CHAPTER1 FOUNDATIONS OF EDUCATIONAL THEORY for ONLINE LEARNINGBy: Attika Yuli Indriyani
OBJECTIVEthe objective of this chapter is about the foundation of educational theory for the design of effective online learning materials, and suggests a model for developing online instruction based on appropriate educational theory.
BENEFITS of ONLINE LEARNINGincreasingly organization are adopting online learning as the main of delivery method to train employees. At the same time, educational institutions are moving toward the use of the internet for delivery, both on campus and at a distance.
BENEFITS of ONLINE LEARNINGSome of benefits for the learners and instructor are outlined below:For learners:-online learning knows no time zones, and location and distance are not an issue.-In asynchronous online learning, sudents can access the online materials at any time;-synchronous online learning allows for real time interaction between students and instructor.-Situated learning is facilitated, since learners can complete online courses while working on the job or in their own space, nd can contextualize the learning.
BENEFITS of ONLINE LEARNINGFor instructor,-tutoring can be done at anytime an from anywhere.-Online materials can be updated, and learners are able to see the changes at once.-When learners are be able to access materials on the internet, it is easier for instructors to direct them to appropriate information based on their needs.-If design properly, online learning systems can be used to determine learners needs and current level of expertise, and to assign appropriate materials for learners to select from to achieve the desired learning outcomes.
DESIGNING ONLINE LEARNING MATERIALSThe goal of any instructional system is to promote learning. The onlinedeveloper must know the different approaches to learning in order to select the most appropriate instructional strategies. Learning strategies should be selected to : 1. Motivated learners 2. Facilitate deep processing 3. Build the whole person 4. Cater for individual differences 5. Promote meaningful learning 6. Encourage interaction 7. provide feedback 8. facilitate contextual learning 9. provide support during learning process
SCHOOL of LEARNINGThere are different schools of thought onlearning, and will suggest how they can be used todevelop effective online materials. We are going todiscuss more about school of learning below.There are three different school of thought onlearning;1. behaviorist,2. cognitivist3. and constructivist.
BENEFITS of ONLINE LEARNINGAccording to Ertmer and Newby (1993),"the three schools of thought can in fact beused as a taxonomy for learning.Behaviorist strategies can be used to teachthe "what"(facts), Cognitive strategies canbe used to teach the "how"(processes andprinciples) and constructivist strategies canbe used to teach the "why" (higher levelthinking that promotes personal meaningand situated and contextual learning)."
BEHAVIORIST SCHOOL of LEARNINGThe behaviorist school sees the mind as a "black box"in the sense that a response to a stimulus can beobserved quantitatively, totally ignoring the effect ofthought processes occurring in the mind. Theschool, therefore, look at overt behaviors that can beobserved and measured as indicators of learning(Good & Brophy, 1990).
BEHAVIORIST SCHOOL of LEARNING Implication of Online Learning:1. Learners should be told the explicit outcomes of the learning2. Learners must be tested to determine whether or not they have achieved the learning outcome.3. Learning materials must be sequenced appropriately to promote learning.4. Learners must be provided with feedback so that they can monitor how they are doing nd take corrective action if required.
COGNITIVIST SCHOOL OF LEARNING PART 1: MEMORYCognitivist sees learning as internalprocess that involvesmemory, thinking, reflection, abstraction,motivation and metacognition.
COGNITIVIST SCHOOL OF LEARNING PART 1: MEMORYImplication of Online Learning:1. Strategies should be allow learneers to perceive and attend to the information so that it can be transferred to working memory. Examples include the proper location of the information on the screen, attributes of the screen (color, graphic, size of the text, etc.). The pacing of the information, and the mode of delivery (audio, visuals, animations, video.).2. Strategies should be used to allow learners to retrieve existing information from long-term memory to help make sense of the information.3. Information should be chunked to prevent overload during processing in working memory .4. Strategies that require learners to apply, analyze, synthesize and evaluate promote higher-level learning, which make the tranfer to long-term memory more effective.
COGNITIVIST SCHOOL OF LEARNING PART 1: INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCESThe cognitive school recognizes the importance of individual differencesand of including a variety of learning strategies in online instruction toaccommodate those differences.Learning style refers to how a learner perceives, interact with, and respondsto the learning environment ; it is measure of individual differences.Cognitive style refers to a learner’s preferred way of processing information;that is, the person’s typical mode of thinking, remembering, or problemsolving.Cognitive style is considered to be a personality dimension that influenceattitudes, values, and social interaction.
COGNITIVIST SCHOOL OF LEARNING PART 1: INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCESImplication of Online Learning continued:1. Online learning materials should include activities for the different learning styles, so that learners can select appropriate activities based on their preferred style.2. Information should be presented in different modes.3. Learners should be motivated to learn4. Encourage learners to use their metacognitive skills to help in the learning process.5. Online strategies that facilitate the transfer of learning should be used to encourage application in different and real-life situations.
CONSTRUCTIVIST SCHOOL OF LEARNINGConstructivist see learners as being active rather thanpassive. Knowledge is not only received from outside;rather, it is the individual learner’s interpretation andprocessing of what is received through the sense thatcreates knowledge.A major emphasis of constructivist is situatedlearning, which sees learning as contextual.
CONSTRUCTIVIST SCHOOL OF LEARNINGImplication of Online Learning continued:1. Learning should be an active process. Means, keeping learner doing meaningful activities result in high level processing.2. Learners should construct their own knowledge rather than accepting that given by the instructor.3. Collaborative and cooperative learning should be encouraged to facilitate constructivist learning.4. Learners should be given control of the learning process.5. Learners should be given time and opportunity to reflect.6. Learning should be made meaningful for learners.7. Learning should be interactive to promote higher-level learning and social presence and to help develop personal meaning.