1. Seminar on -
Different Blood Tests Given
Bleeding Disorders Or Blood Dyscrasia
Presented By- Tickendra Jit Das
Third year BDS
2. Diseases of the blood-forming organs. In most cases, this involves
diseases of the bone marrow, but it might also involve the spleen
and/or the liver.
• The term "dyscrasia" originated in earlier medical "science" and
referred to the "four humors." It has come to mean simply "disease"
or "pathological condition.“
• Thus, blood dyscrasia is a pathological condition of the
blood, usually involving disorders of the cellular elements of the
• Blood dyscrasia typically refers to a blood disorder where one part
of the blood is not present in normal supply. The different
constituents of blood like platelets, or white or red blood cells could
be too high or too low in counts. It’s worth noting that sometimes
the blood disease has to do with interference in the way blood
normally works, such as in clotting diseases caused by missing
3. Generally, there are 1-3 of these symptoms:
Bleeding problems due to poorly functioning platelets or decreased
platelets, or loss of certain body proteins called "clotting factors"
Weakness or pale skin color due to poorly functioning red blood cells or
decreased numbers of red blood cells
Frequent infections due to poorly functioning white blood cells or decreased
numbers of white blood cells
Symptoms associated with the following common blood dyscrasias (for in-depth
discussions of specific diseases, see the title headings):
4. Diseases of platelets:
ITP (Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura) -- sudden onset of small and
large bleeding points in the skin; often following a virus infection, or aspirin use.
Sometimes, there are Nosebleeds or bleeding gums.
TTP (Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura) -- anemia, fever, and bleeding
as in ITP
Diseases of clotting factors:
Hemophilia -- significant bleeding during circumcision, bleeding into the
joints and muscles, easy bruising, significant bleeding during surgery
Von Willebrand's Disease -- frequently, a history of familial bleeding
tendency; bleeding gums, Nosebleeds, easy bruising
5. Diseases of red blood cells:
Sickle cell anemia -- early symptoms are
severe, recurrent episodes of abdominal pain; bleeding
into the joints; and enlargement of the spleen.
Diseases of white blood cells:
Leukemia -- early signs and symptoms are
anemia, bleeding tendency, bone pain, and serious
There are genetic causes, which are determined by
There are also diseases that occur from mutation in
one's genes, or infection, or from unknown causes.
7. Complete blood count (CBC)
activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT)
Platelet aggregation test
Prothrombin time (PT)
8. activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT)
The aPTT is functional determination of the intrinsic pathway of coagulation
XII, XI, IX, VIII, V, II, I, prekallikrein, high molecular weight kininogen). This
is intitated by the interaction of Factor XII with a negatively charged surface. A
cas-cade mechanism results in fibrin production and clot formation. The aPTT is
detect congenital and qcquired abnormalities of the intrinsic coagulation pathway
to monitor patients receiving heparin.
9. The PT and aPTT are the fundamental assays of the coagulation system. The principal clinical uses of the aPTT include: (1) the detection of hereditary or acquired
defi-ciencies or defects of the intrinsic and common pathway coagulation factors
XII, XI, IX, VIII, prekallikrein, high molecular weight kininogen), (2) monitoring
heparin anticoagulant therapy, (3) the detection of coagulation inhibitors (i.e., lupus
anticoagulant), and (4) to monitor coagulation factor replacement therapy in
The aPTT is increased above the upper limit of normal with hereditary or acquired
intrinsic factor deficiencies < 40% (factor VIII:C, Factor IX, Factor XI, Factor XII,
vWf), lupus anticoagulants, or specific inhibitors of the intrinsic coagulation factors.
Other causes of an elevated aPTT include liver disease, disseminated intravascular
coagulation (DIC), heparin or anticoagulant therapy, or improper specimen
(i.e., traumatic phlebetomy or hemolyzed specimen).
10. Blood dyscrasia typically refers to a blood disorder where one part of the blood is
not present in normal supply. The different constituents of blood like platelets, or
white or red blood cells could be too high or too low in counts. It’s worth noting
that sometimes the blood disease has to do with interference in the way blood
normally works, such as in clotting diseases caused by missing proteins, like in von
Willebrand’s disease, where needed proteins to cause blood clotting are not
available as normal. Thus, when abnormal function of blood or its components is
present, people are thought to have a blood dyscrasia, and dyscrasia can be
thought of as synonymous with disease.
There are many different types of blood dyscrasia. As mentioned, von Willebrand’s
disease occurs when there are poor amounts of the proteins that form blood clots.
Another serious illness like this is hemophilia. Similar to blood clotting diseases
affecting proteins are those that affect the platelets. Various forms
thrombocytopenia or low platelet count can cause serious decrease in platelet
production, which may also result in excessive bleeding. Thrombocytopenia can be
induced by treatments like chemotherapy or by illness, and it can occasionally be
a congenital condition.
Blood dyscrasia can refer to diseases that affect white blood cells. Some of these
11. Samples of blood from a
healthy person and one with
leukemia. Leukemia is a form
of blood dyscrasia.
A diagram showing different types of white
blood cells. Blood dyscrasia can refer to
diseases that affect white blood cells.