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Group Project- computer and young children

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  • 1. Computers and Young Children EM 590 Group Project Giannina Borel Donghi Joseph Connor Chao-Jan Yang (Tiffany)
  • 2. At what age should children begin to use computers?
    • Researchers recommend that children under 3 years old should not be using computers.
    • “ Computers simply do not match their learning styles. Children younger than 3 lean through their bodies: their eyes, ears, mouths, hands, and legs…” (Haugland, 2000)
  • 3. Are children harmed by early computer use?
    • Early computer use (under 3 years old) may harm children in developing important skills, such as crawling, walking, talking and socializing.
    • Computers are effective at an early stage (3 to 4 years old) when they provide concrete experiences, children have free access and control the learning experience, children and teachers learn together, teachers encourage peer tutoring, and teachers use computers to teach powerful ideas. (Papert 1998, as quoted by Haugland, 2000)
  • 4. Cont…
    • Those who reject the use of computers in early childhood claim that computers may cause serious harm to children’s physical health such as:
    • Repetitive stress injuries
    • Visual strain
    • Obesity
    • Developmental delays
    • Unproved risks of toxic emissions from new computer equipment. (Cordes & Miller, 1999)
  • 5. How do we make it right?
    • Adult control and guidance are key to avoid developmental problems while using computers.
    • When using computers, exploring time is crucial for children at an early age.
    • Teacher’s guidance is very important; they should intervene to avoid children from getting frustrated and to enhance their learning experience.
  • 6. Cont…
    • In Kindergarten directed activities using computers are the most effective.
    • Both, group work and individual work should be encouraged by teachers.
    • Memory, use and integration of knowledge, and searching skills may all be developed when computers are appropriately used in the classroom.
    • Children learn to delegate responsibilities, interact with others, solve problems and cooperate to reach goals.
  • 7. Cont…
    • Computers may harm children at an early stage, only if they are not used appropriately and if there is no adult’s guidance.
    • It is very important for teachers to be trained in how to use computers as effective tools for teaching and learning.
  • 8. How do teachers train?
    • Epstein (1993, as quoted by Haugland, 2000) identified four components for training:
    • Practical experience
    • Workshops
    • Models and mentors
    • Supervisory follow up
    • The main goal for training is that teachers learn how to use computers in ways that will benefit the children instead of harming them.
  • 9. Are children harmed by extensive computer use?
    • Many believe extensive use will detract from developmentally appropriate activities
    • Healy (1998) suggests that too much computer time will detract from physical play and socialization with other adults and children that are necessary for emotional and cognitive development
    • Attewell, Suazo-Garcia, and Battle (2003) found that young children who used computers more than 8 hours per week had significantly higher BMI’s
  • 10. Are children harmed by extensive computer use?
    • Geary (1998) shows increased time online led to feelings of loneliness and decreased interaction with family and friends
    • Families seem to agree with these researchers:
    • A study on the Internet and the family conducted by the Annenberg Public Policy Center (2000) found that 59 percent of the families surveyed claimed the Internet can cause children to become isolated. Forty-one percent said it could lead to anti-social behavior.
    • Many of the problems researchers have discovered have echoed the research on extensive television viewing by young children
  • 11. Should computers be used before grade three?
    • Despite concerns listed above, a growing body of evidence points to positive effects of computers by children ages three to six
    • Haugland (1992) finds 3 and 4 year olds who use computers have greater developmental gains than their peers who do not use computers
    • Adams (1997) finds computers encourage positive attitudes towards learning and help children with spoken communication skills
    • Espinosa (2006) correlates access to computers with higher reading and math achievement in K and 1 st grade
    • Above research still recommends adult “mediation and instruction” of young children while using the computer
  • 12. Should computers be used before grade three?
    • Hutinger, Rippey, and Johanson (2000) discover increased positive growth occurs in children when teachers integrate appropriate computer software and adaptation into early childhood curriculum and set up accessible computer centers in classrooms
    • This study further indicates improved social skills (sharing, turn-taking, attention, self-confidence) that seems to deflate arguments against early use
    • The key seems to be matching computer time, software choices, and teacher/parent instruction
  • 13. Guidelines to follow Teachers’ role
    • Be present. Be on hand to help.
    • Take the time to observe and participate.
    • Encourage children to work with a friend whenever possible.
    • Find a balance in providing assistance.
    • Aware of children’s addiction to the computer.
  • 14. Space rule:
    • Set up the computer area to foster interaction.
    • Make computer use a social experience by putting two chairs at the machine and encouraging conversation and collaboration with peers.
    • Place one more seat at the side (for an adult) to facilitate the sharing of ideas.
  • 15. Software choosing:
    • Start out with simple "point and click" software.
    • Look for software that involves the senses by incorporating sound, music, and voice.
    • Select software that allows children to repeat activities, review, and reflect on what they already know.
    • Look for software that contains a variety of activities and levels.
  • 16. Software designer should know?
    • Avoid designing software and program that emphasize competition.
    • Avoid designing software programs or games that depict violence as fun or as a way to solve problems.
    • Avoid designing software that has too many flashing images or with too many moving graphics.
  • 17. Children and Internet
    • Being with children when they are on the Internet.
    • Warn children not to give out identifying information when in a chat or social networking sites.
    • There are software tools available that can limit what your child can see or say online.
  • 18. Resources
    • Adams, P. (1997). Hypermedia in the classrooms using earth and science CR-ROMS. Journal of Computers in Math and Science Teaching, 15(1/2), 19-34.
    • Annenberg Public Policy Center. (2000). The Internet and the family 2000. Retrieved from http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICDocs/data/ericdocs2sql/content_storage_01/0000019b/80/16/c5/d3.pdf
    • Attewell, P., Suazo-Garcia, B., & Battle, J. (2003). Computers and Young Children: Social Benefit or Social Problem? Social Forces, 82(1), 277-296
  • 19.
    • Cordes, C., & Miller, E. (1999). FOOL’S GOLD: A Critical Look at Computers in Childhood.  Alliance for Childhood , Retrieved July 24, 2009, from http://drupal6.allianceforchildhood.org/fools_gold . 
    • Early Education Development, 17(3), 421-441.
    • ECT Interview: Computers and Young Children
    • Should young children have early access to computers Here are two points of view - one from Douglas H. Clements, Ph.D., and the other from Jane M.Healy, Ph.D.
    • http://www2.scholastic.com/browse/article.jsp?id=3745649
    • Espinosa, L. M., Laffey, J. M., Whittaker, T., & Sheng, Y. (2006). Technology in the home and the achievement of young children: Findings from the early childhood longitudinal study .
  • 20.
    • Geary C. (1998). Promoting social competence in wired classroom: Internet activities in Duhaney. (2008). Technology and Young Children Revisited. International Journal of Instructional Media Vol. 35(4).
    • Haugland, S. (1992). The effect of computer software on preschool children's developmental gains. Journal of Computing in Childhood Education, 3(1), 15-30.
    • Haugland, S. (1999). What role should technology play in young children's learning? Young Children, 54(6), 26-31.
    • Haugland, Susan W. (March, 2000). Computers and Young Children.  Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood Education , Retrieved July 24, 2009, from http://ceep.crc.uiuc.edu/eecearchive/digests/2000/haugland00.pdf
  • 21.
    • Healy, J. M. (1998). Failure to connect: How computers affect our children's minds--for better and worse . New York: Simon and Schuster.
    • Hutinger, P., Rippey, R., & Johanson, J. (2000). Benefits of a comprehensive technology system in an early childhood setting: Results of a three-year study. Final Report. Macomb: Western Illinois University, Center for Best Practices in Early Childhood
    • http://www.safekids.com/
    • http://www.pbs.org/