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Grammar 1 -_sentence_structure_and_word_types

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Here's a lesson in grammer.We need better essays!!!! this helps.

Here's a lesson in grammer.We need better essays!!!! this helps.

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  • 1. Grammar Gremlins; Defeated!
  • 2. Sentence Types.Simple sentences are used for clarity and impact:Simple sentences are used for clarity and impact:His house was so quiet now.His house was so quiet now.Compound sentences join two clauses.Compound sentences join two clauses.I cleared away the dirty plates and stood in the kitchenI cleared away the dirty plates and stood in the kitchenlistening to their chatter and laughter.listening to their chatter and laughter.Complex sentences have a main (independent) andComplex sentences have a main (independent) andsubordinate (dependent) clause.subordinate (dependent) clause.She was coughing again, wheezing and spitting into herShe was coughing again, wheezing and spitting into herhandkerchief.handkerchief.
  • 3. Embedded clausesInstead of writing a compound sentence:Instead of writing a compound sentence:Ben was the winner of the race and won a goldBen was the winner of the race and won a goldmedal.medal.We can embed a clause:We can embed a clause:Ben, the winner of the race, was given a goldBen, the winner of the race, was given a goldmedal.medal.
  • 4. NounsNouns are used for people, places and thingsNouns are used for people, places and things((‘naming’ words).‘naming’ words).The names of people or places areThe names of people or places are proper nouns;proper nouns;they always begin with a capital letter, regardless ofthey always begin with a capital letter, regardless ofwhere in the sentence they appear.where in the sentence they appear.Ben won a gold medal at the London Olympics.Ben won a gold medal at the London Olympics.Ben, London and Olympics (although thatBen, London and Olympics (although that’’s an event)s an event)are proper nouns; medal is a regular noun.are proper nouns; medal is a regular noun.
  • 5. VerbsVerbs are actions (‘doing words’).To vary your sentence structure, you can start your sentence with a verb.For example instead of:Ben won the race and got a gold medal.You could try:Having won the race, Ben received a gold medal.
  • 6. AdjectivesAdjectives describeAdjectives describe nounsnouns (they are not just(they are not just ‘describing‘describingwords’).words’).They add detail and interest to your writing, as well asThey add detail and interest to your writing, as well asclarifying your meaning.clarifying your meaning.The elated students reached their target.The elated students reached their target.Or,Or,Elated, the students reached target.Elated, the students reached target.
  • 7. AdverbsAdverbs describe verbs; they say how and when somethingAdverbs describe verbs; they say how and when somethingis done. Often they are words ending inis done. Often they are words ending in ‘ly’‘ly’The mouse quietly crept across the floor.The mouse quietly crept across the floor.ororQuietly, the mouse crept across the floor.Quietly, the mouse crept across the floor.
  • 8. PrepositionsPrepositions say where something is done:In, at, above, under, behind, outside, among, etc.Again, they are used to clarify and add interest, meaning and detail;So,The aircraft was cold because of the air conditioning.Can become:Inside the aircraft, it was cold because of the air conditioning.
  • 9. Re-write the following sentencesto make them more interesting.It was a nightmare finding a good restaurant. The town was in theIt was a nightmare finding a good restaurant. The town was in themiddle of nowhere.middle of nowhere.The bar was right next to the pool and it served food.The bar was right next to the pool and it served food.Kenya is situated on the east coast of Africa. It is very near to theKenya is situated on the east coast of Africa. It is very near to theequator.equator.I was amazed that I didnI was amazed that I didn’t get bitten more than once by a mosquito the’t get bitten more than once by a mosquito thewhole holiday.whole holiday.
  • 10. ParagraphsAre your friends. You need to use them!!Are your friends. You need to use them!!Vary their lengths – do not be afraid to use a very shortVary their lengths – do not be afraid to use a very shortparagraph.paragraph.Paragraphs should be about one topic. DonParagraphs should be about one topic. Don’t ramble.’t ramble.Make a point, explain or analyse it considering yourMake a point, explain or analyse it considering yourevidence if required. New point; new paragraph!evidence if required. New point; new paragraph!Make them fluent – they must have some order:Make them fluent – they must have some order:chronological, by topic, by place.chronological, by topic, by place.Planning the structure of your essay or writing is reallyPlanning the structure of your essay or writing is reallyimportant; use the 5 stage drafting process.important; use the 5 stage drafting process.
  • 11. Semi ColonsAA semi colonsemi colon looks like this ;looks like this ;It is used:It is used:To separate two clauses of a sentence when they are closely related.To separate two clauses of a sentence when they are closely related.To separate items in a list when the items are long phrases.To separate items in a list when the items are long phrases.For example:For example:Elephants live in hot countries. They cool off by bathing.Elephants live in hot countries. They cool off by bathing.  These sentences are closely related, so could be joined by a semi colon. These sentences are closely related, so could be joined by a semi colon. Elephants live in hot countriesElephants live in hot countries;; they cool off by bathing.they cool off by bathing.
  • 12. Another example:Ysgol Aberconwy is an excellent school. This includes the quality of theYsgol Aberconwy is an excellent school. This includes the quality of theteaching, especially in English. Also, its success is due to the excellence ofteaching, especially in English. Also, its success is due to the excellence ofthe buildings and the wonderful cafeterias and the intelligence andthe buildings and the wonderful cafeterias and the intelligence andhelpfulness of the pupils. helpfulness of the pupils. In this list we have used lots ofIn this list we have used lots of ‘ands’. BORING. Why not write it like this?‘ands’. BORING. Why not write it like this?Ysgol Aberconwy is great for many thingsYsgol Aberconwy is great for many things:: the quality of the teaching,the quality of the teaching,especially in Englishespecially in English;; the excellence of the buildingsthe excellence of the buildings;; the wonderfulthe wonderfulcafeterias, serving an array of healthy foodcafeterias, serving an array of healthy food;; the intelligence and helpfulnessthe intelligence and helpfulnessof the pupils.of the pupils.(See how a colon has been used to introduce my list too?)(See how a colon has been used to introduce my list too?)
  • 13. Colons.
  • 14. Re-write these sentences, adding colonsand semi colons.

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