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<ul><li>  Interactive Poll </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How often do you consult a dictionary? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A. Very...
  What is a dictionary? Evaluating dictionaries Selecting dictionaries Using dictionaries Recommended dictionaries
What is a dictionary? Dictionaries are used to define words; to verify spelling, syllabication, or pronunciation; to check...
How do dictionaries differ? <ul><ul><li>Generally, dictionaries tend to be descriptive, reflecting how language is used in...
Defining time in dictionaries Landau (2001) Scholars should be interested to know that dictionaries may be designed with d...
Classifying dictionaries Landau (2001) Dictionaries can be classified according to linguist scholar Yakov Malkiel’s typolo...
  What is a dictionary? Evaluating dictionaries Selecting dictionaries Using dictionaries Recommended dictionaries
<ul><li>  Evaluation </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>When checking out printed dictionaries, evaluate their format, scope, autho...
<ul><li>  Format </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How is the dictionary arranged? Is it easy to use?  </li></ul><...
<ul><li>  Scope </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The scope of a dictionary is stated in the introduction. </li></ul></ul></ul...
<ul><li>  Authority </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Author and reputation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><l...
<ul><li>  Accuracy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spelling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>aero plane vs.  air plane  </li></ul></ul><ul...
<ul><li>Currency </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is the dictionary current or up-to-date?  </li></ul></ul><ul><u...
<ul><li>  Comparing Dictionaries </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pick a group of common words. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>  </l...
  Dictionary.com brief⋅ly [breff-lee] – adverb   1. for a short duration: He stopped over briefly in Chicago. 2. in a few ...
  What is a dictionary? Evaluating dictionaries Selecting dictionaries Using dictionaries Recommended dictionaries
Selecting a dictionary <ul><li>Select the dictionary for the proper audience or collection </li></ul><ul><li>Types of dict...
Selecting an audience <ul><li>The library users’ needs </li></ul><ul><li>Age and condition of existing dictionaries in the...
Selecting a dictionary – Types of dictionaries Unabridged dictionaries Bopp and Smith (2001, p. 414-415)
Selecting a dictionary – Types of dictionaries Abridged dictionaries Bopp and Smith (2001, p. 417)
Selecting a dictionary – Types of dictionaries Etymological dictionaries Bopp and Smith (2001, p. 416)
Selecting a dictionary – Types of dictionaries School-level dictionaries Bopp and Smith (2001, p. 418-419)
Selecting a dictionary – Types of dictionaries Foreign-language/English-language dictionaries Bopp and Smith (2001, p. 419)
Selecting a dictionary – Types of dictionaries Thesauri and usage guides Bopp and Smith (2001, p. 422, 424)
Search Strategies <ul><li>Internet dictionaries  versus traditional dictionaries </li></ul><ul><li>Choosing the proper dic...
  What is a dictionary? Evaluating dictionaries Selecting dictionaries Using dictionaries Recommended dictionaries
  How to use a dictionary  -  How to look up a word <ul><ul><li>Firstly, think of a word to look up. </li></ul></ul><ul><u...
How to use a dictionary  -  A closer look at definitions <ul><li>Can you decipher the different parts of the definition? <...
Main entry <ul><li>dic⋅tion⋅ar⋅y </li></ul><ul><li>/ˈdɪkʃəˌnɛri/ [dik-shuh-ner-ee] </li></ul><ul><li>– noun, plural -ar⋅ie...
Part of speech <ul><li>dic⋅tion⋅ar⋅y </li></ul><ul><li>/ˈdɪkʃəˌnɛri/ [dik-shuh-ner-ee] </li></ul><ul><li>– noun , plural -...
Pronunciation <ul><li>dic⋅tion⋅ar⋅y </li></ul><ul><li>/ˈdɪkʃəˌnɛri/  [dik-shuh-ner-ee] </li></ul><ul><li>– noun, plural -a...
Plurals <ul><li>dic⋅tion⋅ar⋅y </li></ul><ul><li>/ˈdɪkʃəˌnɛri/ [dik-shuh-ner-ee] </li></ul><ul><li>– noun,  plural -ar⋅ies ...
Order of sense <ul><li>dic⋅tion⋅ar⋅y </li></ul><ul><li>/ˈdɪkʃəˌnɛri/ [dik-shuh-ner-ee] </li></ul><ul><li>– noun, plural -a...
Cross Reference <ul><li>dic⋅tion⋅ar⋅y </li></ul><ul><li>/ˈdɪkʃəˌnɛri/ [dik-shuh-ner-ee] </li></ul><ul><li>– noun, plural -...
Miscellaneous <ul><ul><li>Etymology can be found between [ ] </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dates in parenthesis is the earlie...
  What is a dictionary? Evaluating dictionaries Selecting dictionaries Using dictionaries Recommended dictionaries
Recommended dictionaries <ul><li>Unabridged </li></ul><ul><li>Webster’s Third New International Dictionary of the English ...
Recommended dictionaries <ul><li>Desk  </li></ul><ul><li>American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language  (4 th  ed.,...
Learn more and share online:
References Bopp, Richard E.  & Smith, Linda C. (2001).  Reference and information  services: An introduction  (3 rd  ed.)....
Video References Concise Random House Webster’s American sign language dictionary . (2002). New York: Bantam Dell Publishi...
Video References Oxford dictionary of biology . (1996). New York: Oxford University Press.   Oxford rhyming dictionary . (...
<ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Video acknowledgement </li></ul><ul><li>Team 3 thanks the San Francisco Public Library for use...
 
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Dictionaries: What's in a Word?

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  • Transcript of "Dictionaries: What's in a Word?"

    1. 2. <ul><li>  Interactive Poll </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How often do you consult a dictionary? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A. Very often </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B. Every so often </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C. Rarely </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>D. Never </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To cast your vote, click on one of the lettered icons at the top left of your screen. </li></ul></ul>
    2. 3.   What is a dictionary? Evaluating dictionaries Selecting dictionaries Using dictionaries Recommended dictionaries
    3. 4. What is a dictionary? Dictionaries are used to define words; to verify spelling, syllabication, or pronunciation; to check on usage; or to determine the etymological history of a word. To some degree, they also standardize the language based on current usage. Isn’t that a lot like an encyclopedia? Dictionaries are about words, encyclopedias are about things. Bopp and Smith (2001, p. 409) Landau (2001)
    4. 5. How do dictionaries differ? <ul><ul><li>Generally, dictionaries tend to be descriptive, reflecting how language is used in society, or prescriptive, advocating for “proper” academic usage. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most modern dictionaries depict language as it is commonly used. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dictionaries published throughout time can provide a fascinating road-map of the development of language. Dictionaries can even reflect political change. </li></ul></ul>Bopp and Smith (2001, p. 409)
    5. 6. Defining time in dictionaries Landau (2001) Scholars should be interested to know that dictionaries may be designed with different representations of time: <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Diachronic (Historical) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Synchronic (One period of time) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    6. 7. Classifying dictionaries Landau (2001) Dictionaries can be classified according to linguist scholar Yakov Malkiel’s typology. <ul><li>Range </li></ul><ul><li>Perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Presentation </li></ul>
    7. 8.   What is a dictionary? Evaluating dictionaries Selecting dictionaries Using dictionaries Recommended dictionaries
    8. 9. <ul><li>  Evaluation </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>When checking out printed dictionaries, evaluate their format, scope, authority, accuracy, and currency. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Internet sources are evaluated the same as printed. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    9. 10. <ul><li>  Format </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How is the dictionary arranged? Is it easy to use?  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An unabridged dictionary contains between 300,000 and 600,000 entries or words. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An abridged (desk) dictionary should contain between 50,000 and 200,000 entries. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What other features are included? </li></ul></ul>Bopp and Smith (2001, p. 411)
    10. 11. <ul><li>  Scope </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The scope of a dictionary is stated in the introduction. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What does the dictionary really cover? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    11. 12. <ul><li>  Authority </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Author and reputation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Some of the most well known authoritative dictionary publishers are Merriam-Webster, Houghton Mifflin, Oxford University Press and Random House. </li></ul></ul></ul>Bopp and Smith (2001, p. 412)
    12. 13. <ul><li>  Accuracy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spelling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>aero plane vs. air plane </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Definition  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Useless definition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluating: to evaluate </li></ul></ul></ul>Bopp and Smith (2001, p. 412)
    13. 14. <ul><li>Currency </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is the dictionary current or up-to-date?  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slang terms- Bling </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Technical jargon- Controlled vocabulary </li></ul></ul>
    14. 15. <ul><li>  Comparing Dictionaries </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pick a group of common words. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Compare the &quot;treatment&quot; the dictionaries has given them. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>Bopp and Smith (2001, p. 412)
    15. 16.   Dictionary.com brief⋅ly [breff-lee] – adverb   1. for a short duration: He stopped over briefly in Chicago. 2. in a few words: Let me explain briefly. 3. in a brief manner; quickly or brusquely: She nodded briefly and began to speak. Origin: 1250–1300; see BRIEF, -LY   Merriam-Webster Online Main Entry:brief·ly Pronunciation: ˈbrē-flē Function: adverb Date:14th century 1 a : in a brief way < briefly mentioned> b : in brief <the food, briefly , was awful>2 : for a short time < briefly married>
    16. 17.   What is a dictionary? Evaluating dictionaries Selecting dictionaries Using dictionaries Recommended dictionaries
    17. 18. Selecting a dictionary <ul><li>Select the dictionary for the proper audience or collection </li></ul><ul><li>Types of dictionaries </li></ul><ul><li>Search strategies </li></ul>Bopp and Smith (2001, p. 413)
    18. 19. Selecting an audience <ul><li>The library users’ needs </li></ul><ul><li>Age and condition of existing dictionaries in the collection </li></ul><ul><li>Acquisitions budget </li></ul>Consider this: Bopp and Smith (2001, p. 413)
    19. 20. Selecting a dictionary – Types of dictionaries Unabridged dictionaries Bopp and Smith (2001, p. 414-415)
    20. 21. Selecting a dictionary – Types of dictionaries Abridged dictionaries Bopp and Smith (2001, p. 417)
    21. 22. Selecting a dictionary – Types of dictionaries Etymological dictionaries Bopp and Smith (2001, p. 416)
    22. 23. Selecting a dictionary – Types of dictionaries School-level dictionaries Bopp and Smith (2001, p. 418-419)
    23. 24. Selecting a dictionary – Types of dictionaries Foreign-language/English-language dictionaries Bopp and Smith (2001, p. 419)
    24. 25. Selecting a dictionary – Types of dictionaries Thesauri and usage guides Bopp and Smith (2001, p. 422, 424)
    25. 26. Search Strategies <ul><li>Internet dictionaries versus traditional dictionaries </li></ul><ul><li>Choosing the proper dictionaries to optimize the users’ needs </li></ul><ul><li>Buying a dictionary </li></ul>Bopp and Smith (2001, p. 413-414)
    26. 27.   What is a dictionary? Evaluating dictionaries Selecting dictionaries Using dictionaries Recommended dictionaries
    27. 28.   How to use a dictionary - How to look up a word <ul><ul><li>Firstly, think of a word to look up. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Open the dictionary to the closest spelling of the word or your best guess. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Then you will either turn backwards or forward throughout the dictionary. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Guidewords are found at the top of either page. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The word on the left page is the first word found on that page. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The word found on the right page is the last word on that page. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This provides the range to guide you in finding the word. </li></ul></ul></ul>Using a Dictionary (Library.thinkquest.org) Merriam-Webster Inc. (1988)
    28. 29. How to use a dictionary - A closer look at definitions <ul><li>Can you decipher the different parts of the definition? </li></ul><ul><li>A good dictionary should provide an exhaustive definition with the components that will be explained in the forthcoming slides. </li></ul><ul><li>dic⋅tion⋅ar⋅y </li></ul><ul><li>/ˈdɪkʃəˌnɛri/ [dik-shuh-ner-ee] </li></ul><ul><li>– noun, plural -ar⋅ies. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a book containing a selection of the words of a language, usually arranged alphabetically, giving information about their meanings, pronunciations, etymologies, inflected forms, etc., expressed in either the same or another language; lexicon; glossary: a dictionary of English; a Japanese-English dictionary. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Origin: </li></ul><ul><li>1520–30; < ML dictiōnārium, dictiōnārius < LL dictiōn- word (see diction ) + -ārium, -ārius –ary </li></ul>Using a Dictionary (Library.thinkquest.org) Merriam-Webster Inc. (1988)
    29. 30. Main entry <ul><li>dic⋅tion⋅ar⋅y </li></ul><ul><li>/ˈdɪkʃəˌnɛri/ [dik-shuh-ner-ee] </li></ul><ul><li>– noun, plural -ar⋅ies. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a book containing a selection of the words of a language, usually arranged alphabetically, giving information about their meanings, pronunciations, etymologies, inflected forms, etc., expressed in either the same or another language; lexicon; glossary: a dictionary of English; a Japanese-English dictionary. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Origin: </li></ul><ul><li>1520–30; < ML dictiōnārium, dictiōnārius < LL dictiōn- word (see diction ) + -ārium, -ārius –ary </li></ul>The main entry is the word that you are looking for a definition. Some words have alternate or variant spellings. Using a Dictionary (Library.thinkquest.org) Merriam-Webster Inc. (1988)
    30. 31. Part of speech <ul><li>dic⋅tion⋅ar⋅y </li></ul><ul><li>/ˈdɪkʃəˌnɛri/ [dik-shuh-ner-ee] </li></ul><ul><li>– noun , plural -ar⋅ies. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a book containing a selection of the words of a language, usually arranged alphabetically, giving information about their meanings, pronunciations, etymologies, inflected forms, etc., expressed in either the same or another language; lexicon; glossary: a dictionary of English; a Japanese-English dictionary. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Origin: </li></ul><ul><li>1520–30; < ML dictiōnārium, dictiōnārius < LL dictiōn- word (see diction ) + -ārium, -ārius –ary </li></ul>The part of speech justifies the word’s inclusion in the dictionary. Using a Dictionary (Library.thinkquest.org) Merriam-Webster Inc. (1988)
    31. 32. Pronunciation <ul><li>dic⋅tion⋅ar⋅y </li></ul><ul><li>/ˈdɪkʃəˌnɛri/ [dik-shuh-ner-ee] </li></ul><ul><li>– noun, plural -ar⋅ies. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a book containing a selection of the words of a language, usually arranged alphabetically, giving information about their meanings, pronunciations, etymologies, inflected forms, etc., expressed in either the same or another language; lexicon; glossary: a dictionary of English; a Japanese-English dictionary. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Origin: </li></ul><ul><li>1520–30; < ML dictiōnārium, dictiōnārius < LL dictiōn- word (see diction ) + -ārium, -ārius –ary </li></ul>Indicated by / / Shows how to pronounce the word including variant pronunciations. Using a Dictionary (Library.thinkquest.org) Merriam-Webster Inc. (1988)
    32. 33. Plurals <ul><li>dic⋅tion⋅ar⋅y </li></ul><ul><li>/ˈdɪkʃəˌnɛri/ [dik-shuh-ner-ee] </li></ul><ul><li>– noun, plural -ar⋅ies . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a book containing a selection of the words of a language, usually arranged alphabetically, giving information about their meanings, pronunciations, etymologies, inflected forms, etc., expressed in either the same or another language; lexicon; glossary: a dictionary of English; a Japanese-English dictionary. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Origin: </li></ul><ul><li>1520–30; < ML dictiōnārium, dictiōnārius < LL dictiōn- word (see diction ) + -ārium, -ārius –ary </li></ul>Explains when plural changes word – such as y to i Or when noun is irregular Using a Dictionary (Library.thinkquest.org) Merriam-Webster Inc. (1988)
    33. 34. Order of sense <ul><li>dic⋅tion⋅ar⋅y </li></ul><ul><li>/ˈdɪkʃəˌnɛri/ [dik-shuh-ner-ee] </li></ul><ul><li>– noun, plural -ar⋅ies. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a book containing a selection of the words of a language, usually arranged alphabetically, giving information about their meanings, pronunciations, etymologies, inflected forms, etc., expressed in either the same or another language; lexicon; glossary: a dictionary of English; a Japanese-English dictionary. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Origin: </li></ul><ul><li>1520–30; < ML dictiōnārium, dictiōnārius < LL dictiōn- word (see diction ) + -ārium, -ārius –ary </li></ul>Numbers indicate the first known “ sense of the word.” This is to say number 1 was known before 2. However it does not mean that 2 was derived from 1. Using a Dictionary (Library.thinkquest.org) Merriam-Webster Inc. (1988)
    34. 35. Cross Reference <ul><li>dic⋅tion⋅ar⋅y </li></ul><ul><li>/ˈdɪkʃəˌnɛri/ [dik-shuh-ner-ee] </li></ul><ul><li>– noun, plural -ar⋅ies. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a book containing a selection of the words of a language, usually arranged alphabetically, giving information about their meanings, pronunciations, etymologies, inflected forms, etc., expressed in either the same or another language; lexicon; glossary: a dictionary of English; a Japanese-English dictionary. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Origin: </li></ul><ul><li>1520–30; < ML dictiōnārium, dictiōnārius < LL dictiōn- word ( see diction ) + -ārium, -ārius –ary </li></ul>Cross reference provides more information such as synonyms, cognate and inflection. Using a Dictionary (Library.thinkquest.org) Merriam-Webster Inc. (1988)
    35. 36. Miscellaneous <ul><ul><li>Etymology can be found between [ ] </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dates in parenthesis is the earliest recorded use in English. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Obs” indicates a word is obsolete. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Chiefly” indicates regional label or “chiefly” followed by other English-speaking country </li></ul></ul>Using a Dictionary (Library.thinkquest.org) Merriam-Webster Inc. (1988)
    36. 37.   What is a dictionary? Evaluating dictionaries Selecting dictionaries Using dictionaries Recommended dictionaries
    37. 38. Recommended dictionaries <ul><li>Unabridged </li></ul><ul><li>Webster’s Third New International Dictionary of the English Language, Unabridged </li></ul><ul><li>Abridged </li></ul><ul><li>Merriam-Webster’s Dictionary of English Usage </li></ul><ul><li>Etymological </li></ul><ul><li>Oxford English Dictionary (OED) </li></ul>
    38. 39. Recommended dictionaries <ul><li>Desk </li></ul><ul><li>American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (4 th ed., 2000) </li></ul><ul><li>High School-and Elementary School-Level </li></ul><ul><li>American Heritage Concise Dictionary (3rd Ed.) </li></ul>
    39. 40. Learn more and share online:
    40. 41. References Bopp, Richard E. & Smith, Linda C. (2001). Reference and information services: An introduction (3 rd ed.). Englewood: Libraries Unlimited. Landau, Sidney I.  (2001). Dictionaries: The art and craft of lexicography . Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press. Merriam-Webster’s New Collegiate Dictionary (9 th ed.). (1988). Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster Inc. Random House’s unabridged dictionary (1998). New York: Random House. EZine Articles (2009). Evaluating Dictionaries . Retrieved March 15 th , 2009 from http://ezinearticles.com Using a Dictionary (n.d.). Retrieved March 13th, 2009 from http://library.thinkquest.org/5585/dictionary.htm
    41. 42. Video References Concise Random House Webster’s American sign language dictionary . (2002). New York: Bantam Dell Publishing Group.   Dictionary of pseudonyms: 11,000 assumed names and their origins , (4th ed.). (2004). Jefferson City, NC: McFarland & Company.   Harrap's Spanish and English business dictionary. (2005). USA: McGraw-Hill Publishing.   Merriam-Webster’s dictionary and thesaurus . (2007). Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster Mass Market.
    42. 43. Video References Oxford dictionary of biology . (1996). New York: Oxford University Press.   Oxford rhyming dictionary . (2004). New York: Oxford University Press.   Urban Dictionary: Fularious street slang defined . (2005). Riverside, NJ: Andrews McMeel Publishing.
    43. 44. <ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Video acknowledgement </li></ul><ul><li>Team 3 thanks the San Francisco Public Library for use of their facility during the production of our introductory video.  </li></ul>
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