Dictionaries: What's in a Word?

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  • Dictionaries: What's in a Word?

    1. 2. <ul><li>  Interactive Poll </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How often do you consult a dictionary? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A. Very often </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B. Every so often </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C. Rarely </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>D. Never </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To cast your vote, click on one of the lettered icons at the top left of your screen. </li></ul></ul>
    2. 3.   What is a dictionary? Evaluating dictionaries Selecting dictionaries Using dictionaries Recommended dictionaries
    3. 4. What is a dictionary? Dictionaries are used to define words; to verify spelling, syllabication, or pronunciation; to check on usage; or to determine the etymological history of a word. To some degree, they also standardize the language based on current usage. Isn’t that a lot like an encyclopedia? Dictionaries are about words, encyclopedias are about things. Bopp and Smith (2001, p. 409) Landau (2001)
    4. 5. How do dictionaries differ? <ul><ul><li>Generally, dictionaries tend to be descriptive, reflecting how language is used in society, or prescriptive, advocating for “proper” academic usage. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most modern dictionaries depict language as it is commonly used. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dictionaries published throughout time can provide a fascinating road-map of the development of language. Dictionaries can even reflect political change. </li></ul></ul>Bopp and Smith (2001, p. 409)
    5. 6. Defining time in dictionaries Landau (2001) Scholars should be interested to know that dictionaries may be designed with different representations of time: <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Diachronic (Historical) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Synchronic (One period of time) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    6. 7. Classifying dictionaries Landau (2001) Dictionaries can be classified according to linguist scholar Yakov Malkiel’s typology. <ul><li>Range </li></ul><ul><li>Perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Presentation </li></ul>
    7. 8.   What is a dictionary? Evaluating dictionaries Selecting dictionaries Using dictionaries Recommended dictionaries
    8. 9. <ul><li>  Evaluation </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>When checking out printed dictionaries, evaluate their format, scope, authority, accuracy, and currency. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Internet sources are evaluated the same as printed. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    9. 10. <ul><li>  Format </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How is the dictionary arranged? Is it easy to use?  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An unabridged dictionary contains between 300,000 and 600,000 entries or words. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An abridged (desk) dictionary should contain between 50,000 and 200,000 entries. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What other features are included? </li></ul></ul>Bopp and Smith (2001, p. 411)
    10. 11. <ul><li>  Scope </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The scope of a dictionary is stated in the introduction. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What does the dictionary really cover? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    11. 12. <ul><li>  Authority </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Author and reputation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Some of the most well known authoritative dictionary publishers are Merriam-Webster, Houghton Mifflin, Oxford University Press and Random House. </li></ul></ul></ul>Bopp and Smith (2001, p. 412)
    12. 13. <ul><li>  Accuracy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spelling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>aero plane vs. air plane </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Definition  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Useless definition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluating: to evaluate </li></ul></ul></ul>Bopp and Smith (2001, p. 412)
    13. 14. <ul><li>Currency </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is the dictionary current or up-to-date?  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slang terms- Bling </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Technical jargon- Controlled vocabulary </li></ul></ul>
    14. 15. <ul><li>  Comparing Dictionaries </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pick a group of common words. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Compare the &quot;treatment&quot; the dictionaries has given them. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>Bopp and Smith (2001, p. 412)
    15. 16.   Dictionary.com brief⋅ly [breff-lee] – adverb   1. for a short duration: He stopped over briefly in Chicago. 2. in a few words: Let me explain briefly. 3. in a brief manner; quickly or brusquely: She nodded briefly and began to speak. Origin: 1250–1300; see BRIEF, -LY   Merriam-Webster Online Main Entry:brief·ly Pronunciation: ˈbrē-flē Function: adverb Date:14th century 1 a : in a brief way < briefly mentioned> b : in brief <the food, briefly , was awful>2 : for a short time < briefly married>
    16. 17.   What is a dictionary? Evaluating dictionaries Selecting dictionaries Using dictionaries Recommended dictionaries
    17. 18. Selecting a dictionary <ul><li>Select the dictionary for the proper audience or collection </li></ul><ul><li>Types of dictionaries </li></ul><ul><li>Search strategies </li></ul>Bopp and Smith (2001, p. 413)
    18. 19. Selecting an audience <ul><li>The library users’ needs </li></ul><ul><li>Age and condition of existing dictionaries in the collection </li></ul><ul><li>Acquisitions budget </li></ul>Consider this: Bopp and Smith (2001, p. 413)
    19. 20. Selecting a dictionary – Types of dictionaries Unabridged dictionaries Bopp and Smith (2001, p. 414-415)
    20. 21. Selecting a dictionary – Types of dictionaries Abridged dictionaries Bopp and Smith (2001, p. 417)
    21. 22. Selecting a dictionary – Types of dictionaries Etymological dictionaries Bopp and Smith (2001, p. 416)
    22. 23. Selecting a dictionary – Types of dictionaries School-level dictionaries Bopp and Smith (2001, p. 418-419)
    23. 24. Selecting a dictionary – Types of dictionaries Foreign-language/English-language dictionaries Bopp and Smith (2001, p. 419)
    24. 25. Selecting a dictionary – Types of dictionaries Thesauri and usage guides Bopp and Smith (2001, p. 422, 424)
    25. 26. Search Strategies <ul><li>Internet dictionaries versus traditional dictionaries </li></ul><ul><li>Choosing the proper dictionaries to optimize the users’ needs </li></ul><ul><li>Buying a dictionary </li></ul>Bopp and Smith (2001, p. 413-414)
    26. 27.   What is a dictionary? Evaluating dictionaries Selecting dictionaries Using dictionaries Recommended dictionaries
    27. 28.   How to use a dictionary - How to look up a word <ul><ul><li>Firstly, think of a word to look up. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Open the dictionary to the closest spelling of the word or your best guess. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Then you will either turn backwards or forward throughout the dictionary. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Guidewords are found at the top of either page. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The word on the left page is the first word found on that page. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The word found on the right page is the last word on that page. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This provides the range to guide you in finding the word. </li></ul></ul></ul>Using a Dictionary (Library.thinkquest.org) Merriam-Webster Inc. (1988)
    28. 29. How to use a dictionary - A closer look at definitions <ul><li>Can you decipher the different parts of the definition? </li></ul><ul><li>A good dictionary should provide an exhaustive definition with the components that will be explained in the forthcoming slides. </li></ul><ul><li>dic⋅tion⋅ar⋅y </li></ul><ul><li>/ˈdɪkʃəˌnɛri/ [dik-shuh-ner-ee] </li></ul><ul><li>– noun, plural -ar⋅ies. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a book containing a selection of the words of a language, usually arranged alphabetically, giving information about their meanings, pronunciations, etymologies, inflected forms, etc., expressed in either the same or another language; lexicon; glossary: a dictionary of English; a Japanese-English dictionary. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Origin: </li></ul><ul><li>1520–30; < ML dictiōnārium, dictiōnārius < LL dictiōn- word (see diction ) + -ārium, -ārius –ary </li></ul>Using a Dictionary (Library.thinkquest.org) Merriam-Webster Inc. (1988)
    29. 30. Main entry <ul><li>dic⋅tion⋅ar⋅y </li></ul><ul><li>/ˈdɪkʃəˌnɛri/ [dik-shuh-ner-ee] </li></ul><ul><li>– noun, plural -ar⋅ies. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a book containing a selection of the words of a language, usually arranged alphabetically, giving information about their meanings, pronunciations, etymologies, inflected forms, etc., expressed in either the same or another language; lexicon; glossary: a dictionary of English; a Japanese-English dictionary. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Origin: </li></ul><ul><li>1520–30; < ML dictiōnārium, dictiōnārius < LL dictiōn- word (see diction ) + -ārium, -ārius –ary </li></ul>The main entry is the word that you are looking for a definition. Some words have alternate or variant spellings. Using a Dictionary (Library.thinkquest.org) Merriam-Webster Inc. (1988)
    30. 31. Part of speech <ul><li>dic⋅tion⋅ar⋅y </li></ul><ul><li>/ˈdɪkʃəˌnɛri/ [dik-shuh-ner-ee] </li></ul><ul><li>– noun , plural -ar⋅ies. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a book containing a selection of the words of a language, usually arranged alphabetically, giving information about their meanings, pronunciations, etymologies, inflected forms, etc., expressed in either the same or another language; lexicon; glossary: a dictionary of English; a Japanese-English dictionary. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Origin: </li></ul><ul><li>1520–30; < ML dictiōnārium, dictiōnārius < LL dictiōn- word (see diction ) + -ārium, -ārius –ary </li></ul>The part of speech justifies the word’s inclusion in the dictionary. Using a Dictionary (Library.thinkquest.org) Merriam-Webster Inc. (1988)
    31. 32. Pronunciation <ul><li>dic⋅tion⋅ar⋅y </li></ul><ul><li>/ˈdɪkʃəˌnɛri/ [dik-shuh-ner-ee] </li></ul><ul><li>– noun, plural -ar⋅ies. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a book containing a selection of the words of a language, usually arranged alphabetically, giving information about their meanings, pronunciations, etymologies, inflected forms, etc., expressed in either the same or another language; lexicon; glossary: a dictionary of English; a Japanese-English dictionary. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Origin: </li></ul><ul><li>1520–30; < ML dictiōnārium, dictiōnārius < LL dictiōn- word (see diction ) + -ārium, -ārius –ary </li></ul>Indicated by / / Shows how to pronounce the word including variant pronunciations. Using a Dictionary (Library.thinkquest.org) Merriam-Webster Inc. (1988)
    32. 33. Plurals <ul><li>dic⋅tion⋅ar⋅y </li></ul><ul><li>/ˈdɪkʃəˌnɛri/ [dik-shuh-ner-ee] </li></ul><ul><li>– noun, plural -ar⋅ies . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a book containing a selection of the words of a language, usually arranged alphabetically, giving information about their meanings, pronunciations, etymologies, inflected forms, etc., expressed in either the same or another language; lexicon; glossary: a dictionary of English; a Japanese-English dictionary. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Origin: </li></ul><ul><li>1520–30; < ML dictiōnārium, dictiōnārius < LL dictiōn- word (see diction ) + -ārium, -ārius –ary </li></ul>Explains when plural changes word – such as y to i Or when noun is irregular Using a Dictionary (Library.thinkquest.org) Merriam-Webster Inc. (1988)
    33. 34. Order of sense <ul><li>dic⋅tion⋅ar⋅y </li></ul><ul><li>/ˈdɪkʃəˌnɛri/ [dik-shuh-ner-ee] </li></ul><ul><li>– noun, plural -ar⋅ies. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a book containing a selection of the words of a language, usually arranged alphabetically, giving information about their meanings, pronunciations, etymologies, inflected forms, etc., expressed in either the same or another language; lexicon; glossary: a dictionary of English; a Japanese-English dictionary. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Origin: </li></ul><ul><li>1520–30; < ML dictiōnārium, dictiōnārius < LL dictiōn- word (see diction ) + -ārium, -ārius –ary </li></ul>Numbers indicate the first known “ sense of the word.” This is to say number 1 was known before 2. However it does not mean that 2 was derived from 1. Using a Dictionary (Library.thinkquest.org) Merriam-Webster Inc. (1988)
    34. 35. Cross Reference <ul><li>dic⋅tion⋅ar⋅y </li></ul><ul><li>/ˈdɪkʃəˌnɛri/ [dik-shuh-ner-ee] </li></ul><ul><li>– noun, plural -ar⋅ies. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a book containing a selection of the words of a language, usually arranged alphabetically, giving information about their meanings, pronunciations, etymologies, inflected forms, etc., expressed in either the same or another language; lexicon; glossary: a dictionary of English; a Japanese-English dictionary. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Origin: </li></ul><ul><li>1520–30; < ML dictiōnārium, dictiōnārius < LL dictiōn- word ( see diction ) + -ārium, -ārius –ary </li></ul>Cross reference provides more information such as synonyms, cognate and inflection. Using a Dictionary (Library.thinkquest.org) Merriam-Webster Inc. (1988)
    35. 36. Miscellaneous <ul><ul><li>Etymology can be found between [ ] </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dates in parenthesis is the earliest recorded use in English. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Obs” indicates a word is obsolete. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Chiefly” indicates regional label or “chiefly” followed by other English-speaking country </li></ul></ul>Using a Dictionary (Library.thinkquest.org) Merriam-Webster Inc. (1988)
    36. 37.   What is a dictionary? Evaluating dictionaries Selecting dictionaries Using dictionaries Recommended dictionaries
    37. 38. Recommended dictionaries <ul><li>Unabridged </li></ul><ul><li>Webster’s Third New International Dictionary of the English Language, Unabridged </li></ul><ul><li>Abridged </li></ul><ul><li>Merriam-Webster’s Dictionary of English Usage </li></ul><ul><li>Etymological </li></ul><ul><li>Oxford English Dictionary (OED) </li></ul>
    38. 39. Recommended dictionaries <ul><li>Desk </li></ul><ul><li>American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (4 th ed., 2000) </li></ul><ul><li>High School-and Elementary School-Level </li></ul><ul><li>American Heritage Concise Dictionary (3rd Ed.) </li></ul>
    39. 40. Learn more and share online:
    40. 41. References Bopp, Richard E. & Smith, Linda C. (2001). Reference and information services: An introduction (3 rd ed.). Englewood: Libraries Unlimited. Landau, Sidney I.  (2001). Dictionaries: The art and craft of lexicography . Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press. Merriam-Webster’s New Collegiate Dictionary (9 th ed.). (1988). Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster Inc. Random House’s unabridged dictionary (1998). New York: Random House. EZine Articles (2009). Evaluating Dictionaries . Retrieved March 15 th , 2009 from http://ezinearticles.com Using a Dictionary (n.d.). Retrieved March 13th, 2009 from http://library.thinkquest.org/5585/dictionary.htm
    41. 42. Video References Concise Random House Webster’s American sign language dictionary . (2002). New York: Bantam Dell Publishing Group.   Dictionary of pseudonyms: 11,000 assumed names and their origins , (4th ed.). (2004). Jefferson City, NC: McFarland & Company.   Harrap's Spanish and English business dictionary. (2005). USA: McGraw-Hill Publishing.   Merriam-Webster’s dictionary and thesaurus . (2007). Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster Mass Market.
    42. 43. Video References Oxford dictionary of biology . (1996). New York: Oxford University Press.   Oxford rhyming dictionary . (2004). New York: Oxford University Press.   Urban Dictionary: Fularious street slang defined . (2005). Riverside, NJ: Andrews McMeel Publishing.
    43. 44. <ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Video acknowledgement </li></ul><ul><li>Team 3 thanks the San Francisco Public Library for use of their facility during the production of our introductory video.  </li></ul>
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