives of Step 1. Then, briefly introduce the design challenge and the client including: • Purpose of the client presentation • Date and time of presentation - example: 03/07/09 at 11:00 a.m. • Location of presentation - example: classroom conference area Tip Visually displaying the • Attendees (include names and position) presentation details on a - example: Thomas Brown, Senior Vice blackboard or poster sets a President of Merchandising target goal for the students. • Time frame (1 hour minimum) - example: 11 a.m. – 12:00 p.m. This is a good time to initiate a class discussion about how to prepare for the upcoming client meeting/presentation. Discussion points might include: Now that we have been introduced to the project and completed both design and business foundations, what do we need to do to prepare for our first client meeting? What should we know going into the client meeting? How can we get information about a client? Close the discussion by explaining that the students will start preparing for the client presentation by conducting research. 2. Developing Research Questions Approximately 30 minutes Assign students into research teams of two. Each pair will write a total of 20 research questions on the topics below (approximately 5 questions per topic): • Client’s identity, logo, personality, products and brand • Client’s market, competitors, market/ Tip industry trends Sending an e-mail to the client • Client’s target market/demographic (i.e. with questions will also help the typical consumer, who buys it?) the client prepare for their • Client’s costs, revenues, profits presentation. Below are some sample questions to provide to students. • What is the company’s brand and logo? What does it represent? • What words are used to describe the brand? • What makes their brand different from other brands? Step 1 Activity 1 7
  • 14. Notes: • Who is the company’s target market? Why? • Does the company set or follow consumer trends? • Are they innovative? If so, how (materials, color choices, design, their message)? • In what areas are their products sold? Why these areas? • What stores sell the most products? Where? • What is the average price of their primary products? Why? • Where do they manufacture their products? • Who are the company’s competitors? • Where do the competing brands sell their products? • What are the competing brands best sellers? • What is the average price points for competitor’s products? Why? 3. Conducting Research Approximately 2 hours Student teams should conduct research using the internet (looking at the client’s website, articles, ads etc.) trying to find as many answers as possible to their 20 questions. Students will likely have unanswered questions, which is okay. This will lead them to understand that the client meeting is an opportunity to fill in these research gaps. Students will give a short presentation to the class of their research. Note: The facilitator should walk around the room and provide guidance to students as needed. Students should print out relevant information and articles, take notes in their journal, and print out any visual aids (budgets, pictures of products, logos, etc.) that would be helpful in their presentation. 4. Preparing Short Presentations Approximately 1 hour Students will create a presentation (approximately five minutes in length) to share five key findings that they have learned from researching. Presentations should include student drawings, pictures, charts, and other visuals or print-outs that they collected during their research phase. This exercise is a practice in presentation skills, therefore the content for the actual presentation can be open- ended. Students could report key findings from their research or other interesting facts that they learned about the client’s business. Some options might include creating a poster with information, making a collage, or creating a slide presentation. Ask students to 8 Step 1 Activity 1
  • 15. take a couple of minutes to rehearse for their presentation. Notes: 5. Reporting Back Key Findings Approximately 30 minutes The students will come together in a round-table to present their key findings to the group. Each pair should be allocated about five minutes. Groups that are not presenting should take notes on information being presented by other groups and ask clarifying questions. 6. Discussion: Activity Debrief and Client Questions Approximately 30 minutes After the presentations are complete transition the class into a conversation on how the initial client meeting is an opportunity for designers to extract as much information as they can from their client. Open the discussion by asking: What questions were you not able to get answers to? Point out that although students found a great deal of information on the internet, they still have many unanswered questions. Students will have the opportunity to fill in these gaps in their research by asking the client these questions during their meeting. Together as a group, the class will compile a list of unanswered questions (since there will probably be duplicates). Help facilitate which questions should be included on the list for the client meeting discussing why they need to know the information. Consider assigning specific questions to students (or teams) to ask during the client meeting to ensure the information is collected and to give students practice interacting with the client in a business meeting. Note: The facilitator will send in these questions to the client prior to the client presentation. Finally, summarize all they have accomplished in Activity 1 and congratulate the students on a job well done. Step 1 Activity 1 9
  • 16. Resources Marc Ecko Enterprises Marc Ecko Blog www.marceckoenterprises.com www.beingmarcecko.com Ecko Brazil www.ecko.com.br Ecko Unlimited - Brazil www.ecko.com.br/sobre-comm.php 10 Step 1 Activity 1
  • 17. Activity 2 Brief Presenting Yourself to the Client: Professional Behaviors Objectives: Activity Procedural Overview: • Students will understand that This activity should be conducted before professional behavior (attitudes, the client presentation. communication, dress, timeliness, etc.) and preparation (work space cleanliness, 1. Role Playing: Behavioral Scenarios equipment and materials) are an 2. Group Discussion on Role Playing important part of creating a good Scenarios professional impression when meeting 3. Debrief: Professional Etiquette with a client. Constant Reinforcements Reading Discussion Presentation File Preparation Writing Visual Design Programs Step 1 11
  • 18. Materials for Facilitator: Materials for Students: • Props for role playing scenarios • Markers • Poster board • Pen or pencil • Sketchbook/journal Prerequisite: N/A 12 Step 1
  • 19. 1. Role Playing: Behavioral Scenarios Notes: Approximately 30 minutes Note: In this activity, the facilitator will introduce students to the concept of professional behavior through role-playing. The facilitator may want to line up a volunteer or intern ahead of time to help conduct the role-playing exercise. Students can be included in these role-playing activities. During the role playing exercise the students should write down their observations of the characters, room, etc. Observations are not opinions but rather what the students see. Act out examples of both nonprofessional and professional etiquette for example, posture, attitude, communication, dress, timeliness, room cleanliness and technology readiness. Possible scenarios might include: Posture • Slouching - unprofessional Sitting up- professional • Leaning head on hand or on the table - unprofessional Keeping head up and paying attention to speaker(s) - professional Attitudes • Frowning, sighing, grunting, sneering - unprofessional Smiling, making eye-contact, being friendly, acting positive - professional Gestures • Not greeting a client/and or introducing oneself – unprofessional • Shaking a client’s hand - professional • Waving arms around to answer or ask a question - unprofessional • Hand raised up high for everyone to see - professional • Whispering with peers, kicking peers under the table - unprofessional • Active listening, ignoring distractions from peers - professional Communication • Wandering eyes - unprofessional • Eye contact, active listening - professional • Interrupting the client, other peers, and/or the facilitator - unprofessional • Waiting until the speaker is finished - professional • Mumbling, talking to the ground – unprofessional • Speaking clearly and loudly to the group - professional Step 1 Activity 2 13
  • 20. Notes: Dress • Dressing sloppy, wearing untucked shirts or revealing clothes – unprofessional • Neat, clean attire - professional Timeliness • Arriving late- unprofessional • Arriving early- professional • Starting meetings late and without a plan – unprofessional • Following an organized meeting agenda & starting and concluding on time – professional Meeting Room/Workspace Preparation • Leaving chairs in an unorganized manner all over the room - unprofessional • Planning the seating arrangements prior to arrival - professional • Cluttered, unorganized tables and/or workspaces - unprofessional • Clean, organized tables - professional 2. Group Discussion on Role Playing Scenarios Approximately 30 minutes Together as a group, create a list of professional behaviors on a poster to be used for reinforcement before each client meeting and professional presentation. A student or facilitator can record the behaviors as the class calls them out and discusses them. Discuss the understandings students have gained. Leading questions could include: • Think about a time when acting professionally was important. • Can you recall your behavior? • Did your behavior affect the outcome of the situation? Assignment: Have students read the meeting preparation articles in the resource section. Students should think about where and how they can practice using these tips by taking notes in their sketchbooks. Sample answers are: we can practice active listening in our discussion groups or in school; or we can have better eye contact with adults. • What could you have done to act in a more professional manner? 14 Step 1 Activity 2
  • 21. • Why is being aware of your behavior important? Notes: 3. Debrief: Professional Etiquette Approximately 20 minutes Together in a group, students share their notes and findings to the entire group in a round robin setting. This activity takes place at the start of the next class since students have homework. Step 1 Activity 2 15
  • 22. Resources “Etiquette for Meeting People in Business,” Lydia Ramsey http://www.hodu.com/meeting-etiquette.shtml “How to Prepare for Running an Effective Business Meeting,” Jo Schlegel, Editor- in-Chief, Salary.com http://www.salary.com/personal/layoutscripts/psnl_articles.asp?tab=psn&cat=cat0 11&ser=ser034&part=par383 16 Activity 2
  • 23. Activity 3 Brief Client Presentation Objectives: Activity Procedural Overview: • Students will be presented with their 1. Client Presentation design challenge directly from the client. 2. Client Question and Answer • Students will ask questions unanswered from their initial client & market research. • Students will understand project constraints. Constant Reinforcements Reading Discussion Presentation File Preparation Writing Visual Design Programs Step 1 17
  • 24. Materials for Facilitator: Materials for Students: • Blackboard or poster paper • Pen or pencil • Sketchbook/journal Prerequisite: N/A 18 Step 1
  • 25. 1. Client Presentation Notes: Approximately 30 minutes The goal of this activity is to introduce the design Tip Students should be challenge to the students. The client will prepare a reminded to take notes 30-minute presentation and leave an additional 30 throughout the client minutes for question and answers from the students. presentation and during the question and answer session. The client presentation should include: • Design Challenge goals and time line. • Company information like company culture, target market, sales, competitors, trends, key products (related to the project) etc. • Client project constraints (time, budget, patterns, cost). These constraints must be defined by the client. The client should also be prepared to address all or some of the sample questions sent in preparation for the meeting: • What is the company’s brand and logo? What does it represent? • What words are used to describe the brand? • What makes their brand different from other brands? • Who is the company’s target market? Why? • Does the company set or follow consumer trends? • Are they innovative? If so, how (materials, color choices, design, their message)? • In what areas are their products sold? Why these areas? • What stores sell the most products? Where? • What is the average price of their primary products? Why? • Where do they manufacture their products? • Who are the company’s competitors? • Where do the competing brands sell their products? • What are the competing brands best sellers? • What are the competing average price points for their product etc? Why? • Where does the company see themselves in two years from now? Five years? 2. Client Question and Answer Approximately 30 minutes At the end of the client presentation, students will have 30 minutes to ask their prepared research questions (Activity 1). Step 1 Activity 3 19
  • 26. Activity 4 Brief Client Presentation Debrief & Understanding Client Constraints Objectives: Activity Procedural Overview: • Students will understand that clients This activity should be conducted after have constraints based on but not limited the client presentation. to: time, budget, target market, etc. • Students will understand that 1. Client Presentation Review prioritizing and setting client constraints 2. Client Constraints Discussion will impact decision making throughout 3. Prioritizing Client Constraints the design process. Constant Reinforcements Reading Discussion Presentation File Preparation Writing Visual Design Programs 20 Step 1
  • 27. Materials for Facilitator: Materials for Students: • Blackboard or poster paper • Pen or pencil • Sketchbook/journal Prerequisite: N/A Step 1 21
  • 28. Notes: 1. Client Presentation Review Approximately 15 minutes Debrief after the client presentation to reinforce the importance of client preparation and professional etiquette. This is also a good time for students to talk about their experience meeting with the client. Questions to ask students during this discussion might include: • What new information did we learn from the client? • What about your questions? Did you get them all answered? • How will we use this new information? • Do you feel like we acted in a professional manner? Give examples. 2. Client Constraints Discussion Approximately 15 minutes Although students will have a sense of constraints from their research and from the client presentation, constraints are generally a new concept for students and they will need to be guided through this process. For example, throughout this activity students have started to work with schedules and dates. This concept of time management can lead to a discussion of time as a key constraint. The discussion should then transition into client constraints. Leading questions might include: • What is a client constraint? • What constraints, or limits, must we consider for our design project? • What do we need to know before moving on to the next step within the design process? Then ask the students to brainstorm client constraints to consider for their design project, taking into account their research and the information gathered in the client presentation. Record them on the board. Client constraints include but are not limited to: time, material costs, target consumer, color, patterns, sale price, types of materials, brand identity, etc. 22 Step 1 Activity 4
  • 29. Notes: 3. Prioritizing Client Constraints Approximately 1 hour 20 minutes Break students into groups of three or four. Have them prioritize and add to the list of client constraints (recorded on the board during the discussion). In these groups, students should discuss and debate why one constraint is a higher priority than the others. Ask students to think about the project details they Tip An example of prioritizing client learned during their research and the client constraints is the client has deter- presentation. Then, they should record mined a price range for the product. On the other hand, the client has a prioritized list of client constraints to also informed the students that the share with the group. (30 minutes) time line is lenient. Since the price is crucial to the client it becomes a Each group will then present their client higher priority than time. constraint list to the group (5-10 minutes per group), explaining their decisions to the class. This list can use color, lists, arrows, boxes, and other visuals to explain how the group came to their decision. (30 minutes) The students’ lists will be vote on, compiled into one client constraint list, and shared with the client (these lists can be e-mailed by the facilitator after the activity). The client should provide feedback (via e-mail or phone) to the facilitator on the students proposed constraints, setting priorities and adding any additional constraints that the young designers should keep in mind as they develop their projects. Once an agreement has been made on priorities, expectations to uphold and meet these from both sides of the party will be set. E-mail the client to thank them for their visit, summarizing the understanding of constraints. Step 1 Activity 4 23
  • 30. Key Terms TERM DEFINITION Brand Unique design, sign, symbol, words, or a combination of these, used to create an image that identifies a product and differentiates it from its competitors. Over time, this image becomes associated with a level of credibility, quality, and satisfaction in the consumer’s mind. Thus brands help consumers make decisions in a crowded and complex marketplace by standing for certain benefits and value. Client A person or group that uses the professional advice or service of an expert. Competitors A company in the same industry or a similar industry which offers a similar product or service. Constraints Limitations or restrictions. Consumer A person who purchases goods or services from another; buyer. Market Actual or conceptual place in the commercial world where buyers and sellers interact to trade goods or services for money or barter. Mission A summary describing the aims, values, and overall plan of an organization or Statement individual. Product A commodity offered for sale; anything that is offered to a market that customers can acquire, use, interact with, experience, or consume, to satisfy a want or need. Products can include services, people, places, and ideas. Professional The skill, competence, or standards expected of a member of a profession, (ism) as distinguished from an amateur. Professional The code of ethical behavior regarding professional practice or action among the Etiquette members of a profession in their dealings with each other. 24 Step 1 Key Terms
  • 31. Research Diligent and systematic inquiry or investigation into a subject in order to discover or revise facts, theories, applications, etc. Target Market/ Goal consumer. Audience/ Consumer Time Line A linear representation of important events in the order in which they occurred or will occur; a schedule; a timetable. Trends The movement in a particular direction of a variable over a period of time; style; vogue. Trend Forecast To predict a future condition or occurrence; to calculate in advance of a trend. Key Terms Step 1 Key Terms 25
  • 32. 26 Step 2
  • 33. Step 2 Research & Inspiration 12 hours 30 minutes Step 2
  • 34. Research and Inspiration Overview Goal: The goal of Step 2, Research and Inspiration, is for students to gain a deeper understanding of the project by gathering and analyzing market research (including the client information, target consumers, product research, trends, etc.). Students will also learn how to find inspiration for creating preliminary design concepts. Understandings: • Students will understand that by conducting thorough market research (target consumers, competitive market, etc.) and analyzing this research, they will find patterns and trends that will help them understand how to design for their client’s target consumer. • Students will understand that by gaining a deeper understanding of their target market (competitors, consumers, trends), they will be able to design a marketable, sell-able, and innovative product. • Students will understand that through inspiration they can stimulate their own creativity. • Students will understand that inspiration follows no guidelines; they can choose how and where they find inspiration. • Students will understand that gaining a deeper knowledge of the marketplace will help them formulate clearer ideas on how to continue to gather inspiration. 28 Step 2
  • 35. Able to Do/Apply: • Know and apply different research methods. • Conduct market research. • Collect, prepare, present and discuss information about a client’s market. • Conduct a market analysis by reviewing information collected and identifying trends and patterns in the market research. • Create, discuss and present mood boards based on inspirations. • Make connections from their market research and use that to inform their inspiration. Key Terms Primary Research Inspiration Market Segmentation Market Research (Field Research) Secondary Research Survey (Desk Research) Step 2 29
  • 36. Research and Inspiration Activities Activity 1 – First Stage of Research- Information Gathering Approximately 7 Hours 40 Minutes Activity 2 – Market Analysis Approximately 1 Hour 40 Minutes Activity 3 – Inspiration for Innovation Approximately 3 Hours Step 2
  • 37. Activity 1 Brief First Stage of Research- Information Gathering Objectives: Activity Procedural Overview: • Students will research and understand 1. Introduction to Step 2 & Market the elements of their client’s Research marketplace (company brand, target 2. Research: Primary and Secondary consumer, competitors, trends, target Sources market-demographic, geography) and 3. Research Plan how they inform the design process. 4. Conduct Research • Students will understand that gaining 5. Debrief: Visual Presentation Market a deeper understanding of their target Research market will enable them to design a marketable, sell-able, and innovative product. Constant Reinforcements Reading Discussion Presentation File Preparation Writing Visual Design Programs Step 2 31
  • 38. Materials for Facilitator: Materials for Students: • Blackboard/poster or board/chart paper • Computer • Markers/chalk • Internet access • Magazines • Pen or pencil • Internet • Sketchbook/journal • Chart paper • Markers • Magazines • Adobe Illustrator or other vector design program Prerequisite: Completed Step 1 Design Challenge, Business Foundations, Design Software Foundations. 32 Step 2
  • 39. 1. Introduction to Step 2 & Market Research Notes: Approximately 10 minutes Introduce Step 2 by sharing over arching goals and objectives of this step. During Step 2 students should gain a deeper understanding of the project by gathering market research from secondary sources (e.g. the Internet) and conducting primary research, such as interviewing and observation. They will also learn how to analyze their research and look for trends and how to use their research to inform their design inspiration. The primary goal of market research is to find a real need in the market and come up with a product or service to fulfill it. Market Tip research is comprised of: It is beneficial to break down the activities in Step 2 for students so they will be able 1. Marketplace research: to apply the design process outside of SEE identification of a specific market and speak to it during their presentations. and measurement of its size and other determining characteristics. 2. Product research: identification of a need or want in the market and identifying a good or service that will satisfy that need. 3. Consumer research: identification of the preferences, motivations, and buying behavior of the targeted customer. You may use this list as a starting point and to keep students on track during their research collecting. The information collected through market research is a critical step in the design process, because it provides the information that designers need to create marketable, sellable, and innovative products. 2. Research: Primary and Secondary Sources Approximately 15 minutes Before the students get into market research they should have an idea of the different sources of research (primary and secondary) and how to conduct various methods of research. Distribute a copy of the Resource Sources handout. Handout 1: Research Sources Using the Research Sources handout, take 10 minutes to review each mode of research with the students. Students can take turns reading the definitions out loud from the handout while you briefly explain Step 2 Activity 1 33
  • 40. Notes: each one in more detail, giving examples. The students might realize that most existing sources of research (secondary research) can be found on the Internet, which is a powerful research tool. If the students do not make that connection, you can make it for them. If the students do not have internet access, the best way to gather information about something is to go directly to the source using primary research techniques. Transition the class into creating research plans by explaining to students that most market research is collected from primary research. This includes direct observation of the consumers (for example, in retail stores), surveys, interviews, focus groups, and conducting field tests. Let the students know that they will primarily be using “interviewing” and “observation” when they conduct their market research site visit. 3. Research Plan Approximately 45 minutes Although students will continue to gather market research using secondary research (the Internet, ads, etc.) They will also make a site visit to store(s) and/or shopping area to conduct primary research. The students will explore their topics primarily through interviews (e.g. target consumer) and observation (e.g. product research and trends) during this step. Divide the class into four groups (Groups 1- 4). Once they are in groups have the students assign themselves the roles of: Facilitator - Leads the group and encourages everyone to stay focused and on task. Presenter - Presents the findings to class, could be more than one student. Note Taker - Takes notes, or consolidates information, could be more than one student. Time Keeper - Manages time and makes sure group is on time. Assign teams one of the following topics (two teams will research the topic): • Target Consumers/Target Market • Products and Trends Research Students will be able to conduct market research more effectively with clear research targets and a plan. Therefore, providing sample questions will help students gather the information they will need to conduct a market analysis later on in Step 2. Explain that they will use 34 Step 2 Activity 1
  • 41. questions from the Elements of the Marketplace handout to help guide them in Notes: their research. Handout 2A & B: Elements of the Marketplace, Research Questions Give students a few minutes to read over all the questions, ask clarifying questions, and to begin thinking about how they are going to approach getting their questions answered (i.e. What types of primary and secondary research sources). To get the most out their site visits, students will make a research plan. Hand out Developing a Research Plan for guidance. Give the groups 10 minutes to brainstorm how they will accomplish the tasks listed in Handout 3. Encourage them to write them on a board, journal, or paper. Handout 3: Developing a Research Plan Don’t forget to leave time for the students to use the Internet to assist with their planning and to conduct some preliminary research. The facilitator will have the students come together and quickly share their plan and, in a sentence or two, explain how they will approach their research. 4. Conduct Research Approximately 2 hours 30 minutes Select a location to conduct a site visit (shopping area, mall, etc.) during the next class, where students can conduct their primary research. Ideally Groups 1 and 2 would conduct their consumer interviews while Groups 2 and 4 are conducting their product and trends research. Students might need guidance conducting their interviews, surveys, or focus groups. Tip • Students researching consumer This activity could take 2-3 days, or trends should aim for around 10 – 15 more. It is advised that some of the interviews. research be given as an assignment to be done after the class as homework. • Students researching products and trends should visit approximately 4-6 stores to ensure variety. Step 2 Activity 1 35
  • 42. Notes: 5. Debrief: Visual Presentation Market Research Approximately 4 hours Have students convene in their research groups to develop a short presentation of their survey findings. It is important that the students practice visually organizing their information as simply and clearly as possible. In the next activity, other groups will also refer to the information they have gathered. • 4 hours for group to develop their short presentations. • 5-10 minutes for each group to quickly explain their presentations. • 5-10 minutes for a warm and cool feedback session. 36 Step 2 Activity 1
  • 43. Resources Conduct Market Research http://www.entrepreneur.com/12weekstostartup/week2/index.html How to Identify a Target Market http://hubpages.com/hub/How-To-Identify-a-Target-Market&usg=__EN- WPhEYn_rr1pztt_BloWNpqL3o=&h=383&w=260&sz=12&hl=en&start=1 5&um=1&tbnid=2c8yitaJfvlCNM:&tbnh=123&tbnw=83&prev=/images%3 Fq%3Dtarget%2Bmarket%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26client%3Dfirefox- a%26rls%3Dorg.mozilla:en-US:official%26sa%3DN Checklist of Internet Research http://www.internettutorials.net/checklist.html Creating a Research Plan http://pblmm.k12.ca.us/PBLGuide/Activities/BeginningResearch.html Step 2 Activity 1 37
  • 44. Activity 2 Brief Market Analysis Objectives: Activity Procedural Overview: • Students will understand that by 1. Making Connections in Research analyzing their market research, they 2. What did we find? will find patterns and trends that will 3. Share Findings help them understand the marketplace. • Understanding the marketplace will help students make decisions in their design projects. • Students will understand that knowing their client and the marketplace will help them formulate clearer ideas on where and how to gather design inspiration. Constant Reinforcements Reading Discussion Presentation File Preparation Writing Visual Design Programs 38 Step 2
  • 45. Materials for Facilitator: Materials for Students: • Blackboard/poster board • Markers • Markers • Poster board or chart paper • Timer (Watch) • Pen or pencil • Sketchbook/journal • Computer • Computer printer • Computer scanner • Sticky notes/Post-its Prerequisite: Design Software Foundations, Design Foundations: Introduction to Brainstorming, Step 1. Step 2 39
  • 46. Notes: 1. Making Connections in Research Approximately 30 minutes Now that students have gathered a lot of great information, they need to take some time to think about and understand their market research before moving on to concept development. Research should be analyzed to look for similarities or trends in data. At this time, the class should divide up into their research groups and examine their research for patterns and trends. In other words, students want to find instances that occur over and over again. An example of a pattern may be: Tip • 5 out of 20 consumer’s favorite colors are red. The facilitator may want to write all of these examples on a blackboard or poster • All of the competitors are trendsetters. board, communicate them to the class •15 out of 20 consumers break dance. and/or hand out a copy of these examples to the students. From these findings we can roughly conclude that using red in our designs would be appealing to consumers, we might want to incorporate break dancing or related graphics into the design, and that we should be looking to innovate and set new trends. The students will not only want to look for trends in their research, but also should note things that stand out or are out of the ordinary. They should look for things that may be unique to the client’s consumer culture or subculture (market segmentation). For example, a company’s market segment might be made up of a range of consumers, including skateboarders, hip-hop gurus, and break dancers. This finding could also be connected to a finding about the company’s competitors who, for example, may have a subculture of consumers who are only hip-hop gurus. The ability of the students to discern between the two types of subcultures within the client versus their competitors will allow the students to focus on a wider range of consumers. Walk around and assist the students with making these types of pattern connections from their research. 2. What did we find? Approximately 1 hour Continuing in their groups, students should then analyze their 40 Step 2 Activity 2
  • 47. cumulative research and begin making connections. This includes reviewing the Notes: research they collected in Step 1: Design Challenge (internet research, client meeting information) and market research from Step 2, all of which should be documented in their sketchbooks. Students should note where information overlaps, contradicts, is new, etc. For example, the client told the students that their typical consumer is between the ages of 14 and 30, but in their consumer research they found out that 12 and 13 year olds also like buying and wearing the client’s brand. These pieces of information, together, build a clearer picture of their actual target consumer: someone between the ages of 12-30. During this step, students also should focus in on a few primary trends (e.g. colors, patterns) or needs (style, new product) they have identified in their cumulative research and which they want to incorporate in their designs. Examples might include: interviews and product research revealed that consumers like certain types of graphics that the client hasn’t been using in their products so far (noted in their Internet research). Or, the client has been using black on white (noted in their Internet research) and the competitor has been using white on black (noted in online research and in observation) and consumers seem to like that better (noted from interviews); that might lead to incorporating white on black into their design. Each group member will share their research (from Step 1 and Step 2) around a large table. Have group members examine all the research and document their connections or findings in their sketchbooks. By this point in the design process, they should know how to organize information in a visually pleasing and comprehensive way. Students will map their trends and make research conclusions by using charts (see Resources for a link to chart options). Provide students with an explanation about various chart purposes so they can understand how and when to use charts. For example, flow charts are great for explaining how a product is typically used. Although the students are working in groups, you want them to individually make and document their own connections and observations. 3. Share Findings Approximately 10 minutes Next, have students share two things they felt stood out from the complete research by writing them on a blackboard or poster. Let the students know that it’s okay if some of these connections are the Step 2 Activity 2 41
  • 48. Notes: same. Make sure students are specific and only write two things. Students should record the group’s list in their journals for reference. Emphasize to students that they should take their list of connections (trends, findings, observations) they made from their market research into consideration when designing. This list along with the inspiration they gather will be what the students will refer to during the design process, so they can create designs that are unique but also marketable. 42 Step 2 Activity 2
  • 49. Resources Charts http://www.sdcoe.k12.ca.us/score/actbank/torganiz.htm Step 2 Activity 2 43
  • 50. Activity 3 Brief Inspiration for Innovation Objectives: Activity Procedural Overview: • Students will understand that 1. Inspiration Warm-Up inspiration can stimulate their own 2. Discussion: What is Inspiration? design creativity. 3. Sketching Graphic Inspiration • Students will understand that to find 4. Mood Boards inspiration they have to be willing to 5. Critique look at things from different angles and perspectives. • Students will understand that inspiration follows no guidelines; they can choose how and where they find inspiration. • Students will create, discuss and present mood boards. Constant Reinforcements Reading Discussion Presentation File Preparation Writing Visual Design Programs 44 Step 2
  • 51. Materials for Facilitator: Materials for Students: • Blackboard or poster paper • Chart paper • Markers • Sketchbook/journal • Computer • Markers • Internet Access • Pen or pencil • Whistle • Computer • Internet access • Adobe Illustrator or other vector design program • Adobe Photoshop or other image editor design program Prerequisite: Design Foundations: 2-D Design, Design Software Foundations. Step 2 45
  • 52. Notes: 1. Inspiration Warm-Up Approximately 20 minutes Note - This activity can also be done in groups or as a class. Ask the students to look around the room and list as many objects as they can that resemble or are shaped like something else. Have them write down the name of the object, make a very quick sketch of what the object resembles, then after the sketch, write out what it resembles. This could be done in their sketchbooks or on a large piece of paper. To do this activity in groups, divide the students into groups of four or more using a method that works for you (counting off etc.). Assign the roles of facilitator, note taker, presenter and time keeper. The facilitator makes sure that their group is staying focused and on task and encourages their team to list as many ideas as possible. The note taker(s) will list and sketch items on paper. The time keeper should make sure the group stays on time. The presenter(s) presents their group’s work to the class (approximately two minutes per group). Give the students 10 minutes to brainstorm items and 5 – 8 minutes to share their lists with the class. If doing this activity as a class, it is important for you to facilitate as much as possible; the students often get excited and things could get chaotic. To help, you can enlist a couple of students to help you facilitate. Assign the role of note taker to at least four students. The note takers will list and sketch objects while the rest of the class offers suggestions and observe. Assign the role of time keeper to one student. Give the students 10 minutes to list and sketch objects and 5 minutes to discuss as a group. Commend the students for a job well done. 46 Step 2 Activity 3
  • 53. Notes: 2. Discussion: What is Inspiration? Approximately 20 minutes Kick off the discussion by asking the students: Why do you think you did this activity? Generally, at least one student will answer, “to learn about inspiration,” or something along those lines. Explain that sometimes to find inspiration you have to look at things in different ways and from different angles, look in places you did not think about before, and at times force yourself to think about things from a different perspective. Then, introduce a discussion about inspiration using the following prompts: • What is inspiration? • Where does inspiration come from? • How do you get inspired? • Why is it important to get inspired in the design process? Inspiration is important in this step of the design process because it stimulates creativity in designers and helps them begin to shape possible design concepts. The students do not have to understand this connection fully yet since they will experience it as they go through the design process. However, the following handout will help further their understanding of the relationship between inspiration and design. Give the students 2-3 minutes to read Handout 4, then continue the class discussion on inspiration. Handout 4: Inspiration, To Be or Not to Be? Some of the understandings you want the students to get out of the reading are: • Their own understanding of inspiration. • Inspiration is everywhere. • Anything can inspire them. • Sometimes they have to seek out inspiration, while other times inspiration just comes to them. This is a good time to show the students examples of designs of all kinds (not just objects that are inspiring or have been inspired by other things.) You can choose three blogs or web sites that you feel show inspiration and ask the students what they think inspired the designers. You can approach this how you best feel fit, the students will make Step 2 Activity 3 47
  • 54. Notes: the connection that designers can get inspired and find inspiration everywhere and with anything. Here are two websites that have great suggestions on where and how to find inspiration: http://www.howdesign.com/article/worldinspiration/ http://www.37signals.com/svn/archives2/finding_fresh_inspiration.php 3. Sketching Graphic Inspiration Approximately 1 hour 15 minutes This next step requires that you take the students to an active open area, such as a park or an interesting neighborhood. Of course, it is very important to think about safety first, so do this during a time when you can keep an eye on all the students. While they are outside, have the students draw as many thumbnail sketches as they can of graphic elements and other things inspired by their surroundings (graphic elements were covered in 2-D Design Foundations and a brief review might be helpful). If a site visit is not possible, the alternative would be to show the students videos or images on a projector or computer and have them draw sketches. During this step, students should rapidly sketch out as many ideas as possible and also record what inspired their sketch(s). Students should take no more than 30 to 60 seconds per sketch, filling at least one or two pages in their sketchbook. Next to each sketch, the student should write what inspired their drawing. The instructor can use a whistle to pace the students. Explain to the students that the sketch does not have to always look like the source of inspiration. Encourage the students to really try to look at their surrounding in different ways, exploring the shapes and patterns of objects and what these shapes and patterns might look like if they were to merge. What would smells (both good and bad) look like if they were to sketch them out? The point here is to extract inspiration from anything and everything, even things that can’t be seen. It is up to them to interpret their inspiration in a quick visual sketch. Tip If the students have access to a digital camera or by Explain to the students that the purpose of this using their cell phones they can take pictures of the exercise was to have them things inspire them and can attempt to interpret the ideas that are being inspired in them with images. find inspiration from their Students should still make an attempt to sketch out surroundings so they can at least one page of thumbnails. This will help them improve their concept development skills. come up with innovative designs. They are drawing inspiration not only from the research they conducted on the current market place but also their environment. In addition, they will be able to come back to this inspiration if they need to re-inspire themselves in Step 4 Final 48 Step 2 Activity 3
  • 55. Concept Development. Notes: 4. Mood Boards Approximately 1 hour The students will now create mood boards that reflect their research (from Steps 1 and 2) and their inspiration from the previous exercise. When students create their mood boards they should not develop complete concepts but instead focus on a feeling or mood that they want to convey to their target consumers. It is important for students to understand that their mood board(s) should also reflect their research connections and inspiration(s). Handout 5: Mood Boards Using the handout to guide them, students should create two digital mood boards that convey two different moods or directions. Note: Students should create two mood boards per project. For example, if they are designing two hats or shirts they should make four mood boards, three hats, six mood boards, etc. Students will use image editor and vector design programs to create their mood boards. They should have prior experience using these programs from Design Software Foundations including how to scan, crop, use the image editor, and lay out images using a vector program. If there is a scanner students can take images from books, newspapers, and magazines cut them out and scan them into an image editor program. Have them crop the images to 1” x 1” squares (the smallest) and 2” x 2” (the biggest). An alternate way to do mood boards, if students have not had enough experience with the design software programs, is to make them on 8.5” x 11” sheets of paper using magazines and newspaper cutouts. These can be scanned onto the computer to create digital copies. Encourage the students to go back to their sketches and draw inspiration from these as well. 5. Critique Approximately 30 minutes Step 2 Activity 3 49
  • 56. Notes: Have the students present their mood boards to the group, explaining what mood or feeling they were trying to communicate. Make sure the students provide both warm and cool feedback to one another. For example, warm feedback would be that the images on the mood board collectively communicate the desired mood. Cool feedback would be that the mood board is not organized well. If a mood board does not effectively convey the mood the student was trying to com- municate he or she should go back and make changes after the critique is over. Students should refer back to their mood boards as they begin to develop their concepts to see if their designs have captured the mood or feeling they set out to capture. 50 Step 2 Activity 3
  • 57. Resources Ways to Find Inspiration http://www.howdesign.com/article/worldinspiration/ http://www.37signals.com/svn/archives2/finding_fresh_inspiration.php Step 2 Activity 3 51
  • 58. Key Terms TERM DEFINITION Inspiration A burst of creativity in an artistic, musical, or other intellectual endeavor. Marketing or Discovery research conducted to understand and measure a marketplace Market comprised of: Research 1. Marketplace research: identification of a specific market and measurement of its size and other determining characteristics. 2. Product research: identification of a need or want in the market and identifying a good or service that will satisfy that need. 3. Consumer research: identification of the preferences, motivations, and buying behavior of the targeted customer. Companies collect some market information through secondary research compiled from other sources that appear applicable to a new or existing product. Most marketing research is collected from direct observation of the consumers (such as in retail stores), surveys, interviews, focus groups, field tests conducted or tailored specifically to that product. The main objective is to find a real need in the market and fulfill it. Market A market segment is a subgroup of people or organizations sharing one or more Segment characteristics that cause them to have similar product and/or service needs. Primary Conducting research that requires one to extract the information directly from Research the source. Information that is gathered has not been published or distributed in (Field any way. This can be done through numerous forms, including but not limited to, Research) surveys, interviews, focus groups, or observation. Secondary Involves the summary, collation and/or synthesis of existing research. Research (Desk Research) Survey Detailed study of a market to gather data on attitudes, impressions, opinions, (Marketing) satisfaction level, etc., by polling a section of the population. Key Terms 52 Step 2 Key Terms
  • 59. Handout 1: Research Sources Primary Research sources (non-existing) require one to extract the information directly from the source. Information that is gathered has not been published or distributed in any way. Primary Research Sources (non-existing): 1. Interview - an interview is a structured conversation between two or more people where questions are asked by the interviewer to obtain information from the interviewee. 2. Survey – an investigation or examination of the opinions or experience of a group of people based on a series of questions. 3. Questionnaire – a set of printed or written questions with a choice of answers created for the purpose of a survey or statistical study. 4. Focus Group – a group of people who are asked questions to gauge their attitudes towards a product, service, concept, advertisement, idea, or packaging. During a focus group participants are free to talk with other group members. 5. Observation – the action of or process of taking note of, or detecting carefully, the qualities and characteristics in something or someone. Secondary Research sources (existing) have been gathered by another group and published. This information has already been extracted by another group and presented in someway. Some secondary sources may not be current. Secondary Research Sources (existing): 1. Print - magazines, books, newspapers, brochures, ads 2. Media - video, movies, tv, music 3. Images - photos, ads, logos 4. Internet - (All of the above) as well as company websites, blogs, online video sites (You Tube), social networking sites (MySpace, FaceBook), user forums, etc. It is important to use both sources of research to ensure information is up to date, fill in gaps in both methods and to gain multiple perspectives. Step 2 Handouts 53
  • 60. Handout 2A: Elements of the Marketplace Research Questions 1. Target Consumers – Understand the typical consumer by exploring their interests, age group, behaviors, lifestyle, and shopping/buying patterns. Sample Consumer Interview/Survey Questions • What do you do for fun? • What things excite you at the moment? • What is important to you? Family? Friends? Cars? Money? Clubbing? Why? • What kind of music do you listen to? Why? What is your favorite music artist? • What TV shows do you like? What movies? Why? • What websites do you like? • What social networking websites do you use? • What blogs do you read? • What kind of car do you drive? Why? If you could have any car what would it be? • What is your social scene like? • What do you wear when you go out? Why? • Do you go to nightclubs? What do you wear to a nightclub? Why? • What do you wear to school? Why? • What do you wear on a date? Why? • Where do you buy your clothes? Malls? Boutique? Department Store? Online? Malls? • Do you share clothes? • Who buys your clothes? If you don’t buy your own clothes, do you control or have input on what others buy for you? • Do you give your clothes away to charity? • Is money important to you? Why or Why not? If you could have any amount of money how much would it be? • If you were famous what product would you purchase? • How much money do you normally pay for this product? • What do you like or dislike about this product? • What is your favorite brand/s? • What is your favorite color? What is your second favorite color? • What is your favorite material? Soft, hard, warm, breathable, etc? Why? • If you could meet anyone in the world who would it be? Why? • If you could live anywhere where would it be? Why? • How old are you? Best Research Sources: • Interviews • Surveys and questionnaires • Observation • Print- magazines, books, newspapers • Internet • Focus groups • Media - video, movies, TV 54 Step 2 Handouts
  • 61. Handout 2B: Elements of the Marketplace Research Questions 2. Product and Trends – Conduct research that investigates existing products in the market (styles, colors, fabrics, design) and current trends (what is cool). Product and Trends Questions Find 5-10 different styles of this product: • Where did you find each style? • What materials are used? • What colors are used? • How much does each of these products cost? • What type of person uses these products? What does that person like to do in their free time? Find 30-50 examples of different forms and functions on similar products: • Where did you find the item? • What type of person uses these products? What does that person like to do in their free time? • What colors are used? Find 30-50 examples of different types of aesthetics used on similar products: • Where did you find them? • What type of person likes these aesthetics? What does that person like to do in their free time? • How were these made? • What colors are used? Find 20 different types of materials being used to design similar products: • Where did you find each material sample? • What type of person likes these types of materials? What does that person like to do in their free time? • What colors are used? • What textures are used? • What materials are used? Best Research Sources: • Images • Media - video, movies, TV • Print- magazines, books, newspapers • Focus groups • Observation • Internet Step 2 Handouts 55
  • 62. Handout 3: Developing a Research Plan Research Tasks: 1. Discuss a plan on how your team will conduct your market research. Things to consider when planning: • What sources will you use to conduct your research (interviews, observation, Internet, etc.)? • What group member(s) will conduct which type(s) of research? • Where should you go to conduct research? What types of places? Which stores (e.g. places that sell the brand, sell competitors brand, etc.)? • If you are doing consumer surveys, who should you target? What age group? What kind of style? Near or at what kind of stores? • What kind of information do you want to gather? What questions might you want to ask when conducting your interviews? • How will you document your research (record in journal, on a tape recorder, with photos)? • How much time do you have to conduct the research? 2. Come up with questions (at least 10) to use for interviews or observation tasks, using the list provided by the instructor. 3. Assign team roles (who will ask questions, record/document information, develop the questionnaire etc.). 4. Write up a plan capturing your decisions from tasks 1-3. 56 Step 2 Handouts
  • 63. Handout 4: Inspiration, To Be or Not to Be? Inspiration, To Be or Not to Be: Sometimes to be able to think of new ideas, or think of an old idea in a new way, you have to be willing to look at things from different angles. Where does this willingness to want to look at things from different angles come from? Does it come from inside you? Is it triggered? Does it get triggered in the face of a challenge? Or, is it because your job required it? None of these are right or wrong. In any field of design if you want to be able to create designs that are innovative you have to be able to look for inspiration anywhere and in anything. Whether you were taught to think outside of the box or whether it is natural to you, make an attempt to do so and begin to question and bend your perception of anything and everything. Step 2 Handouts 57
  • 64. Handout 5: Mood Boards What is a Mood Board? A mood board allows designers to visually demonstrate a style they want to pursue in their design concept. Mood boards set a mood, feeling, or tone for the design. They also serve as a visual tool to quickly convey information to the client on the overall ‘feel’ that a designer is trying to achieve. Mood boards can be created using digital formats, physical objects, or magazine cutouts. Many designers create mood boards in digital form because it is quick and easy. However, creating mood boards using physical objects and/or magazine cut outs are more visually impacting than flat digital mood boards because of the range of design elements (color, texture, shapes, etc) that can be used to elicit a feeling. That is not to say that digital mood boards do not serve their function. If done well they can communicate one or more design directions. Mood boards are primarily composed of images and occasionally they will include writing. For example, if you were inspired by a poem and want to include a phrase or sentence from a poem that summarizes how it made you feel for your mood board. 58 Step 2 Handouts
  • 65. Handout 5: Continued Mood Board Structures Here are two examples of structures you can use to organize your mood board(s). In Structure A images are all approximately the same size and are organized so that images do not overlap or bleed into each other. Structure B is organized without strict lines to separate the images. They overlap or bleed into each other. The images in B vary in sizes and shapes. Mood Board Structure A Mood Board Structure B Clean and simple example of a digital Simple and clean example of digital mood board with white spaces mood board with images that between images. blend into each other. Step 2 Handouts 59
  • 66. 60 Step 3
  • 67. Step 3 Concept Development 10 hours 30 minutes Step 3
  • 68. Concept Development Overview Goal: In Step 3, SEE’s young designers will create their initial design concepts through brainstorming and clarify concept directions through funneling, goal-setting, and applying constraints. Students will begin this step with a creative brainstorm to generate design concepts. Then, they will learn how to apply client, market, and project constraints to funnel these ideas to focused, goal-driven concepts. Young designers will create a one-sentence project goal statement which will help them articulate their design concept to an audience. Finally, they will present their concepts to a focus group to obtain feedback. Understandings: • Students will understand that tools such as brainstorming help designers develop new ideas and creative concepts. • Students will understand that during the brainstorm process client and project constraints must be set aside to allow room for new thoughts and innovative concepts to develop. • Students will understand that goal setting helps refocus the project after a brainstorm. Setting project goals helps funnel initial ideas into goal-driven concepts. • Students will understand that while the design process is creative, there are also constraints, needs, and desires of the client and consumers which need to be determined and considered during concept development. However, this can be done in a creative and thought-provoking manner. • Students will understand that focus groups can provide designers with valuable information that will influence their final design concepts. • Students will understand that allowing others to become involved in the design process can enhance and clarify their designs. • Students will understand that the research step influences final design concepts. 62 Step 3
  • 69. Able to Do/Apply: • Brainstorm around a topic • Visually represent concepts through hand sketching, vector-based software programs, and other applicable mediums • Funnel many concepts, by determining goals and revisiting constraints, into a few technically viable, consumer-driven, and marketable concepts • Clean up sketches and save them in an organized folder on a computer • Document process using vector-based software • Present initial concepts and refined concepts Key Terms Brainstorm Focus Group Interjecting Revise Concept Development Form Materials Statement Consumer-driven Function Patterns Features Funnel Refine Step 3 63
  • 70. Concept Development Activities Activity 1 – Brain Stimulation 30 Minutes Activity 2 – The Concept Developing Funnel 5 Hours 30 Minutes Activity 3 – 3rd and 4th Stages of Funneling 4 Hours Step 3
  • 71. Activity 1 Brief Brain Stimulation Objectives: Activity Procedural Overview: • Students will understand that tools such 1. Brain Stimulation as brainstorming help designers develop new ideas and innovative concepts. Constant Reinforcements Reading Discussion Presentation File Preparation Writing Visual Design Programs Step 3 65
  • 72. Materials for Facilitator: Materials for Students: • Blackboard/ chart paper • Markers/colored pencils • Markers/chalk • Internet access • Pen/pencil • Sketchbook/journal Prerequisite: Step 1 & 2, Introduction to Brainstorming, 2-D Design 66 Step 3
  • 73. 1. Brain Stimulation Notes: Approximately 30 minutes After a long research process, designers may need to take a break from gathering and analyzing information so they can get ready to begin concept developing. There are many exercises that can be done to accomplish this: some designers will sketch random things, others will begin another project. The following is an exercise that will: • Engage students in sketching as a form of brainstorming, so they can get ready for sketching. • Enable students to brainstorm as a group and explore how concepts develop through peer feedback. Conduct this exercise on a large piece of paper (1 meter by 2 meters is an ideal size). The paper should be large enough to fit multiple drawings, but small enough to force the drawings, to interact with each other. Instructor Worksheet: Secret Topics Have the students take one to two Tip Print out the Teacher Handout: Secret topics, depending on how many Topics before class and cut the secret topic students are in the class. Place the words into squares. Put the topics in a hat sheet of paper on the middle of a or bowl and have the students pick one. table and have all the students gather around it. Provide each student with a different colored marker or colored pencil. Choose one student to draw their secret topic on the poster board with their marker or colored pencil. Then the student next to him/her will draw their secret topic somewhere on the previous student’s drawing. The student next to that student will begin the same process and so on, until all students have drawn somewhere on the poster board. The goal is to allow freedom in thought and allow new things to happen while drawing. • Encourage students to place their secret topic in unusual places on the drawing. • Encourage students to use all of the space, by drawing to the edges, drawing big and small and not to worry about drawing over the other drawings. • Encourage students to draw their secret topic in a new way or different from what they perceive the word to mean or the object to resemble. Step 3 Activity 1 67
  • 74. Notes: The poster board is likely to look like a chaotic mass of drawings scattered atop, around, under and along one another. If it doesn’t look like this while they are in middle of the exercise encourage the students to keep drawing. After all students have drawn their secret topic on the poster board, hang it on the wall for everyone to see clearly. Ask students the following questions about what they see on the poster board: •What does this remind you of? • How would you describe certain sections? • How would you describe this to someone? Have students write a brief summary explaining what is happening on the poster as a whole. The summaries should be shared to the entire group. 68 Step 3 Activity 1
  • 75. Resources N/A Step 3 Activity 1 69
  • 76. Activity 2 Brief The Concept Developing Funnel Objectives: Activity Procedural Overview: • Students will understand that tools such as 1. 1st Stage of Funneling: Brainstorming brainstorming help designers develop new Initial Concept ideas and concepts. 2. 2nd Stage of Funneling: Selections of • Students will understand that during 15 Best Sketches the brainstorm process client and project 3. Goal Setting constraints must be set aside, until the 4. The One Sentence Statement funneling stage, to allow room for new 5. Developing Concepts around Set thoughts and innovative concepts to develop. Goals • Students will understand that sketching, creating lists, using creative writing and words all assist in the brainstorming process. • Students will understand that goal setting and reviewing client and market analysis/project constraints helps refocus the project after the brainstorm. • Students will understand that while the design process is creative, there are also constraints, needs, and desires of the client and consumers, which need to be considered during concept development. However, this can be done so in a creative and thought-provoking manner. • Students will understand that by creating a one sentence statement and setting goals they will be able to funnel their initial concepts into goal- driven concepts. Constant Reinforcements Reading Discussion Presentation File Preparation Writing Visual Design Programs 70 Step 3
  • 77. Materials for Facilitator: Materials for Students: • Blackboard/poster board • Markers/colored pencils • Basic imagery (see Brain Warm-ups) • Computer with printer • Colored pencils • Pen or pencil • Computer with printer • Sketchbook/journal • Layout from Design Basics Course Prerequisite: Step 1 and 2 completed: Client Constraints, Market Analysis, Mood Boards, Foundations: 2D Design, Drawing and Composition, Introduction to Brainstorming Step 3 71
  • 78. Notes: 1st Stage of Funneling: Brainstorming Initial Concept Approximately 1 hour 40 minutes The point of the brainstorm is to have the students come up with a number of rough concepts based on the directions they have taken with their mood boards and inspiration. Then they will funnel their rough concepts using project constraints and knowledge gained from market analysis into three final concepts per design (if they are designing two T-shirts, for example, they would develop six concepts total). Write the following brainstorm guidelines on the board or chart paper and have the students copy the guidelines down in their sketchbooks. Briefly explain that the goal during this brainstorm is quantity not quality, and that anything goes. Brainstorm Guidelines • Brainstorms are free flowing so new ideas can flow easily and frequently. • Ideas within the brainstorm should focus on quantity not quality. • No limits! There are no judgments, limits, or critical thoughts until after brainstorming has finished. • Brainstorms work well when concepts develop around or build on previous concepts. Students should produce a minimum of 50 thumbnails during the brainstorm process. This number could overwhelm students so it is important to point out that many ideas and concepts will bounce off previous ideas and once the process begins it will go quickly. Students will do this by using the same sketching structure that was used in the 2-D and Drawing Design Foundations, where they make a grid of 2” by 2” squares in their sketchbooks. Handout 1: Examples of Thumbnail Sketches Allow students to spread out around the classroom for this exercise. Tell students to have their market research analysis and mood boards in clear view so they can reference these tools if needed, but only as inspiration. Students can conduct their brainstorms using their sketchbooks/journals and pencils, markers, colored pencils, pens, highlighters, and other mediums that they find helpful during this process. The goal is to allow students to have access to and options for various line weights so that they may emphasize or draw attention to certain areas of their brainstorm. Color is not important at this point in the process. 72 Step 3 Activity 2
  • 79. Notes: Encourage students to also use words, lists and diagrams during the brainstorm process. Students may want to begin their brainstorm by making lists of their inspirations and then drawing small doodles of what these look like. The sketches could build off each other, like in the handout Examples of Thumbnail Sketches. There is no right or wrong at this stage. Tip During the brainstorm it is essential that you walk around the room guiding students, The key is to get students drawing, writing, and creating and assisting in each student’s brainstorm for freely. It is important that you a minute or two, just enough time to allow the emphasize during this stage student to become aware of a couple of things that they had previously been unaware of and that color and detail are not as be encouraged to keep going. important in this stage; they will be adding more details and developing their concepts in future activities. What is important is that they brainstorm as many rough concepts as possible: quantity over quality. Assignment: If the students need more time to complete their initial brainstormed concepts have them complete it as a take home assignment. Encourage students to brainstorm when they are out with friends, while traveling in the car or by public transportation, before they go to bed, when they wake up in the morning, etc. Also have them read a brief reading on goal setting to prepare them for the next stage (see Resources for examples). 2. 2nd Stage of Funneling: Selections of 15 Best Sketches Approximately 20 minutes In design, funneling is the ability to concentrate, channel, or focus your initial brainstormed concepts into goal-driven concepts. This is shown in Handout 2 Funneling Structure and Funnel Breakdown. Handout 2: Funneling Structure and Funnel Breakdown With the Design Funnel in view, explain how it works: At the top of the Design Funnel we begin with our initial brainstormed concepts. In order to funnel these wild and crazy ideas we created during this stage we will need to focus the project. How do we focus our project? Well we start by reviewing our client and project constraints and our market analysis, after we review these constraints and our Step 3 Activity 2 73
  • 80. Notes: market analysis, we create goals. We use our goals to funnel or focus our initial concepts into goal-driven revised concepts, see them at the bottom of the funnel? Before moving on ask the students if they have any questions and if the Design Funnel is clear to them. Take time to answer any questions and clarify anything related to the Design Funnel. Students already have 50 or more rough concepts, next have them pick their 15 to 20 favorite concepts. Explain to students that at this point they should choose designs that are aesthetically pleasing, sketches that they feel would work as a finished design, and/or sketches of trend-setting, innovative designs. At this point, they are not choosing designs based on directions that came out of the mood boards. Instead, they should begin to use research and constraints to guide their decisions towards designs that are marketable. Depending on how much time you have left, you can select one of the following ways to guide students in picking their favorite designs. 1) Have them take 10 minutes to go through all of their sketches and put a number from 1-15 (or 20) next to each design, one being their favorite design and 15 (or 20) as their least favorite design. 2) Have them make the selections with each other’s help. They can go around and vote on each other’s designs. This should not take took long. 3. Goal Setting Approximately 45 minutes Setting clear project goals will help students clarify the design project for themselves, the class, and the client, and will set a design direction to follow and refer back to during the remainder of the design process. Instruct the students to take out their list of client constraints, their research/market analysis, mood boards and their sketchbooks. Handout 3: Goal Setting Activity Students will work on their goal setting activity in their sketchbooks. Ask them to write the goal setting questions from the handout in their sketchbooks, and answer them. Next, dig deeper with the following goal setting procedure in the handouts. 74 Step 3 Activity 2
  • 81. Notes: 4. The One Sentence Statement Approximately 45 minutes After students have set their goals, have them write a one-sentence statement summing up their goals and desires for the design project. Explain to students that a one-sentence statement will allow them to clearly and briefly explain their design concept to an audience (peers, instructors, and most importantly, the client). A one-sentence statement may contain the five W’s: • Who (who is it for) ? • What (what do you want to do) ? • How (how do you plan on achieving this) ? • Why (why is it necessary) ? • When (is this an ongoing process or does your goal happen right away) ? • Where (is this only for Brazil or can it be applied to anywhere) ? Explain to the students that not all will apply to their project, though their statement should contain at least the who, what, why, and how. Examples of one-sentence statements are helpful for students. You can find some in the handout Information for One-Sentence Statement Activity. Handout 4: One-Sentence Statement Activity Have students write their statement in their sketchbooks, so they can refer to it throughout the project. 5. Developing Concepts around Set Goals Approximately 1 hour 40 minutes Now that the students have set their project goals, they can continue to develop their 15-20 concepts. Students will use their project goals to guide them in further developing their selections. Explain to the students that they can start adding specific details, such as color combinations, materials they want to use, patterns, textures, etc. Provide students with color pencils and any other creative materials they might need. Have the students draw a grid that divides the pages in their sketchbooks in quarters. Each quarter is a concept sketch. Step 3 Activity 2 75
  • 82. Notes: Tip Encourage students to draw, use arrows, circles, and any other graphics, or symbols that Explain that students should be very will help them compare their selective at this point. In the next activity brainstorm concepts to their goals they will develop their concepts further in and one-sentence statements. a design program (Illustrator or Photoshop) and present their ideas to a focus group. Pair students up in groups of two, so that students can assist one another in selecting three concepts per design (for example, if they are designing two products they would select a total of six), making sure they use the goals they have set and their one-sentence statements to guide them. Students should help each other compare their selections to their goals and one sentence statement. Students should take notes in their sketchbooks. 76 Step 3 Activity 2
  • 83. Resources N/A Step 3 Activity 2 77
  • 84. Activity 3 Brief 3rd and 4th Stages of Funneling Objectives: Activity Procedural Overview: • Students will understand that through 1. 3rd Stage of Funneling: Revise and focus groups they can gain valuable Refine Sketches information that will influence their final 2. 4th Stage of Funneling: Focus Group design concepts. 3. Focus Group • Students will understand that allowing 4. Debrief others to become involved in the design process enhances and clarifies their design and provides a transition between steps within the design process. • Students will understand that all the work they did in the research step greatly influences their final design concepts. Constant Reinforcements Reading Discussion Presentation File Preparation Writing Visual Design Programs 78 Step 3
  • 85. Materials for Facilitator: Materials for Students: • Blackboard/poster board • Markers/colored pencils • Basic Imagery (see Brain warm-ups,) • Computer with printer and scanner • Colored pencils • Pen or pencil • Computer with printer • Sketchbook/journal • Layout from Design Software • Vector design program Foundations • Shirt and Logo Templates (provided • Templates (provided by the client) by the client) Prerequisite: 2-D Design, Drawing and Composition, Design Software Courses: Adobe Illustrator, Adobe Photoshop, Scanning, One-Sentence Statement Step 3 79
  • 86. Notes: 1. 3rd Stage of Funneling: Revise and Refine Sketches Approximately 1 hour After the students have selected three sketches for each design, they will revise them on paper using a design template. The students will revisit their goals and mood boards and develop their concepts with even more details using the template of the actual product. The template should take as much of the page as possible. If the one concept calls for the use of the back of a T-shirt, use a template similar to the one in the student Handout 5. If not then fill the page with only the front side of the T-shirt template. Handout 5: T-shirt Template FB and T-shirt Template Front Designers should think about function, how the wearer of the T-shirts will wear the T-shirt and if there are any special features included with the design, such as buttons on the collar, or a zipper that runs down the shirt, etc. Details that could not be seen in the previous stages are added now. After students have completed their final sketches, have them transfer their sketches into a design program (Illustrator or Photoshop). Using an image- editing program such as Photoshop they can clean up sketches and then use a vector design program (Illustrator) to trace and render their sketches into clean and clear designs. Explain that it is important that their Illustrator renderings be as neat and clear as possible, because they will be presenting those designs to a focus group. Have students refer to their notes from Design Foundations on scanning and design software, since students will need assistance and guidance with this step. Have students to print out their design concepts. 2. 4th Stage of Funneling: Focus Group Approximately 1 hour Preparing for the Focus Group Start with a brief discussion about focus groups reminding students of Step 2: Research. Focus groups are one of the ways to conduct primary research and get information directly from the consumers. Explain that they will conduct a focus group to gather information and feedback about their initial design concepts. Then, they will use this feedback to refine their designs into final concepts. 80 Step 3 Activity 3
  • 87. Notes: Tip Because of the amount of time that goes into getting to people to be part of a focus group allow the students to focus on preparing for Each student will prepare 5-10 questions to the focus group, while you get be used to collect feedback from the focus people together for the focus group. group. Ask the students to refer back to the questions for interviewing consumers in Step 2: Research and Inspiration. You can refresh their memory (for example, what is your favorite color?) and may want to have extra copies on hand. Refer students to Handout 6: Information for Focus Group Activity for more sample questions and guidelines on how to prepare for and conduct a focus group. Handout 6: Information for Focus Group Activity The facilitator will explain to students how the class will conduct their focus group and provide students with guidelines on the manner and order in which they will present to the focus group. If necessary during this time, assign students specific roles to prepare for the upcoming event. Students can also refer to the preparation lists made during Step 1, Activity 1. Only have them prepare the room if the focus group will take place in the classroom. 3. Focus Group Approximately 1 hour 30 minutes Wherever the focus group takes place, it is important that students have their work neatly presented on a wall or table. Ideally you want the students’ work laid out while the focus group participants look at the designs. This could be set up like a panel where the focus group is looking at the design on a wall directly in front of them or like a roundtable discussion where all the design are laid out on a table and/or can be passed around. Students will introduce themselves to the focus group, present their design concepts, and will then ask their questions to guide the focus group’s discussion. Student will take notes of all feedback obtained during the focus group. Remind the group to please allow everyone to speak, to not interrupt each other, to be mindful of the time. Moderate and assist during the event as needed. Step 3 Activity 3 81
  • 88. Notes: 4. Debrief Approximately 20 minutes After the focus group finishes, debrief with the students. Have students take notes in their sketchbooks. Focus Group Debrief Questions: • What did you learn about your concept direction from the focus group? • What will you change based on your feedback from the focus group members? • Was your feedback from the focus group what you had expected? • Did you have any expectations? • If so, what were they? • Did you learn anything new about the consumer during the focus group? • If so, how will you use this information to guide your project? • Will you rewrite or update your one sentence statement? • Will you update your goals? • Did the focus group members understand your one sentence statement? • What feedback from the focus group makes you feel like you are prepared to take your concept into its final development? Once students have had time to answer these debrief questions, go through all the accomplishments of Step 3 with the students: they created initial concepts in the brainstorm stage of concept development, then they began the funneling stage by setting goals around their project constraints, they created a one sentence statement and used these to clarify their project direction, and finally students funneled their initial brainstormed ideas into goal-driven concepts. Leave room for them to share some their experiences with each other. Congratulate the students on a job well done. 82 Step 3 Activity 3
  • 89. Resources N/A Step 3 Activity 3 83
  • 90. Key Terms TERM DEFINITION Brainstorm A creative technique designed to generate a large number of ideas or solutions to a problem. Concept The active creation of ideas. Development Consumer - An idea based around the needs of the consumer or person or organization that Driven uses the commodity or service. Focus Group A small group selected from a wider market to have a discussion, for the purpose its members’ opinions about or emotional response to a particular subject or area, used especially in market research or political analysis. Form External appearance of a clearly defined area, as distinguished from color or material, the shape of a thing. Function To perform a specified action or activity on a product. Funnel To concentrate, channel, or focus. Interjecting To insert between other elements. Materials The synthetic or natural substances from which the products are made. Patterns Forming a consistent or characteristic arrangement. Refine To become polished, to make fine distinctions in thought or language, to improve by inserting finer distinction. Revise To alter something already written or printed, in order to make corrections, improve, or update. Statement A communication or declaration in speech or writing, setting forth facts, particulars. A single sentence or assertion. Key Terms 84 Step 3 Key Terms
  • 91. Instructor Worksheet: The Secret Topics (Cut each individually) Giraffe Boat The words “danc- ing, singing, and laughing” Cup Stick person Dog Sky Sea Shell Eyes Dots Skateboard Fishbowl Lily Palm tree Light bulb Lines Sweet Boundary Squiggle Sour Soft Book Compass Light Delight Heavy Apple Hard Volcano See through Step 3 Handouts 85
  • 92. Handout 1: Examples of Thumbnail Sketches Dog Paw Graphics Sketching thumbnails like this took no more than 3 minutes. 86 Step 3 Handouts
  • 93. Handout 2: Funneling Structure and Funnel Breakdown Step 3 Handouts 87
  • 94. Handout 2: Funneling Structure and Funnel Breakdown Continued 1. 1st Stage of Funneling: Brainstorm 50 or more rough concepts. Use minimal color; should be done with only black ink, pencil, or just one color (2-3 at most). Quality is not as important as quantity. Concepts do not have to reflect any constraints or goals that were set. The objective is to allow creativity to flow freely. Concepts can also feed off each other. Below is an example. Dog Paw Graphics Sketching thumbnails like this took no more than 3 minutes. 2. 2nd Stage of Funneling: In this stage designers pick 15 to 20 of their favorite concepts that they want to develop. They will develop their concepts in a slightly larger format that allows them to add detail. Designers will revisit their market analysis, mood boards, and create a once sentence statement to help them set goals and constraints. These goals and constraints will determine the kind of detail they want to add to the sketches including color combinations, materials, patterns, etc. 3. 3rd Stage of Funneling: Designers will revisit their goals and then pick the six concepts they feel are closely meeting the goals and constraints they have set. They will continue to develop their concepts with even more detail. Designers can think about function, if there are any special features included with their design concept, and include details that could not be seen in the previous stages. 4. 4th Stage Funneling: At this stage designers have six very detailed and neatly hand rendered sketches that they can present to a focus group. Designers will test their designs in the focus group and receive feedback to help further refine their design concepts. 88 Step 3 Handouts
  • 95. Handout 3: Goal Setting Activity Goal Setting Questions • What did you find in your market analysis/project constraints that you feel you must apply to your project? • What did you find in your inspirations that you want to add to your project? Goal Setting Procedure Who is your consumer? Define and confirm who will buy and use your final design. Be as specific as possible listing an age range and gender (if relevant). What does this person look like? Does this person have a name? (Some of this information exists in your market research compiled in Step 2; revisit this information and clarify it even further). Write down answers to these questions in your sketchbook/journal. Set Goals Rewrite goals on a clean sheet of paper. Hang these goals in an area where you will be able to see them everyday. Define and Confirm Connections from Client Constraints and Market Analysis Compare the client constraints with your market analysis (target consumer, trends etc.), your project constraints, and your mood boards based on your design inspirations. Compile this information and create an updated list of priorities. Write down your prioritized list in your sketchbook/journal. Step 3 Handouts 89
  • 96. Handout 4: One-Sentence Statement Activity The W’s for Creating a Statement 1. Who (who is it for) ? 2. What (what do you want to do) ? 3. How (how do you plan on achieving this) ? 4. Why (why is it necessary) ? 5. When (is this an ongoing process or does your goal happen right away) ? 6. Where (is this only for Brazil or can it be applied to anywhere) ? Examples of One-Sentence Statements • My project is about women traveling around the world alone and making them feel safer during these travels. • My project is about teenagers finding their voice through creativity and abstract abilities. • My project is about young adult men navigating through hardships in a positive way as opposed to a stereotypical way such as by back slashing against society. • My project is about maintaining a sophisticated identity while interjecting a funky, fun, artistic identity. 90 Step 3 Handouts
  • 97. Handout 5: Product Template Examples Step 3 Handouts 91
  • 98. Handout 5: Continued 92 Step 3 Handouts
  • 99. Handout 6: Information for Focus Group Activity Goal of the Focus Group To obtain consumer feedback on design concepts and gain a fresh perspective on how the designs are seen by the consumers. Conducting a Focus Group • Each student will be given time to show their concepts to the focus group and ask their questions to the members of the focus group. Focus Group Guidelines 1. Each student will tell each focus group member his/her name 2. Each student will tell each focus group member his/her One Sentence Statement 3. Each student will share their concepts with focus group members 4. Students will use the 5-10 questions they created to focus their audience’s feedback 5. Students will take notes in their sketchbooks/journals on feedback about each concept. Examples Questions for Focus Group • What is your first reaction to this concept? • Do you like the color on this design? • Imagine you are wearing this concept: where are you wearing it and in what location? • What is your favorite concept out of all the concepts I have shared with you? Why? • Where would you wear this design and why? • What else would you wear, while wearing this design? • What is your style of clothes? What do you like about that style? Focus Group Preparation Roles • Tables and chair organization • Food and beverages (if possible) • Any hand-outs (if necessary) • Door greeter (Person who stands at the door and greets visitors) Step 3 Handouts 93
  • 100. 94 Step 4
  • 101. Step 4 Final Concept Development 18 hours Step 4
  • 102. Final Concept Development Overview Goal: In Step 4 young designers will develop their final project concepts. During this step, young designers will learn technical drawing skills, which will include product specifications and manufacturing plans. Students will also develop a user experience storyboard to provide an audience with a clear “picture” of the consumer’s experience with their design. Understandings: • Students will understand that an important part of the design process is reviewing and revising their design concepts based on user/consumer and client feedback. • Students will understand that using storyboards as a visual aid helps build a strong story and message behind their design concepts. • Students will understand that the final concept selection will be based around client feedback. • Students will understand that renderings of their concepts will allow the client to fully understand the design from every angle. • Students will understand that preparing technical drawings enhances the credibility, manufacturability, and marketability of the design for the client. 96 Step 4
  • 103. Able to Do/Apply: • Make clear choices and refine concepts based on focus group or client feedback. • Create user experience storyboards and scenarios around concepts. • Render using tools such as markers, colored pencils, Adobe Illustrator or Photoshop. • Create, prepare, present and discuss technical drawings. Key Terms Call-out Detail Hidden Lines Size (CAD) Design Storyboard Mechanical Drawing Storyboard (CADD) Design Scenarios Proportion Technical Drawing Construction Lines Design Comics Scale Visible Lines Color Palette Dimension Lines Scenario Step 4 97
  • 104. Final Concept Development Activities Activity 1 – Final Concept Revisions 5 Hours 30 Minutes Activity 2 – User Experience Storyboards 4 Hours Activity 3 – Final Concept Selection 2 Hours Activity 4 –Working out the Details: Technical Drawings and Renderings 6 Hours 30 Minutes Step 4
  • 105. Activity 1 Brief Final Concept Revisions Objectives: Activity Procedural Overview: • Students will understand that an 1. Introduction to Step 4: Final Concept important part of the design process is 2. Final Concept Revisions reviewing and revising their concepts 3. Preparing for Client Critique based on user/consumer and client feedback. Constant Reinforcements Reading Discussion Presentation File Preparation Writing Visual Design Programs Step 4 99
  • 106. Materials for Facilitator: Materials for Students: • Blackboard/chart paper • Sketchbooks/journals • Markers/chalk • Pens/pencils • Markers and/or colored pencils • Computer • Computer scanner and printer, • Printer paper • Microsoft Word or equivalent Recommended: • Oil pastels, charcoal, leather, cotton, neoprene, linen, lace, nylon, wool, cheap blank white T-shirts (or ask students to bring in blank white T-shirts). Prerequisite: Design Software Foundations and Courses: Adobe Illustrator and Photoshop, Step 1 – Client Constraints, Step 2 – Market Analysis/Project Constraints, Step 3 – Goals and One Sentence Statement, Step 3 – Focus Group or Client Feedback 100 Step 4
  • 107. 1. Introduction to Step 4: Final Concept Notes: Approximately 20 minutes Feedback gathered from the focus groups provides designers with valuable information to help develop their final design concepts. Details such as materials, color, size, proportion, patterns, and graphics should be narrowed down using consumer and client feedback. In this step, students will model their final concepts and create a user experience storyboard that shows how their design fits into the consumer/user’s lifestyle. Tip You may help prepare Students will also prepare technical drawings students for Step 4 by mapping this which will provide a visual diagram of the introduction visually on manufacturability of their designs. (Students will a blackboard or poster present their technical drawings and storyboards board. to the client during the Final Presentation in Step 5). Finally students will present their design concept to the client in a written document. 2. Final Concept Revisions Approximately 3 hours During the design revision phase, students should refine their concepts thoughtfully referring to and incorporating: • Focus group /client feedback. • Market analysis (trends, findings etc). • Goals and one sentence statements from Step 3 to help students to stay on track with their original vision for the project. Students should work on their final three concepts per design at their designated work spaces using the notes they took in their sketchbooks/journals during the focus groups. These revisions must be detailed, clear, and be of excellent visual quality since students will be sending these concepts to the client. Design Revision Options: • Sketching: Provide markers, colored pencils, pencils, oil pastels, charcoal, and other drawing tools. • Making Models: Provide cheap blank white T-shirts or ask students to bring in blank white T-shirts where they can sew, or staple, fabrics on or draw directly on the shirts. Provide a variety of fabrics such as leather, cotton, neoprene, linen, lace, nylon, wool and others. Students must Step 4 Activity 1 101
  • 108. Notes: also sketch out their ideas after they have made their models so they can be e-mailed to the client. It’s helpful to walk around the classroom asking students questions about their revisions. Questions might include: • Tell me about the feedback you received during the focus group. Based on your feedback, what revisions will you be making today? • What colors, textures, and materials will you be revising or adding to your designs based on your feedback? Why? • Why are you changing that element, feature, form, function, etc.? • Are your design revisions in line with your original goals and vision for the project (from Step 3)? If not, why? (You can decide whether or not the student is on the right path or not. If the student if straying very far from their vision (one sentence statement and goals) ask them to explain their choices and together make a decision on whether or not they are headed in the right direction. This decision should be made using all of the project factors: project constraints, client constraints, market analysis, goals, and one sentence statement.) • Was your focus group feedback different than your findings during the market analysis? How will you judge what information is on target with consumer needs? (These are tough questions; you may ask this and get no response. You should assist the student in answering these questions if necessary.) • What are your choices for colors, materials, sizes, proportion, patterns, graphics, etc. that you will use for your project? (If students have not started narrowing these elements down you may want to sit with the student and assist them in making clear choices based on their feedback, market analysis, client needs, etc.) 3. Preparing for Client Critique Approximately 2 hours! Students will present their final three concepts to the client through an e-mail. In this e-mail presentation, students will write about their final concepts and send three final concept drawings. Students will begin by putting their final three design concepts into their presentation layout in Adobe Illustrator. When students are finished they will create a PDF of each of the three pages that will be e-mailed to the client. Students will also include a one page description of their design concepts. Students must use the guidelines provided in Handout 1 when writing their document and creating their Illustrator presentations. 102 Step 4 Activity 1
  • 109. Handout 1: Final Concept Revision E-mail Presentation Guidelines Notes: The handout also provides a list of questions for students to think about while they prepare their presentations. These questions will prompt students to under- stand and be able to articulate the reasons they have made design decisions and revisions. You will want to collect the student’s files to send to the client (from server or network, memory stick, CD, DVD, or via e-mail). Then, e-mail the class work to the client who will provide feedback directly to you via e-mail or phone. Note: Please move on to Activity 2 even if the students have not yet received feedback from the client regarding their e-mailed presentations. Step 4 Activity 1 103
  • 110. Resources N/A 104 Step 4 Activity 1
  • 111. Activity 2 Brief User Experience Storyboards Objectives: Activity Procedural Overview: Students will understand that using 1. Introduction to Storyboards storyboards as visual aids helps build a 2. Creating User Experience Storyboards strong story and message behind their 3. Share ideas. Constant Reinforcements Reading Discussion Presentation File Preparation Writing Visual Design Programs Step 4 105
  • 112. Materials for Facilitator: Materials for Students: • Blackboard and/or poster board • Sketchbooks/journals • Reading on goal setting • Pen/pencil • Markers and/or colored pencils • Computer with printer and scanner • Printer paper Prerequisite: Design Basics Course: Drawing, Design Software Courses: Adobe Illustrator and Photoshop, Steps 1, 2, 3, Final Concepts Stage in Step 4 106 Step 4
  • 113. Note: Students will begin this activity even if they have not received feedback Notes: on their designs. During this activity students may ask how they will create their storyboard without their client feedback. Explain to students that the context of their concepts will not change even though their design may change. If students want to draw their project in the storyboard, have them draw as much as they can until they receive their client feedback. 1. Introduction to Storyboards Approximately 40 minutes Storyboards are used in various creative fields for a variety of reasons. In film, TV, and advertising storyboards are created to map out scenes before they are filmed or created. Storyboards are typically made up of frames and snapshots of important aspects of a movie, product, advertisement, etc. In design, storyboards are used to create a user or consumer experience. A user experience is the consumer’s or user’s personal interaction with the product. How will the user or consumer experience your product? Through storyboards we will put our designs into the places and onto the people, while creating a story about their situation. Storyboards are another way to help us see or visualize our consumer. Storyboards also allow designers to visually describe the context and placement of ideas and concepts to the client. Show examples of existing storyboards. See Resources for website links to storyboard examples. While the Storyboard examples are being shown to students you may ask them: Do you remember the W’s we used when creating our one sentence statement in Step 3? The W’s for Creating a Statement (Facilitator Recap) • Who (who is it for) ? • What (what do you want to do) ? • How (how do you plan on achieving this) ? • Why (why is it necessary) ? • When (is this an ongoing process or does your goal happen right away)? • Where (is this only for one location or can it be applied to anywhere) ? We will now use the W’s to create storyboards, by thinking about the who, what, where, when, why, and how of the project, placing our designs into context for our audience and the client. Handout 2: Information for Storyboard Using the storyboard example in Handout 2, ask students to figure Step 4 Activity 2 107
  • 114. Notes: out the W’s for the skateboarder. You may use popcorn or round robin for this activity. The W’s for Creating a User Experience Storyboard: • Who is your design for, what type of person? • What is the design; is there a message, a pattern, a graphic, etc.? • How is your design worn, is it worn in a way that may be out of the ordinary? • Why have you created this product, what is your message? • When is your product used by the user or consumer? • Where is the intended use for your design? Written example of a user experience storyboard: A male skateboarder is wearing a T-shirt and baggy jeans. The skateboarder likes to do tricks to get attention from the crowd. He wears the T-shirt at night when he writes graffiti at the park and during the day at the half-pipe . • Who: Male skateboarder. • What: T-shirt. • How: With baggy jeans. • Why: To get attention. • When: During the day and at night. • Where: At the park and the half-pipe. 2. Creating User Experience Storyboards Approximately 1 hour 30 minutes After the class has completed discussing the example of a storyboard, refer them to the guidelines for this assignment (also located in Handout 2). Students must follow these guidelines while creating their user experience storyboards. You also may want to write The User Experience Storyboard Guidelines on a blackboard or poster board for emphasis. User Experience Storyboard Guidelines: • 8-10 frames or snapshots on white copy paper to be scanned into the computer when complete. • All of the W’s of Creating a Storyboard should be included: who, what, how, why, when, and where. • Use only one added color, other then black, to draw attention to important areas. • Use some shading (shadow) to show time of day or night. -Hint: the one added color may be used to show day or night. • Refer back to your one sentence statement, market 108 Step 4 Activity 2
  • 115. analysis, goals, and constraints. Notes: Instruct students that while creating their storyboards they will also to refer back to their one sentence statement, market analysis, goals, and constraints, all of which will help them frame and create the story. Before students begin creating their user experience storyboards, you may want to help them get started by quickly walking them through one of the student’s projects. Ask the class if they can identify the Who, Where, How, etc. for that students’ project. Allow students to offer answers. Then, have the selected student explain the W’s of his or her project. This discussion should last for about 5 to 8 minutes. Now instruct students to work on creating their own user experience storyboards. While students are creating their storyboards, walk around the classroom and assist students. Check to see if they are following the User Experience Storyboard Guidelines. Ask questions to students on the W’s to keep them on track with the assignment goal. Once the allotted hour has elapsed ask students to finish up any remaining work. Then have students scan in their user experience storyboards and save them in a file named User Experience Storyboard. Instruct students to print a copy to hang on the wall to present to the class. 3. Share Approximately 15 minutes Ask all students to hang their user experience storyboards on the wall. Each student will be instructed to review every student’s user experience storyboard (you can hand out index cards or paper for this assignment). Students should write each presenter’s name down and include notes about whether or not each student has used all the W’s of Creating a User Experience Storyboard. Encourage students to make notes on these pieces of paper with general comments (neutral) about the storyboard, including what they admire and what could be changed and why. The allotted time for this critique is 15 minutes. Once all students have finished critiquing each storyboard, they will hand each student their feedback. You may want to also assess each user experience storyboard after class and provide written feedback to students during the next class time. Step 4 Activity 2 109
  • 116. Resources Storyboard Examples: Product Design 2.744, User Experience Design, Massachusetts Institute of Technology http://web.mit.edu/2.744/www/Project/Assignments/userExperienceDesign.html Activate Auto-Captain, A Storyboard by Nadia Cheng, Product Design 2.744, User Experience Design, Massachusetts Institute of Technology http://web.mit.edu/2.744/www/Results/studentSubmissions/storyboardDesign/ncheng/ Attacked inside whale by Connie Yeh, Product Design 2.744, User Experience Design, Massachusetts Institute of Technology http://web.mit.edu/2.744/www/Results/studentSubmissions/storyboardDesign/yehc/attack.html Reading: Storyboarding for Design: An Overview of the Process, Dan Gruen, Lotus Research http://domino.watson.ibm.com/cambridge/research.nsf/0/ebcd159a81a43e3685256920 0067d59e/$FILE/Techreport%202000.03.PDF 110 Step 4 Activity 2
  • 117. Activity 3 Brief Final Concept Selection Objectives: Activity Procedural Overview: • Students will understand that the final 1. Final Concept Selection concept selection should be based around client feedback. Constant Reinforcements Reading Discussion Presentation File Preparation Writing Visual Design Programs Step 4 111
  • 118. Materials for Facilitator: Materials for Students: • Blackboard or poster paper • Pen or pencil • Sketchbook/journal • Markers and/or colored pencils • Computer with scanner and printer • Printer paper • T-shirt template (computer file) Prerequisite: Design Foundation Course – Drawing, Design Software Courses: Adobe Illustrator and Photoshop Step 1 – Client Constraints, Step 2 – Market Analysis/Project Constraints, Step 3 – Goals and One Sentence Statement, Step 4 – Design Revisions 112 Step 4
  • 119. 1. Final Concept Selection Notes: Approximately 2 hours Note: The duration of this activity is dependent on how much feedback was received from the client, how you choose to share this feedback with students, and how many changes students will need to make. Using feedback from the client (on the e-mailed presentations), students should begin making their final design revisions. Encourage students to sketch loosely (not perfectly) to get their final concept ideas and revisions down quickly. Students will have time later in Activity 4 to create renderings of their final concepts. Reinforce the idea that there are many factors students should keep in mind while making their final design revisions. While students should be focusing on the client presentation feedback at this time, they should always have these other factors in mind: • Market analysis • Focus group feedback • Mood boards • Goals and One Sentence Statements from Step 3 Tip Students should now revise their final Sketches are only necessary at designs either by sketching, using this point if the designs have to go through some major changes, but Illustrator, or by modifying or building if the changes are minimal (change models (from the earlier revision). While of color, tweaking the graphics, students are making any necessary design changing the material that will be changes, you may want to ask them used, etc) all this can be done in questions to help them articulate their Illustrator. design changes and their motivations behind these changes. Sample questions to ask include: • Why are you changing that element, feature, form, function, etc.? • Tell me a little bit about your reaction to the feedback you received from the client feedback • Based on your feedback, what revisions will you be making? • What colors, textures, and materials will you be using in your final designs? After students are finished revising their final designs, the next step is to have them make any necessary changes they need to make to their storyboards. Step 4 Activity 3 113
  • 120. Resources N/A 114 Step 4 Activity 3
  • 121. Activity 4 Brief Working out the Details: Technical Drawings and Renderings Objectives: Activity Procedural Overview: • Students will understand that 1. Creating Concept Renderings renderings of their concepts will allow 2. Introduction to Technical Drawings the client to fully understand the 3. Creating a Technical Drawing concept from every angle. • Students will understand that working out the details of their design concept by preparing technical drawings help them enhance the credibility, manufacturability, and marketability of their design. Constant Reinforcements Reading Discussion Presentation File Preparation Writing Visual Design Programs Step 4 115
  • 122. Materials for Facilitator: Materials for Students: • Blackboard or poster paper • Pen or pencil • Sketchbook/journal • Markers and/or colored pencils • Computer with scanner and printer • Printer paper • T-shirt template (computer file) Prerequisite: Design Foundation Course – Drawing, Design Software Foundation Courses: Adobe Illustrator, and Photoshop, Step 1 – Client Constraints, Step 2 – Market Analysis/Project Constraints, Step 3 – Goals and One Sentence Statement, Step 4 – Design Revisions 116 Step 4
  • 123. 1. Creating Concept Renderings Notes: Approximately 4 hours Once students have completed their design revisions, they will begin creating their final concept renderings using the product design template(s) which were either provided by the client during Step 1 or are provided by you. Provide examples of T-shirt renderings to students (post around room or hand- out, etc). See Resources for a list of websites links which provide examples of T-shirt renderings. Ask students: Why do designers create renderings? Why do you think clients like to see renderings of the product? Once students have had a chance to reflect and suggest answers to these questions, you may need to provide a more concrete definition. Renderings provide clients with a realistic visual of what the designer’s intentions are for the design. In essence, the rendering is a preview of what is to come. Students will use their design template to create final renderings of their design. Explain to students that they should base their renderings on their final design revisions and that they will later transform their drawings/renderings into a technical drawing. Before students begin, explain that they will have guidelines to follow. Post the following guidelines for creating the final concept renderings on a board or piece of chart paper where all the students can see it. • One front view of each product design, on the T-shirt design templates. • One back view of each product design, on the T-shirt design templates. (Only if student has a back view) • One or two other renderings of their product worn on or used by their consumer. Be creative in this approach, what does your consumer look like? What are they doing in the rendering? Remind students about the lesson on orthographic views in drawing foundations and encourage them to use materials/handouts from that activity as a reference. If, for example, there is a student who is wrapping a graphic around to the back of the product they will need to create a rendering for the front and the back of that T-shirt. This is also an ideal time to apply their skills in perspective they gained from their Drawing Foundations coursework. Encourage students to use either Illustrator or Photoshop or both based on their experience with one or the other. There are many designers who prefer one over the other so allowing students this Step 4 Activity 4 117
  • 124. Notes: choice gives them more room to excel at this assignment. In Illustrator students may want to use layers, paths, shadows, transparencies, effects and other tools to help them create their final renderings. In Photoshop students may want to use layers, filters, shadows, overlays and other tools which will help them create their final renderings. Once students begin creating their renderings, walk around the classroom and assist them. Ask students questions while they are creating their renderings. • How do you plan on making your graphics pop/standout? • How do you plan on making your rendering look three dimensional? • What can you add to your rendering to make it attractive to your audience? • Where are you going to use shadow and why? Once students have completed their final renderings they should turn them in for your review. Let students know if there are any changes that need to be completed, and provide guidance as needed. Students who need to make changes should do this after class. Follow up with these students, reviewing their updated renderings during the next class meeting. 2. Introduction to Technical Drawing Approximately 30 minutes Introduce technical drawing by asking students: what is a technical drawing? And why do you think designers use technical drawings in design? Once students have had a chance to answer, provide them with the appropriate definitions: Technical drawing is a type of drawing which is used in the transforming of an idea into physical form. A technical drawing is intended to concisely and clearly communicate all needed specifications of a design mainly for manufacturing purposes. Technical drawings are also known as drafting or mechanical drawings. In design, technical drawings communicate specifications and details needed for manufacturing purposes, including requirements, dimensions, materials, etc., of a proposed product. Not only are technical drawings used for manufacturing purposes, but they also provide vital information to the client about the viability of the entire design. The client may ask themselves while looking at your design “can we make this?” “Is this easy to manufacture?” “Is our manufacturer going to be able to understand the design?” Show students examples of technical drawings, these examples 118 Step 4 Activity 4
  • 125. may range from complex details of ships and aircraft to simple teacups, (see Notes: resources for a technical drawing sample). Tip Providing a range of ex- Ask students: From what you’ve seen amples will help students put in the examples, what is the difference their own work into context between of the examples, T-shirt are renderings and technical drawings? What not as complex as aircraft. does each achieve that the other does not? At first glance, what purpose does each of these types of drawings have? Technical drawings are generally detail oriented and explain how the product is going to be manufactured. Renderings are visually oriented and provide a clear picture of what the design will look like before it has been manufactured. Hand out a copy of key terms that will be useful in defining each component. Handout 3: Technical Drawing Key Terms Using an example of a technical drawing, you may want to clearly identify the components of a technical drawing which may include dimensions, color palette, materials used, scale, call-outs, visible lines, hidden lines, dimension lines, and etc. 3. Creating a Technical Drawing Approximately 2 hours Students will be creating their technical drawings using the client’s technical drawing method and template, provided to them during Step 1. The facilitator will also inform students that they will use their final concept renderings to “plug” into the client’s technical drawing template. From there they will add their dimensions, color palette, materials used, scale, call-outs, visible lines, hidden lines, dimension lines, size, etc. Inform students that they will be using these technical drawings as a presentation tool in their Final Presentation. Handout 4: Information for Technical Drawing Students should create their technical drawings using Illustrator or Photoshop (Illustrator is recommended). While students are working Step 4 Activity 4 119
  • 126. Notes: on their technical drawings on the computers, you will probably need to check-in with them to ensure that they are following the guidelines. After students have completed their technical drawings, review them once again to make sure all of the guidelines have been followed. Congratulate students on completing Step 4! They are now ready for the last and final step, Step 5: Final Presentation. 120 Step 4 Activity 4
  • 127. Resources T-shirt Rendering Examples http://www.barkadako.com/assets/tshirts_colors_barkadako.gif http://www.productdesignforums.com/uploads/post-2872-1125494183.jpg http://www.inhabitat.com/wp-content/uploads/1stplace.jpg http://www.si-lo.co.uk/uploaded_images/t-shirt_template-713163.jpg http://tcritic.com/wp-content/uploads/2008/07/typ_tee_winner_promo_2008_6741.jpg http://www.districtcotton.com/images/productshots/Fish_detail.jpg http://www.ghacks.net/wp-content/uploads/2008/05/ghacks_black_shirt.jpg http://www.efingo.ro/tshirt/t-shirt_template01.jpg http://www.efingo.ro/tshirt/t-shirt_template02.jpg http://www.districtcotton.com/images/productshots/issueshirt_large_farming.gif Technical Drawing Information www.technicaldrawings.com Step 4 Activity 4 121
  • 128. Key Terms TERM DEFINITION Call-out A letter, number, circle, square, rectangle, etc. used for identifying or calling attention to a particular part of an illustration, sketch, or rendering. Color Palette A visual representation of the range of colors to be used on an object. Computer- Is the use of computer technology to aid in the design and particularly the aided Design drafting (technical drawing) of a part or product. (CAD) Computer- It is an interactive design tool launched to create design ideas and technical aided Design drawings through computer software and hardware. and Drafting (CADD) Construction These lines are used as the starting point of technical drawing. Construction Lines lines are also used to connect objects, to move dimensions or lines to another part of the drawing. They are erased after the drafters have laid out the visible lines. In CAD, these lines are simply turned off. Dimension The dimension lines are lines that illustrate the measurement of a specific Lines portion of the object. Detail A particular part or area which is of importance; may contain a particular material, function, pattern, form, or arrangement. Hidden Lines Even though they are called hidden, they are still visible in the final draft. These lines demonstrate the part of the object that cannot be seen from a certain view. Hidden lines are represented by dotted lines. Proportion Symmetry, harmony, or balance. To adjust in proper proportion or relation to size, quantity, etc. To balance or harmonize the sizes or quantities within the design. Scale The proportion that a representation of an object bears to the object itself Example: If this T-shirt were on a tall, thin man it would look like this… 122 Step 4 Key Terms
  • 129. Size The spatial dimensions or proportions of anything. Specifications Detailed descriptions or assessments of requirements, dimensions, materials, etc., of a proposed product. Technical A type of drawing which is used in the transforming of an idea into Drawing physical form. Also called drafting. A technical drawing is intended to concisely and clearly communicate all needed specifications of a created object or objects. Visible Lines From the name it self, these lines are visible in the final draft. All together, they form the shape of the object that drafters and designers want to convey. Key Terms Step 4 Key Terms 123
  • 130. Handout 1: Final Concept Revision E-mail Presentation Guidelines Design Summary: Typed Document Format: • Your word document should be no longer then one typed page. • Document format: double space your lines, use a consistent font such as Times New Roman, and use font size 12. • Remember to put your name, the date, and your project title or one sentence statement on the top of the document. Design Summary: Typed Document Content: 1. Summarize your design concept, process and progress. 2. Briefly discuss what you learned from your market research and focus group. 3. Articulate the decisions you made in creating your design concept (including revisions) based on market research and focus group feedback. 4. List and explain why you chose the following: materials, color combinations, patterns (if relevant), size and positioning of the graphics. Design Concepts: Three Page PDF Document Format: • Prepare your final three concept sketches on three separate pages in Illustrator, using your presentation layout. • Include your name, the date, your project title or One Sentence Statement. • Create a PDF document from these Illustrator files. Design Concepts: Three Page PDF Document 1. Includes the three design sketches created in Illustrator. 2. Shows three final choices for each of the following: materials, color, size, scale, proportion, patterns, and graphics. Questions to Guide the Presentation Creation: • What choices have you made in terms of colors, materials, sizes, scale, proportion, patterns, graphics, etc. Why did you select them? • How have you incorporated focus group or client feedback into your design revisions? • How have your articulated your design process? • Have you thought about using text capture and share this feedback? • Is your e-mail presentation clear? Will the client be able to understand and visualize your design concepts? • Have you checked the spelling in your document? Is your document clear, concise, and free of grammatical errors? 124 Step 4 Handouts
  • 131. Handout 2: Information for Storyboard Example of a User Experience Storyboard (3 frames): The W’s for Creating a Storyboard • Who is your design for, what type of person? • What is the design is there a message, a pattern, a graphic, etc.? • How is your product used? • Why have you created this product, is there another context for your user? • When is your design used by the consumer? • Where is the intended use for your product, a nightclub, the beach, the park, etc.? User Experience Storyboard Guidelines: • 8-10 frames or snapshots. • All of the W’s of Creating a Storyboard included: who, what, how, why, when, and where. • Only one added color, other then black, to draw attention to important areas. -Hint: the one added color may be used to show day or night. • Some use of shading (shadow) to show time of day or night. Step 4 Handouts 125
  • 132. Handout 3: Technical Drawing Key Terms Call-out - a letter, number, circle, square, rectangle, etc. Used for identifying or calling attention to a particular part of an illustration, sketch, or rendering. Color Palette - a visual representation of the range of colors to be used on an object Computer-aided Design - CAD is the use of computer technology to aid in the design and particularly the drafting (technical drawing) of a part or product. Computer-aided Design and Drafting - CADD it is an interactive design tool launched to create design ideas and technical drawings through computer software and hardware. Construction Lines - these lines are used as the starting point of technical drawing. Construction lines are also used to connect objects, to move dimensions or lines to another part of the drawing. They are erased after the drafters have laid out the visible lines. In CAD, these lines are simply turned off. Dimension Lines - the dimension lines are lines that illustrate the measurement of a specific portion of the object. Detail – a particular part or area which is of importance; may contain a particular material, function, pattern, form, or arrangement. Hidden Lines - even though they are called hidden, they are still visible in the final draft. These lines demonstrate the part of the object that cannot be seen from a certain view. Hidden lines are represented by dotted lines. Proportion - symmetry, harmony, or balance. To adjust in proper proportion or relation to size, quantity, etc. To balance or harmonize the sizes or quantities within the design. Scale - the proportion that a representation of an object bears to the object itself. Example: If this T-shirt were on a tall, thin man it would look like this… Size - the spatial dimensions or proportions of anything. Specifications - detailed descriptions or assessments of requirements, dimensions, materials, etc., of a proposed product. Technical Drawing - a type of drawing which is used in the transforming of an idea into physical form. Also called drafting. A technical drawing is intended to concisely and clearly communicate all needed specifications of a created object or objects. Visible Lines - From the name it self, these lines are visible in the final draft. All together, they form the shape of the object that drafters and designers want to convey. 126 Step 4 Handouts
  • 133. Handout 4: Information for Technical Drawing Technical Drawing Example Technical Drawing Guidelines Using your final concept renderings and client technical drawing template create your own technical drawing… • Work out the details: what colors, materials, patterns, graphics, etc. have you chosen that you need to show the client? • Work out the details: what size are your graphic, pattern, text, or materials on the T-shirts? • Create a color palette on the side of the technical drawing, calling out the colors you will use. Use colors from Illustrator in call-out boxes. • Create a material palette on the side of the technical, calling out the materials you will use. Use materials from the internet in call-out boxes. • Create at least one to two other call-outs of elements you think are important to draw attention to. Enlarge these elements if needed in call-out boxes. Step 4 Handouts 127
  • 134. 128 Step 5
  • 135. Step 5 Final Presentation 7 hours Step 5
  • 136. Final Presentation Overview Goal: The goal of Step 5 is to enable SEE’s young designers to prepare and deliver their final presentation to the client in a professional, dynamic, and convincing manner. Individually they will review and summarize their entire design process, create their final presentation, and present their final concept to the client. Understandings: • Students will understand that showing a clear design process engages the audience and makes the project credible for the client. • Students will understand that practicing, rehearsing and refining their presentations will lead them to be better prepared and more self-confident in their final presentation to the client. 130 Step 5
  • 137. Able to Do/Apply: • Review, summarize and prepare a final presentation. • Gather feedback and suggestions from practice presentations and apply these to the final presentation. • Rehearse their final presentation in an allotted time. • Present their final presentation in a professional manner. Key Terms N/A Step 5 131
  • 138. Final Presentation Activities Activity 1 – Final Presentation Preparation 7 Hours Step 5
  • 139. Activity 1 Brief Final Presentation Preparation Objectives: Activity Procedural Overview: • Students will understand that showing 1. Preparing for the Final Presentation a clear design process engages the 2. Present to Peers and Facilitator audience and makes the project credible 3. Refine the Presentation for the client. 4. Rehearse for the Final Presentation • Students will understand that 5. Deliver Final Presentation practicing, rehearsing and refining their presentations will lead them to be better prepared and more self-confident in their final presentation to the client. Constant Reinforcements Reading Discussion Presentation File Preparation Writing Visual Design Programs Step 5 133
  • 140. Materials for Facilitator: Materials for Students: • Blackboard/poster board • Computer with printer and scanner • Internet access • Pen or pencil • Sketchbook/journal • Adobe Illustrator or other vector design software, Adobe Photoshop or other im- age editor design software Prerequisite: Steps 1, 2, 3, 4; Design Software Foundations. 134 Step 5
  • 141. 1. Preparing for the Final Presentation Notes: Approximately 2 hours Students have prepared renderings which provide a clear vision of their final design concept, technical drawings which provide a description of how their designs will be made into products, and their storyboards which provide a picture of the user experience. Now students are ready to prepare their final client presentations. Explain to students that during Step 5 they will prepare their final presentation drafts and present to their peers to gain valuable feedback. They will then use this feedback to make revisions for the final client presentation. Provide students with guidelines for the Final Presentation. Students will use the same presentation layouts they have used throughout the entire design process to create their final presentation. Handout 1: Final Presentation Guidelines Students should review their notes, project work, and presentations from each step within the design process and pick out key factors that aided in the development of their entire project. Reinforce the design process during the preparations for the final presentation. Ask students: What specific research helped inform your ideas and concepts? Did one of your final designs stem from the initial brainstorm in Step 3? Was there someone during the focus group that inspired new thoughts or ideas? Explain that all of these things factored into the development of their project. This information is important to show because it tells the story of how the students got to where they are within their project. This is what the design process is all about, building off of facts and research, inspiration, creativity, goals, innovation, the story, the product, etc. Students will summarize these factors and use them to show their design process in the final presentation. When designers communicate their design process, they engage the audience and make the project more credible for the client. Once students have had a chance to ask questions and receive answers, instruct them to begin working on their final presentations. Students will primarily work on the computers Tip during this time. Students may feel overwhelmed by the final presentation guidelines. Remind them that they have already Walk around the classroom done the work it is just a matter of and make sure that students are putting together the story of their following the final presentation design process. guidelines and also to help Step 5 Activity 1 135
  • 142. Notes: assist any students. After students have completed their final presentations, reinforce presentation etiquette. You may want to ask students questions to aid in their memory about presentation etiquette, such as: What is appropriate dress attire? How do we sit while someone else presents? Allot time for students to rehearse before their casual presentations; this will prepare them and make them feel more confident. Students should refer to the Final Presentation Guidelines when rehearsing for their casual presentations. Students will either print out their presentations to hang on the wall or use slides and a projector to project their presentations on a wall. 2. Present to Peers and Facilitator Approximately 1 hour 30 minutes Note: When allotting time for each student to present, include time for questions and answers and class critiques. Each student will present their entire final presentations to the class. Encourage the class to provide each other with feedback. Feedback should focus on the execution of a clear design process. Each student will take notes in their sketchbook/journal of the feedback given to them by their peers and facilitator. The following are feedback focus points to make sure that all students have done their work properly. Presentation Feedback Focus Points: • Did the student follow the final presentation guidelines? • If not, tell the student what they may have missed in the final presentation guidelines. • Did the student explain their project clearly? • If not, discuss this with the student. They may not have a clear understanding of how to present their project clearly. • Did the student explain each step in the design process clearly? • Is there too much information provided in the presentation or too little? • Make a note of these instances and provide them to the student so they can make revisions. • How was the student’s behavior while presenting and while listening? • If the student conducted them, congratulate them. However, if the student acted in a way that did not reflect proper presentation etiquette, speak to the student about his or her behavior. 136 Step 5 Activity 1
  • 143. Notes: 3. Refine the Presentation Approximately 1 hour 30 minutes Students should revise their presentations using feedback from their peers and the instructor. These revisions will be their final revisions. While students are making these changes, walk around the classroom and provide any necessary assistance to students. After students make their final revisions they will either print it out or prepare slides. If using slides, these will be projected onto the wall during the final presentation. If using print outs, these will be hung on the wall for the final presentation. 4. Rehearse for the Final Presentation Approximately 1 hour Inform students that they will be given time to rehearse their final presentations. You may want students to present to the class, work in pairs, or form small peer groups for rehearsal. Presentations will go quicker in groups because they can rehearse at the same time, while you walk around and observe. Choose one student from each group to be the time keeper. Each student presenting will be allotted 10 minutes to present their entire project. The time keeper will call “time” when the allotted time has elapsed, then the next student will present and so on. Students will not be given feedback from their peers or from you about the content of their presentation at this time. However, you and other students should provide feedback to students on presentation etiquette, language, time, presentation style, etc. When all students have completed their rehearsals, the facilitator will once again reinforce presentation etiquette. Explain that the final presentations are going to be conducted in a formal manner and that only proper behavior is accepted. Assign the students roles to prepare for the final presentations: Presentation Preparation Roles: • Computer and projector set-up • Tables and chair organization • Food and beverages (if necessary) • Any hand-outs (if necessary) Step 5 Activity 1 137
  • 144. Notes: • Slide controller (Person who controls the slide presentation for the client presentation) • Door greeter (Person who stands at the door and greets visitors) Reference students back to their presentation etiquette posters or worksheets they created in Step 1. Ask students questions about appropriate behavior, such as: When should we turn the projector and computer on? How should we greet the client and other audience members? Allow students to answer these questions. 5. Deliver Final Presentation Approximately 1 hour After students have finished their presentations congratulate them on an amazing project! 138 Step 5 Activity 1
  • 145. Resources N/A Step 5 Activity 1 139
  • 146. Handout 1: Final Presentation Guidelines: TIME: 10 Minute Presentation: FORMAT: Presentation Layout CONTENT: 1. Introduction Page: a). Include your name, the date, the client, the project title. b). Introduce your project by sharing your one sentence statement. 2. Step 1: Page 1: a). On these pages you will discuss what you learned from your research and the initial client presentation. b). Select some elements that inspired you and informed your project. i. Example of Step 1 elements: Images of the client’s logos or products, charts or other graphics from your first presentation. 3. Step 2: Page 2-3: a). On these pages you will discuss the key information from your market analysis which led to your inspirations and initial concepts. i. Example of Step 2 elements: Images of the consumers you researched, key patterns from your market analysis. b). Include your mood board on a page of its own so you can discuss how you became inspired for this project. 4. Step 3: Page 4-6: a). Discuss how you began brainstorming around the project, while you show your initial concept sketches. b). Explain how you set up your project goals and then how you used those goals to funnel your initial concepts (show sketches of these concepts). Note if your concepts were inspired by your market analysis, client constraints, etc. i. Example of Step 3 elements: Sketches of some of your initial concepts, your goal which led to sketches of your funneled concepts. c). Include a few funneled concepts. 5. Step 4: Page 7-10: a). Include some of your design revisions. Explain where they came from, for example, was it the focus group which influenced your decisions? Discuss your decisions about color, materials, patterns or graphic designs, size, form, function, etc. b). Include your final concept renderings. c). Include your technical drawing. d). Include your storyboard. Walk your audience through your storyboard. 6. Conclusion Page: Page 11: a). Include your project name and some element from your project maybe one of your renderings, sketches, the storyboard, the one sentence statement, etc. b). Thank your audience and keep your presentation up until the allotted time for question and answer has been completed. 140 Step 5 Handouts

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