e-Diasporas Atlas International Conference on ICT and Migrations Universidad de Deusto (UD), Bilbao, November 10-12, 2010 Matthieu Renault ICT-Migrations Research Program Fondation de la Maison des Sciences de l’Homme, Telecom ParisTech Exploration and Cartography of Diasporas in the Digital Networks (a project coordinated by Dana Diminescu)
Back to the beginnings… 2003: Dana Diminescu founds the ICT-Migrations research program (Maison des Sciences de l’Homme) grounded on her « The Connected Migrant – an Epistemological Manifesto » 2005: Special issue « Digital Documents: Archiving Methodologies and Research Perspective » in Migrance http://www.archivesaudiovisuelles.fr/FR/_video.asp?format=68&id=895&ress=2870&video=6597
Creating a digital memory of migrations First map: the case of the first website of « sans-papiers »(Pajol) 2008: the e-Diasporas Atlas selected by the French Research National Agency ( ANR ) – 3 years funding The need for our own tools
New Developments: a Digital Toolbox Developing « small applications » (on researchers’ requests)
Using Free Online Tools (collaboration with the Digital Methods Initiative ) http://www.digitalmethods.net/
Dealing with the Web 2.0: Data mining of Social Networking Platforms Getting the social graph of a (consenting) user Representing a Facebook group’s network
Combining Computer Sciences and Migration Studies An interdisplinary process at every step Involving the researchers on migrations in the conception, development, and improvement of webmining tools « researcher- computer » interaction : the « expert » at the centre « Incorporating » concepts of the humanities in computer systems Developing digital methods in continuity with the « traditional » methods of researchers on migrations Quali-quantitative methods Articulating online and offline (fieldwork) researches Providing an example for the others disciplines of social and human sciences
To conclude with… 4 Chapters : large diasporas, “dynamic” diasporas, virtual homeland, expatriates 6 classified, visualized and archived corpus (Moroccans, Turks, Alevis, French Rapatriates, Hmongs, Russophones ) 9 corpus in progress (Jewish diaspora, Indians, Ouïghours, etc.) … and some other researches to come (Africans, Chinese, Americans, etc.) A structured network: ≈ 30 researchers/PhD students (from France and abroad) involved Formations to our tools on a regular basis An international impact … forthcoming: the « actual » atlas: enriching the maps, producing narratives
What is an e-diaspora? « where once were dispersions, there is now diaspora » TÖTÖLYAN K., “Rethinking Diaspora(s) : Stateless power in the transnational Moment”, 1996 « where once were dispersions, there is now the web » e-diaspora (or digital diaspora) refers to the migrant communities acting through various digital media and especially on the web. An e-diaspora is a distributed group [collectif distribué], that is to say a « heterogeneous entity whose existence relies on the elaboration of a common sense which is not defined once and for all; it is constantly negotiated through the evolution of the group » (William Turner)
Dealing with the Web 2.0 Web 1.0 working for diasporas Migrant web 1.0 website acts as a catalyst of the scattered community compelled to organize itself (in forums, etc.) as a diaspora by borrowing the structure produced-imposed by the website and its managers Centralized and one-corridor : home-country/host-country Web 2.0 undoing diasporas Large diversity of web 2.0 networked communities on various social platforms (blogospheres, Facebook, Orkut, YouTube, etc.) which do not necessarily « coagulate » in diasporas Multi-corridors : multiplication of centers of authority and corridors according to activites, hobbies, etc.
Rethinking Space: towards a geopolitics of the web <ul><li>The multiple meanings of web space: </li></ul><ul><li>The web as space: language (websites,navigation) and topology (graph) </li></ul><ul><li>The physical location of websites ( servers ) </li></ul><ul><li>Websites’ owners and addressees locations </li></ul><ul><li>Contents: name of places </li></ul><ul><li>Geographic web information system (e.g. Google Maps) </li></ul><ul><li>User-generated (spatial) content </li></ul><ul><li>« International Relations » on the Web: country-code top-level domain name </li></ul>
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