Interdisciplinary topics on invasive plant control<br />Miriam Sachs Martín<br />m.sachs.martin@gmail.com<br />
I ♥ Weeds and People<br />Master’s degree in Social Science, Interdisciplinary at SFSU.<br />Thesis at Pearson-Arastradero...
The study<br />Section 1<br />
Invasive Species<br />50,000 alien species have invaded the US.¹<br />Estimated cost to US: $137 billion/year.²<br />Secon...
Hemlock biology<br /><ul><li>Can grow 3-10 feet in one year.
Allelopathy
Density – 595 plants in ½ M²
Grows in shady, moist areas.
Produces 5,000 to 38,000 seeds per plant.</li></li></ul><li>Pearson-Arastradero Preserve<br />CA floristic province – 2120...
Related Research<br />Replanting<br />Oversowing with biologically similar natives (Simmons)4<br />Effective competitors (...
Site selection<br />2007 populations of Conium were GPS’d to compare with 2001 maps.<br />Four areas were selected for: ea...
Plot locations<br />
Study Design<br />Hand-pull and re-seed with <br />	native plants of similar biology.<br />Elymus glaucus - Blue Wild Rye<...
Results<br />Pre-treatment Conium counts varied from 35 plants per quadrat to 700.<br />High plot attrition.<br />No stati...
Graph of results<br />March, 2008<br />15 months after treatment<br />January, 2007<br />Pre-treatment<br />
Recommendations<br />Larger quadrat size – entire plot area instead of quadrats.  Natural boundary, no seed rain.<br />Liv...
Mapping<br />Section 2<br />
Observations<br />Hemlock has increased in quantity and spread to new areas since 2001.<br />Spread has primarily occurred...
Recommendations<br />Mapping protocols.<br />Focus on seed-head clipping and other trailside control work.<br />Share info...
VOLUNTEERS<br />Section 3<br />
Background<br />26 % of US - 61 million people a year6<br />Why people volunteer (Measham and Barnett)7 <br />Helping a ca...
Program planning<br />Integrated educational component<br />Games, acronyms, audience participation<br />Skill-building	<b...
Biocultural diversity<br />= Life + Culture + Difference<br />Connection between Native American cultural areas and ecolog...
Implications<br />Cocks (2006): <br />Learn dynamics of various groups’ biocultural values (focus on recreation, resource ...
Results and Recommendations<br />Results<br />Volunteer participation rose sharply 750 – 1350.<br />Participants demonstra...
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A S P Presentation

  1. 1. Interdisciplinary topics on invasive plant control<br />Miriam Sachs Martín<br />m.sachs.martin@gmail.com<br />
  2. 2. I ♥ Weeds and People<br />Master’s degree in Social Science, Interdisciplinary at SFSU.<br />Thesis at Pearson-Arastradero Preserve and employment at Acterra.<br />Experiment with one method of controlling hemlock on the preserve<br />GIS mapping and data review<br />Literature analysis and program recommendations about volunteerism <br />
  3. 3. The study<br />Section 1<br />
  4. 4. Invasive Species<br />50,000 alien species have invaded the US.¹<br />Estimated cost to US: $137 billion/year.²<br />Second most powerful threat to biodiversity worldwide. ²<br />HIPPO<br />H = Habitat Loss and Fragmentation<br />I = Invasive Plants<br />P = Pollution<br />P = Population (human overpopulation)<br />O = Overconsumption<br />
  5. 5. Hemlock biology<br /><ul><li>Can grow 3-10 feet in one year.
  6. 6. Allelopathy
  7. 7. Density – 595 plants in ½ M²
  8. 8. Grows in shady, moist areas.
  9. 9. Produces 5,000 to 38,000 seeds per plant.</li></li></ul><li>Pearson-Arastradero Preserve<br />CA floristic province – 2120 / 3500 vascular plants are endemic.³<br />247 ha supports 334 species.<br />Concerns: Invasive plants, recreation impacts.<br />Contiguity + urbanization = high habitat value.<br />
  10. 10. Related Research<br />Replanting<br />Oversowing with biologically similar natives (Simmons)4<br />Effective competitors (Dukes)5<br />Alellopathy<br />Andrews6: Early growth and senescing is worst.<br />Recommends fall/winter removal, re-sow with native grass seed<br />
  11. 11. Site selection<br />2007 populations of Conium were GPS’d to compare with 2001 maps.<br />Four areas were selected for: ease of access, over 75% hemlock coverage, relevancy to Acterra’s work, and volunteer safety.<br />49 ½ m² quadrats, monitor for 15 months<br />Randomized quadrat locations and treatments.<br />
  12. 12. Plot locations<br />
  13. 13. Study Design<br />Hand-pull and re-seed with <br /> native plants of similar biology.<br />Elymus glaucus - Blue Wild Rye<br />Perennial native bunchgrass, can be found in shady areas.<br />Achilleamillefolia–Yarrow<br />Grows near hemlock, prolific, mid-summer seed.<br />Hemizoniacongesta ssp. Luzulifolia - Hayfield tarweed<br />Late summer seed, forms dense stands.<br />Originally 5 treatments: Control, pull, replant grass, replant forbs, replant mix. <br />
  14. 14. Results<br />Pre-treatment Conium counts varied from 35 plants per quadrat to 700.<br />High plot attrition.<br />No statistically significant difference between any of the treatments and the control.<br />No statistically significant correlation found for Conium maculatum regrowth and:<br />Soil moisture<br />Canopy % or canopy species<br />Slope or aspect<br />Ecotype or plant associates<br />
  15. 15. Graph of results<br />March, 2008<br />15 months after treatment<br />January, 2007<br />Pre-treatment<br />
  16. 16. Recommendations<br />Larger quadrat size – entire plot area instead of quadrats. Natural boundary, no seed rain.<br />Live plants, not seed. Large size (G), not plugs.<br />Different plants – shade loving, rhizotomatous.<br />Baccharis douglasii – Marsh baccharis<br />Heracleumlantanum – Cow parsnip<br />Leymus triticoides – Wet meadow rye<br />Rubusursinus – CA blackberry<br />Anything you see growing interspersed with hemlock.<br />Research sites AWAY from restoration areas.<br />
  17. 17. Mapping<br />Section 2<br />
  18. 18. Observations<br />Hemlock has increased in quantity and spread to new areas since 2001.<br />Spread has primarily occurred along trails and waterways.<br />Photo by David Smernoff<br />
  19. 19.
  20. 20.
  21. 21. Recommendations<br />Mapping protocols.<br />Focus on seed-head clipping and other trailside control work.<br />Share info at interp. and volunteer events.<br />Signage, outreach to recreation users.<br />Consider signs at infestation site / trails.<br />Photo by Richard Bicknell<br />
  22. 22. VOLUNTEERS<br />Section 3<br />
  23. 23. Background<br />26 % of US - 61 million people a year6<br />Why people volunteer (Measham and Barnett)7 <br />Helping a cause<br />Social interaction <br />Improving skills <br />Learning about the <br /> environment <br />General desire to care<br /> for the environment<br />Desire to care for a <br /> particular place<br />
  24. 24. Program planning<br />Integrated educational component<br />Games, acronyms, audience participation<br />Skill-building <br />Project-specific: plant ID, clinometer, research methodology<br />Program-wide: Educational materials, combined interpretive focus with volunteer work days<br />Teamwork, meet new people<br />Sense of place: “You are the stewards of this land.” Biocultural diversity.<br />
  25. 25. Biocultural diversity<br />= Life + Culture + Difference<br />Connection between Native American cultural areas and ecological niches.8<br />2124 of CA’s endemic plants overlapped geographically with 14 language families and dialects of 72 endemic Native languages.9<br />Diverse peoples = Diverse ecologies? <br />
  26. 26.
  27. 27.
  28. 28. Implications<br />Cocks (2006): <br />Learn dynamics of various groups’ biocultural values (focus on recreation, resource use, etc.)<br />Use those as starting points for building additional approaches towards community based conservation.<br />
  29. 29. Results and Recommendations<br />Results<br />Volunteer participation rose sharply 750 – 1350.<br />Participants demonstrated knowledge acquisition & satisfaction with experience.<br />Increased community participation builds future support base.<br />Recommendations<br />Program planning - continue satisfying Measham and Barnett’s six factors <br />Without essentializing individuals, integrate a biocultural approach into Stewardship work.<br />
  30. 30. Acknowledgements<br />This is a community and collaborative success.<br />The 2007-08 ASP team: Verna Kirkendall, Claire Elliott, Sheri Lubin, Deanna Giuliano, and other Acterra folk provided invaluable support and assistance.<br />Maps are courtesy of Paulo Philippides. Cyrus Hiatt also helped with mapping and data management.<br />Christine Zable counted about a million hemlock plants.<br />Tom Cochrane provided plant ID help throughout.<br />The Rangers were awesome, as usual.<br />Thank you to all the volunteers, friends, family, colleagues, professors, fellow students, and everyone else who helped.<br />
  31. 31. References<br />1. Pimentel, D., Zuniga, R., and Morrison, D. (2004). Update on Environmental and Economic Costs Associated with Alien-Invasive Species in the United States. Ecological Economics, Vol. 52, pp. 278-288.<br />2. Wilson, Edward O. 2002. The Future of Life. Random House, New York, New York. 229 p.<br />3.  Conservation International (2006). California Floristic Province. Retrieved May 8,<br />2006 from http://www.biodiversityhotspots.org/xp/Hotspots/california_floristic/biodiversity.xml. <br />4. Simmons, M. (2005). Bullying the Bullies; The Selective Control of an Exotic, Invasive<br />Annual (Rapistrumrugosum) by Oversowing with a Competitive Native Species. Restoration Ecology, Vol. 13, pp. 609-615. <br />5. Dukes, Jeffrey. (2001). Biodiversity and Invasibility in Grassland Microcosms. <br />Oecologia, Vol 126, pp. 563 - 568. <br />6. United States Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics (2008). Volunteering in the United States, 2008. Economic news release retrieved May 21, 2009 from http://www.bls.gov/news.release/volun.nr0.htm.<br />7. Measham, Thomas B. and Barnett, Guy B. (2007). Environmental volunteering: motivations, modes and outcomes. Socio-economics and the environment in discussion : CSIRO working paper series; 2007-03. 30 p.<br />8. Kroeber (1963) cited in Maffi, Luisa, (2005). Linguistic, cultural, and biological diversity. Annual Review of Anthropology, Vol. 34, pp. 599-617.<br />
  32. 32. References<br />9. Chung, Eugene R. (2000). Biocultural Diversity Hotspots and GIS Analysis: Alta California as a Case Study. Abstract. Presented at the 2000 Annual Meeting of the Society for Economic Botany. Retrieved 05/25/07 from: www.econbot.org/_organization_/07_annual_meetings/meetings_by_year/2000/abstracts_2000.pdf.<br />10. Cocks, Michelle (2006). Biocultural Diversity: Moving Beyond the Realm of &apos;Indigenous&apos; and &apos;Local&apos; People. Human Ecology, Vol. 34, pp. 185 - 200.<br />

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