UNIVERSIDAD VERACRUZANA CENTRO DE IDIOMAS XALAPA CENTRO DE AUTOACCESO IBAS 200 2ª. ASESORIA GRUPAL JUST RIGHT PRE-INTERMED...
UNIT 1   The World of English <ul><li>Grammar : Comparative adjectives and  adverbs </li></ul><ul><li>Vocabulary :  two - ...
COMPARATIVE FOR SHORT ADJECTIVES <ul><li>1.  One syllable adjectives (short adjectives) form the comparative by adding  –e...
COMPARATIVE SHORT ADJECTIVES <ul><li>2. Two-syllable words that end in  -y ,  -le , form the comparative by  changing  y  ...
COMPARATIVE SHORT ADJECTIVES 3. When the adjective ends in consonant preceded by a vowel, it  doubles the consonant  and  ...
COMPARATIVE SHORT ADJECTIVES <ul><li>4. You can use  –er  or  more  with some two syllable adjectives, especially: </li></...
COMPARATIVE SHORT ADJECTIVES <ul><li>5. Exceptions:  </li></ul><ul><li>A few adjectives have Irregular comparative forms: ...
COMPARATIVE FOR LONG ADJECTIVES <ul><li>Long adjectives (two syllables or more) add  more  to the adjective to form the co...
COMPARATIVE ADJECTIVES <ul><li>You can use  –er  or  more  with some two syllable adjectives, especially: </li></ul>SIMPLE...
REFERENCES: <ul><li>English Grammar in Use, Raymund Murphy, 3rd. Edition CUP, 2007 pp.210 </li></ul><ul><li>Essential Gram...
ADVERBS <ul><li>An adverb tells you how something happens or how somebody does something: </li></ul><ul><li>The train stop...
ADVERBS <ul><li>Many adverbs of manner and some adverbs of degree are formed by adding  –ly  to the corresponding adjectiv...
COMPARING ADVERBS <ul><li>Single-syllable adverbs, including early, add  –er: </li></ul><ul><li>Hard hard er </li></ul><ul...
COMPARING ADVERBS <ul><li>With adverbs of two or more syllables we form the comparative by adding  more : </li></ul>MORE  ...
EXCEPTIONS FURHTER FAR MORE MUCH LESS LITTLE WORSE BADLY BETTER WELL COMPARATIVE ADVERB
EXPRESSING PREFERENCES <ul><li>ASKING  FOR PREFERENCES: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Which do you prefer? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul>...
REFERENCES: <ul><li>A Practical English Grammar, Thompson and Martinet, OUP, 4th ed. pp.47,49 </li></ul><ul><li>Essential ...
-ING / ED ADJECTIVES <ul><li>There are adjectives ending in  –ing  an  –ed : </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bor ed   bor in...
<ul><li>Adjectives ending in  –ed  are related to people’s attitude or feelings: </li></ul><ul><li>She ’s  bored  with her...
<ul><li>Adjectives ending in  –ing  are related to things or objects: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Her  job  is  bori...
REFERENCES: <ul><li>Essential Grammar in Use, Raymund Murphy, 3rd. Ed. CUP 2007 pp 196 </li></ul>
TWO WORD NOUNS <ul><li>You can use two nouns together (noun + noun) to mean one thing, person or idea: </li></ul><ul><ul><...
TWO WORD NOUNS <ul><li>You can say: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a television camera </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A television prog...
TWO WORD NOUNS <ul><li>Compare: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Garden vegetables ( vegetables  that are grown in a garden) </li></u...
TWO WORD NOUNS <ul><li>Sometimes the first word ends in  –ing . Usually these are thing used for doing something: </li></u...
TWO WORD NOUNS <ul><li>When two nouns are together, sometimes they are written as one word:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A heada...
TWO WORD NOUNS <ul><li>Note the difference: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A sugar bowl (perhaps empty) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>...
TWO WORD NOUNS <ul><li>When we use noun + noun, the first noun is like an adjective which is normally singular. However, s...
REFERENCES: <ul><li>Essential Grammar in Use, Raymund Murphy, 3rd. Ed. CUP 2007 pp. 160 </li></ul>
UNIT 2  DON’T GET STRESSED OUT <ul><li>Grammar : Countable and  uncountable   nouns . </li></ul><ul><li>Vocabulary :  Phra...
COUNTABLE NOUNS <ul><li>A countable noun can be singular or plural: </li></ul><ul><li>Banana  Bananas  </li></ul><ul><li>W...
COUNTABLE NOUNS <ul><li>We  cannot use singular   countable nouns alone , but using a/the/my, etc: </li></ul><ul><li>I wan...
QUANTITY WORDS FOR COUNTABLE NOUNS <ul><li>A LOT OF </li></ul><ul><li>LOTS OF </li></ul><ul><li>MANY  </li></ul><ul><li>A ...
COUNTABLE NOUNS <ul><li>We can use  some  or  any  with plural countable nouns: </li></ul><ul><li>We eat  some  bananas </...
UNCOUNTABLE NOUNS <ul><li>An uncountable noun has only one form: </li></ul><ul><li>Rice    sugar   milk   coffee   bread  ...
UNCOUNTABLE NOUNS <ul><li>We can use uncountable nouns alone: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I eat rice every day </li></ul></ul><u...
UNCOUNTABLE NOUNS <ul><li>We  cannot use numbers  with uncountable nouns: </li></ul><ul><li>Five rices </li></ul><ul><li>W...
PHRASES WITH UNCOUNTABLE NOUNS <ul><li>We can use the following phrases   with uncountble nouns: </li></ul><ul><li>A   bow...
UNCOUNTABLE NOUNS <ul><li>We can use  much   and  little  with uncountable nouns: </li></ul><ul><li>We did  much  shopping...
Countable and uncountable nouns <ul><li>Some nouns have one meaning which is uncountable and another meaning which is coun...
QUANTITY WORDS FOR UNCOUNTABLE NOUNS <ul><li>MUCH </li></ul><ul><li>A LITTLE </li></ul><ul><li>SOME </li></ul><ul><li>NOT ...
REFERENCES <ul><li>Murphy, Raymond (2004). English Grammar in Use, CUP, P. 138 </li></ul>
<ul><li>Can you give me some advice? </li></ul><ul><li>Got any ideas </li></ul><ul><li>What can I do to…? </li></ul>ASKING...
UNIT 3 TV AND THE MEDIA <ul><li>CONTENTS: </li></ul><ul><li>Present simple </li></ul><ul><li>Present simple,  subject-obje...
SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE <ul><li>We use the simple present tense to: </li></ul><ul><li>Talk/ ask about repeated actions and ha...
SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE <ul><li>b) Talk/ask about general facts which are true and will be for some time: </li></ul><ul><ul><...
REFERENCES <ul><li>Murphy, Raymond (2004). English Grammar in Use, CUP, P. 6 </li></ul>
SUBJECT-OBJECT QUESTIONS <ul><li>WHO / WHAT as subject: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Who   lives in this house? </li></ul></ul><u...
SUBJECT-OBJECT QUESTIONS <ul><li>In these questions WHO / WHAT is the object: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Who  do you admire?  I...
SUBJECT-OBJECT QUESTIONS <ul><li>Verbs followed by an object: </li></ul><ul><li>Watch  Admire  Buy  Enjoy </li></ul><ul><l...
REFERENCES <ul><li>Murphy, Raymond (2007). English Grammar in Use, 3dr. Ed. CUP, P. 100 </li></ul>
EXPRESSING OPINION Do you really …think so? … like warching tv? <ul><li>I don’t agree. </li></ul><ul><li>I hate them. </li...
UNIT 4: MAKING A LIVING <ul><li>Grammar : a)  present  simple  and  present  continuos    b)  present  continuos  with   <...
UNIT 4: MAKING A LIVING <ul><li>PRESENT PROGRESSIVE </li></ul><ul><li>We use  present progressive  or  continuous  to talk...
UNIT 4: MAKING  LIVING <ul><li>b) Things that are temporary: </li></ul><ul><li>I’ m  work ing  on Sundays this month . </l...
UNIT 4: MAKING A LIVING <ul><li>Compare the ideas from the boxes: </li></ul>PRESENT He  is  leav ing  to Brazil next week....
UNIT 4: MAKING A LIVING <ul><li>TIME EXPRESSIONS   </li></ul>At 8 o’clock Tomorrow Next week On May 25th. In the summer No...
UNIT 4: MAKING A LIVING <ul><li>JOB Vs WORK </li></ul><ul><li>Analise the following definitions:  </li></ul><ul><li>WORK (...
LIKES AND DISLIKES <ul><li>EXPRESSING LIKES: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I love… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I like… </li></ul></...
LIKES AND DISLIKES <ul><li>If there is a verb after all the expressions before, it must be in …ing form: </li></ul><ul><ul...
UNIT 5 : ON THE MOVE <ul><li>Grammar:  Prepositions of </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a) place  </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><u...
UNIT 5 : ON THE MOVE <ul><li>Prepositios of place and directions: </li></ul>
UNIT 5 : ON THE MOVE <ul><li>The climbers stood  on top of  the mountain </li></ul><ul><li>The climbers stood  opposite  e...
UNIT 5 : ON THE MOVE <ul><li>TRANSPORTATION VOCABULARY: </li></ul><ul><li>  A  terminal  is a place where you can take a f...
UNIT 5 : ON THE MOVE <ul><li>A  ticket  is a piece of paper you need to travel on a train, plane or bus. </li></ul><ul><li...
UNIT 5 : ON THE MOVE <ul><li>An  elevato r is a small room that carries people up and down. </li></ul><ul><li>To board, me...
UNIT 5 : ON THE MOVE <ul><li>A  gate  is a place where people wait before they get on the plain. </li></ul><ul><li>A  term...
UNIT 5 : ON THE MOVE <ul><li>A  platform  is a place where you can get on a bus. </li></ul>
REFERENCES <ul><li>Harmer Jeremy, et al. (2007) Just Right Pre-Intermediate American edition, Workbook, pp. 26 </li></ul>
UNIT 5 : ON THE MOVE <ul><li>ARRANGING TO MEET </li></ul><ul><li>Fine, see you at … </li></ul><ul><li>OK , ( time  it is, ...
REFERENCES <ul><li>Harmer, Jeremy (2007) Just Right American Edition Student’s book, p 42 </li></ul>
UNIT 6 MEMORIES <ul><li>Grammar : a) Past Simple </li></ul><ul><li>  b)  Used   to </li></ul><ul><li>Vocabulary :  Life   ...
UNIT 6 MEMORIES <ul><li>SIMPLE PAST AFFIRMATIVE FORM: REGULAR VERBS </li></ul><ul><li>The past simple tense is made by add...
UNIT 6 MEMORIES <ul><li>If the verb is regular and ends in  –y , it drops the  y  by  i  and adds  –ed: </li></ul>cop ied ...
UNIT 6 MEMORIES <ul><li>SIMPLE PAST TENSE AFFIRMATIVE FORM FOR IRREGULAR VERBS: </li></ul><ul><li>Some verbs are irregular...
UNIT 6 MEMORIES <ul><li>SIMPLE PAST NEGATIVE FORM </li></ul><ul><li>We use  did not  ( didn’t )   + infitinitve  verb  to ...
UNIT 6 MEMORIES <ul><li>SIMPLE PAST INTERROGATIVE FORM </li></ul><ul><li>We use auxiliar Did and the infinitive form of th...
UNIT 6 MEMORIES <ul><li>TIME ADVERBS FOR SIMPLE PAST : </li></ul><ul><li>Yesterday </li></ul><ul><li>Last night / week / w...
REFERENCES <ul><li>Murphy, Raymond (2007) Essential Grammar in Use with answers. 3rd. Ed. CUP, Italy, p 32 </li></ul>
UNIT 6 MEMORIES <ul><li>USED TO </li></ul><ul><li>We use the expression “ used to ”  to talk about events that happened re...
UNIT 6 MEMORIES <ul><li>USED TO </li></ul><ul><li>We  used to  live in Xico, but now we live in Xalapa. </li></ul><ul><li>...
UNIT 6 MEMORIES <ul><li>USED TO </li></ul><ul><li>When I was a child I  used to  like chocolates but now I don’t </li></ul...
UNIT 6 MEMORIES <ul><li>USED TO NEGATIVE FORM </li></ul><ul><li>When I was a child  I did not  (didn’t)  use to  like toma...
UNIT 6 MEMORIES <ul><li>USED TO INTERROGTIVE FORM </li></ul><ul><li>Did you use to watch tv when you were a child? </li></...
REFERENCES <ul><li>Murphy, Raymond (2004). English Grammar in Use with answers, CUP, 3rd. ed, p 36 </li></ul><ul><li>Murph...
UNIT 6 MEMORIES <ul><li>A) Useful questions to talk about childhood: </li></ul><ul><li>When were you born? </li></ul><ul><...
UNIT 6 MEMORIES <ul><li>4. Who was your favorite teacher? </li></ul><ul><li>5. What was your favorite school subject? </li...
UNIT 6 MEMORIES <ul><li>B) Useful words to answer about childhood: </li></ul><ul><li>My favorite teacher/ toy/ tv program/...
UNIT 6 MEMORIES <ul><li>It wasn’t (very) pleasant </li></ul><ul><li>It was boring </li></ul><ul><li>It was terriric! / exc...
UNIT 6 MEMORIES <ul><li>COMMENTING </li></ul>You’re joking! How funny! No! Wow! Uh, oh. That sounds familiar Oh, no! I kno...
UNIT 7: TIME OFF <ul><li>Grammar: a)  ing  nouns(gerunds) </li></ul><ul><li>  b)  verb  +  ing </li></ul><ul><li>    c)  v...
UNIT 7: TIME OFF <ul><li>ING NOUNS (GERUNDS) </li></ul><ul><li>We often use and  –ing noun  or  gerund , when we talk abou...
UNIT 7: TIME OFF <ul><li>Some  –ing nouns  refer to sports or leisure activities: </li></ul><ul><li>Skating  is not very p...
UNIT 7: TIME OFF <ul><li>… ING VERBS </li></ul><ul><li>When we use two verbs together the second verb is often + ing: </li...
UNIT 7: TIME OFF <ul><li>Other verbs which take …ing are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Admit  Avoid   Consider </li></ul></ul><ul...
UNIT 7: TIME OFF <ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>Everybody stopped talk ing . </li></ul><ul><li>I’ll do the shopping w...
UNIT 7: TIME OFF <ul><li>VERB + TO + INFINITE </li></ul><ul><li>After some verbs the second verb is always  to + infinite:...
UNIT 7: TIME OFF <ul><li>Some other verbs which are always followed by  to  are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Arrange forget Hope...
REFERENCES <ul><li>Harmer, Jeremy (2007) Just Right Pre-intermediate American Edition mini-grammar </li></ul><ul><li>Murph...
UNIT 7: TIME OFF <ul><li>PLACES TO PRACTICE SPORTS </li></ul><ul><li>A golf course </li></ul><ul><li>A soccer pitch </li><...
UNIT 7: TIME OFF <ul><li>A tennis court </li></ul><ul><li>A snooker table </li></ul><ul><li>A boxing ring </li></ul><ul><l...
UNIT 7: TIME OFF <ul><li>INVITING PEOPLE </li></ul>No thanks. Why not? Do you want to…? That would be great! I’d rather no...
UNIT 8: FEELINGS <ul><li>Grammar: a) Past continuos </li></ul><ul><li>b)  past  continuos VS simple </li></ul><ul><li>    ...
PAST CONTINUOUS <ul><li>We use the past continuous to talk about things which were “in progress” at a particular time.  </...
PAST CONTINUOUS AFFIRMATIVE FORM Were You  We They Doing homework Yesterday night. Was I He She It
PAST CONTINUOUS NEGATIVE FORM Were not (weren’t) You  We They Doing homework yesterday night. Was not (wasn’t) I He She It
PAST CONTINUOUS INTERROGATIVE FORM I He She It Was reading a book? playing soccer? watching tv? you we they Were  No,I  wa...
Past Continuous Vs Past Simple <ul><li>Look at the following sentences, then look at the diagram that explains the differe...
Past Continuous Vs Past Simple <ul><li>The action of working was interrupted by the action of the cellphone ringing. </li>...
FEELINGS
 
FEELINGS WORRIED SAD IN LOVE JEALOUS FRIGHTENED HAPPY NERVOUS PROUD ANGRY EXCITED NEGATIVE POSITIVE
APOLOGIZING Don’r worry about it. Not at all I didn’t mean to… Never mind I’m sorry that you… That’s OK Sorry! That’s all ...
UNIT 11: BEFORE I’M THIRTY <ul><li>Grammar: a) The presente perfect </li></ul><ul><li>  b)  for   and   since </li></ul><u...
PRESENT PERFECT <ul><li>We use the  Present Perfect Simple  to talk about things that started in the past and which are st...
PRESENT PERFECT <ul><li>Present Perfect tense form needs Subjetc (Name or Pronoun) + auxiliar Has /have + past participle ...
PRESENT PERFECT <ul><li>To make the Negative form for Present Perfect use Subject + have + not (haven’t) + past participle...
PRESENT PERFECT <ul><li>To make the interrogative form for the Present Perfect you need to change the order between the au...
Present Perfect <ul><li>To give a short answer take the auxiliar have/has +not: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Has she studied Engl...
Present Perfect: for / since <ul><li>We use  for  to talk about a period of time: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>They have live...
Present Perfect: for / since <ul><li>We use  since  to talk about a specific time in the past: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>I...
Performance <ul><li>Review :  A piece of writing about a play or a film. </li></ul><ul><li>Moving : A good thing that make...
Performance <ul><li>Slow : Not fast. </li></ul><ul><li>Clapped : Put their hands togeher </li></ul>
Performance <ul><li>Booked : Bought/ordered a ticket before the show. </li></ul><ul><li>Stage : the place where the actors...
Performance <ul><li>Curtain : Large piece of material between the stage and the audience. </li></ul><ul><li>Performance : ...
Making Reservations <ul><li>Can I help you? </li></ul><ul><li>When is that for? </li></ul><ul><li>What time do you want to...
Making Reservations <ul><li>Clerk’s apologies: </li></ul><ul><li>I’m afraid that performance is sold out. </li></ul><ul><l...
UNIT 12: Making a difference <ul><li>Grammar: 1) Future simple for predictions and  unplanned   decisions . </li></ul><ul>...
FUTURE SIMPLE <ul><li>FOR PREDICTIONS </li></ul><ul><li>We use Will future to make predictions about the future (we can sh...
FUTURE SIMPLE <ul><li>We use will when we make sudden unplanned decisions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I’ll call back in a few m...
FUTURE SIMPLE <ul><li>We can ask questions by changing the order of Will and the subject: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Will Brazi...
Probability Modals <ul><li>Use the modals  will, might, could , may and won’t to talk about how probable the future is: </...
Word Families <ul><li>There are words which come from the same family but changes the kind of word it is: </li></ul>Rescue...
Offering to Help Let me … Should I …? No, thanks, I can do it by myself. Can I help you to … Don’t worry about it. Would y...
UNIT 13: Talents and abilities <ul><li>Grammar: a) Going to </li></ul><ul><li>  b) Plans and intentions </li></ul><ul><li>...
Going to <ul><li>We use going to future to talk about future plans and intentions. Going to is followed by an infinitive v...
Going to Negatie Form <ul><li>Use is/are not going to make negative sentenes (we can shorten is not and are not to isn’t a...
Going to Interrogative Form <ul><li>You need to change the verb Be at the beginning to make a question: Are you going to t...
This is the end of the Group Couseling <ul><li>We hope you have good results in your next examinatios. </li></ul><ul><ul><...
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IBAS 2

  1. 1. UNIVERSIDAD VERACRUZANA CENTRO DE IDIOMAS XALAPA CENTRO DE AUTOACCESO IBAS 200 2ª. ASESORIA GRUPAL JUST RIGHT PRE-INTERMEDIATE Martha Edna García Ramírez Unit 2 Unit 3 Unit 4 Unit 5 Unit 6 Unit 7 Unit 8 Unit 11 Unit 12 Unit 13
  2. 2. UNIT 1 The World of English <ul><li>Grammar : Comparative adjectives and adverbs </li></ul><ul><li>Vocabulary : two - word nouns </li></ul><ul><li>Function : Expressing preferences </li></ul>
  3. 3. COMPARATIVE FOR SHORT ADJECTIVES <ul><li>1. One syllable adjectives (short adjectives) form the comparative by adding –er </li></ul>COLD ER COLD LOW ER LOW SMART ER SMART CHEAP ER CHEAP COOL ER COOL WEAK ER WEAK WARM ER WARM TALL ER TALL STRONG ER STRONG SMAL LER SMALL SLOW ER SLOW SHORT ER SHORT QUIET ER QUIET QUICK ER QUICK NIC ER NICE LONG ER LONG FAST ER FAST DARK ER DARK CLEAN ER CLEAN COMPARATIVE ADJECTIVE
  4. 4. COMPARATIVE SHORT ADJECTIVES <ul><li>2. Two-syllable words that end in -y , -le , form the comparative by changing y to –i and adding –er: </li></ul>HEAV IER HEAVY NOIS IER NOISY HAPP IER HAPPY FRIENDL IER FRIENDLY EAS IER EASY EARL IER EARLY DIRT IER DIRTY COMPARATIVE ADJECTIVE
  5. 5. COMPARATIVE SHORT ADJECTIVES 3. When the adjective ends in consonant preceded by a vowel, it doubles the consonant and add -er : FUN NIER FUN NEW WER NEW SAD DER SAD SLIM MER SLIM HOT TER HOT FAT TER FAT BIG GER BIG COMPARATIVE ADJECTIVE
  6. 6. COMPARATIVE SHORT ADJECTIVES <ul><li>4. You can use –er or more with some two syllable adjectives, especially: </li></ul>SIMPLE R SIMPLE SHALLOW ER SHALLOW QUIET ER QUIET NARROW ER NARROW CLEVER ER CLEVER COMPARATIVE ADJECTIVE MORE SIMPLE SIMPLE MORE SHALLOW SHALLOW MORE QUIET QUIET MORE NARROW NARROW MORE CLEVER CLEVER COMPARATIVE ADJECTIVE
  7. 7. COMPARATIVE SHORT ADJECTIVES <ul><li>5. Exceptions: </li></ul><ul><li>A few adjectives have Irregular comparative forms: </li></ul>FURTHER /FARTHER FAR BETTER GOOD WORSE BAD COMPARATIVE ADJECTIVE
  8. 8. COMPARATIVE FOR LONG ADJECTIVES <ul><li>Long adjectives (two syllables or more) add more to the adjective to form the comparative: </li></ul>MORE TERRIBLE TERRIBLE MORE POLLUTED POLLUTED MORE INTERESTING INTERESTING MORE EXPENSIVE EXPENSIVE MORE DIFFICULT DIFFICULT MORE CROWDED CROWDED MORE BORING BORING MORE BEAUTIFUL BEAUTIFUL COMPARATIVE ADJECTIVE
  9. 9. COMPARATIVE ADJECTIVES <ul><li>You can use –er or more with some two syllable adjectives, especially: </li></ul>SIMPLE R SIMPLE SHALLOW ER SHALLOW QUIET ER QUIET NARROW ER NARROW CLEVER ER CLEVER COMPARATIVE ADJECTIVE MORE SIMPLE SIMPLE MORE SHALLOW SHALLOW MORE QUIET QUIET MORE NARROW NARROW MORE CLEVER CLEVER COMPARATIVE ADJECTIVE
  10. 10. REFERENCES: <ul><li>English Grammar in Use, Raymund Murphy, 3rd. Edition CUP, 2007 pp.210 </li></ul><ul><li>Essential Grammar in Use, Raymund Murphy, 3rd. Ed. CUP 2007 pp 184 </li></ul><ul><li>Grammar Spectrum 3 English Rules and practice Intermediate, Norman Coe, 2nd. Ed. OUP, p 97 </li></ul><ul><li>Grammar Spectrum 1 English Rules and practice Elemen tary, Norman Coe, 2nd. Ed. OUP, p 97 </li></ul>
  11. 11. ADVERBS <ul><li>An adverb tells you how something happens or how somebody does something: </li></ul><ul><li>The train stopped suddenly. </li></ul><ul><li>He finished his soup quickly. </li></ul>
  12. 12. ADVERBS <ul><li>Many adverbs of manner and some adverbs of degree are formed by adding –ly to the corresponding adjective: </li></ul>BEAUTIFUL LY BEAUTIFUL QUICK LY QUICK EASY LY EASY CHEAP LY CHEAP CAREFUL LY CAREFUL ADVERBS ADJECTIVE
  13. 13. COMPARING ADVERBS <ul><li>Single-syllable adverbs, including early, add –er: </li></ul><ul><li>Hard hard er </li></ul><ul><li>Early earl ier </li></ul>
  14. 14. COMPARING ADVERBS <ul><li>With adverbs of two or more syllables we form the comparative by adding more : </li></ul>MORE EASILY EASILY MORE CHEAPLY CHEAPLY MORE CAREFULLY CAREFULLY MORE NOISILY NOISILY MORE QUICKLY QUICKLY COMPARATIVE ADVERB
  15. 15. EXCEPTIONS FURHTER FAR MORE MUCH LESS LITTLE WORSE BADLY BETTER WELL COMPARATIVE ADVERB
  16. 16. EXPRESSING PREFERENCES <ul><li>ASKING FOR PREFERENCES: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Which do you prefer? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Would you rather a to b …? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EXPRESSING PREFERENCES: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I’d rather… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I prefer… </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. REFERENCES: <ul><li>A Practical English Grammar, Thompson and Martinet, OUP, 4th ed. pp.47,49 </li></ul><ul><li>Essential Grammar in Use, Raymund Murphy, 3rd. Ed. CUP 2007 pp 196 P 2000 </li></ul>
  18. 18. -ING / ED ADJECTIVES <ul><li>There are adjectives ending in –ing an –ed : </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bor ed bor ing </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Janes is bored because her job is boring </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>Adjectives ending in –ed are related to people’s attitude or feelings: </li></ul><ul><li>She ’s bored with her job. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>They are interested in politics. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>I get tired after work. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>He got satisfied with the results. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>I was shocked when I heard the news. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>Adjectives ending in –ing are related to things or objects: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Her job is boring . </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Julia thinks politics is interesting . </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It was surprising he passd the exam. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The film was disappointing . </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The news was shocking . </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 21. REFERENCES: <ul><li>Essential Grammar in Use, Raymund Murphy, 3rd. Ed. CUP 2007 pp 196 </li></ul>
  22. 22. TWO WORD NOUNS <ul><li>You can use two nouns together (noun + noun) to mean one thing, person or idea: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A tennis ball </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A bank manager </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A road accident </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Income tax </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The city centre </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  23. 23. TWO WORD NOUNS <ul><li>You can say: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a television camera </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A television programme </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A television studio </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A television producer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All of these have to do with television. </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. TWO WORD NOUNS <ul><li>Compare: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Garden vegetables ( vegetables that are grown in a garden) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A vegetable garden (a garden where vegetables are grown) </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. TWO WORD NOUNS <ul><li>Sometimes the first word ends in –ing . Usually these are thing used for doing something: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A frying pan (a pan for frying) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A washing machine. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A swimming pool. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A dining room. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  26. 26. TWO WORD NOUNS <ul><li>When two nouns are together, sometimes they are written as one word: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A headache toothpaste </li></ul></ul><ul><li>and sometimes as two separate words: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a car park a road sign </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There are no clear rules for this. If you are not sure, write two words. </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. TWO WORD NOUNS <ul><li>Note the difference: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A sugar bowl (perhaps empty) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A bowl of sugar (a bowl with sugar in it) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ashopping bag (perhaps empty) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A bag of shopping (a bag full of shopping) </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. TWO WORD NOUNS <ul><li>When we use noun + noun, the first noun is like an adjective which is normally singular. However, sometimes it is plural: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A bookshop is a shop where you can buy books. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An apple tree is a tree with apples. </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. REFERENCES: <ul><li>Essential Grammar in Use, Raymund Murphy, 3rd. Ed. CUP 2007 pp. 160 </li></ul>
  30. 30. UNIT 2 DON’T GET STRESSED OUT <ul><li>Grammar : Countable and uncountable nouns . </li></ul><ul><li>Vocabulary : Phrases with countable / uncountable nouns . </li></ul><ul><li>Function : asking for / giving advice </li></ul>
  31. 31. COUNTABLE NOUNS <ul><li>A countable noun can be singular or plural: </li></ul><ul><li>Banana Bananas </li></ul><ul><li>We can use numbers with countable nouns: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One banana Two bananas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We can use a/an with countable nouns: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A banana An apple </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. COUNTABLE NOUNS <ul><li>We cannot use singular countable nouns alone , but using a/the/my, etc: </li></ul><ul><li>I want a banana </li></ul><ul><li>I want banana </li></ul><ul><li>We can use plural countable nouns alone: </li></ul><ul><li>I like bananas </li></ul><ul><li>Accidents can be prevented. </li></ul>
  33. 33. QUANTITY WORDS FOR COUNTABLE NOUNS <ul><li>A LOT OF </li></ul><ul><li>LOTS OF </li></ul><ul><li>MANY </li></ul><ul><li>A FEW </li></ul><ul><li>SOME </li></ul><ul><li>NOT MANY </li></ul><ul><li>ANY </li></ul><ul><li>NO </li></ul>
  34. 34. COUNTABLE NOUNS <ul><li>We can use some or any with plural countable nouns: </li></ul><ul><li>We eat some bananas </li></ul><ul><li>We don’t have any bananas </li></ul><ul><li>We use many and few with plural countable nouns: </li></ul><ul><li>We have many bananas. </li></ul><ul><li>There are few bananas. </li></ul>
  35. 35. UNCOUNTABLE NOUNS <ul><li>An uncountable noun has only one form: </li></ul><ul><li>Rice sugar milk coffee bread cheese music money water </li></ul><ul><li>meat </li></ul>
  36. 36. UNCOUNTABLE NOUNS <ul><li>We can use uncountable nouns alone: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I eat rice every day </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Milk is expensive </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. UNCOUNTABLE NOUNS <ul><li>We cannot use numbers with uncountable nouns: </li></ul><ul><li>Five rices </li></ul><ul><li>We cannot normally use a / an </li></ul><ul><li>with uncountable nouns: </li></ul><ul><li>A sand, but sand </li></ul><ul><li>A music, but music </li></ul><ul><li>A rice, but rice </li></ul>
  38. 38. PHRASES WITH UNCOUNTABLE NOUNS <ul><li>We can use the following phrases with uncountble nouns: </li></ul><ul><li>A bowl of cereal / soup / ice cream </li></ul><ul><li>A slice of bread/ cheese / cake </li></ul><ul><li>A drop of lemon juice / milk, / water / oil </li></ul><ul><li>A pitcher of milk / water </li></ul><ul><li>A glass of milk / water </li></ul><ul><li>A tablespoon of sugar / salt / oil </li></ul><ul><li>A pinch of salt </li></ul><ul><li>A piece of furniture / homework / advice /information / clothing / news </li></ul>
  39. 39. UNCOUNTABLE NOUNS <ul><li>We can use much and little with uncountable nouns: </li></ul><ul><li>We did much shopping today. </li></ul><ul><li>I drank a little milk this morning </li></ul>
  40. 40. Countable and uncountable nouns <ul><li>Some nouns have one meaning which is uncountable and another meaning which is countable: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>He loves chocolate (in general= uncountable) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He ate two chocolates from the box (little bits of chocolate = countable) </li></ul></ul>
  41. 41. QUANTITY WORDS FOR UNCOUNTABLE NOUNS <ul><li>MUCH </li></ul><ul><li>A LITTLE </li></ul><ul><li>SOME </li></ul><ul><li>NOT MUCH </li></ul><ul><li>NO </li></ul><ul><li>ANY </li></ul>
  42. 42. REFERENCES <ul><li>Murphy, Raymond (2004). English Grammar in Use, CUP, P. 138 </li></ul>
  43. 43. <ul><li>Can you give me some advice? </li></ul><ul><li>Got any ideas </li></ul><ul><li>What can I do to…? </li></ul>ASKING FOR ADVICE GIVING ADVICE <ul><li>Try… </li></ul><ul><li>How about…? </li></ul><ul><li>You can… </li></ul><ul><li>You could… </li></ul>
  44. 44. UNIT 3 TV AND THE MEDIA <ul><li>CONTENTS: </li></ul><ul><li>Present simple </li></ul><ul><li>Present simple, subject-object questions </li></ul><ul><li>Expressing opinion </li></ul>
  45. 45. SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE <ul><li>We use the simple present tense to: </li></ul><ul><li>Talk/ ask about repeated actions and habits: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>She goes to the movies every weekend. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I always get hungry in ther afternoon. </li></ul></ul>
  46. 46. SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE <ul><li>b) Talk/ask about general facts which are true and will be for some time: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Water boils at 100º celsius. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It doesn`t rain too much in summer. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>c) Describe what happens in a film, books, tv, or radio program: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In the Novel Jane Eyre, jane marries Mr Rochester. </li></ul></ul>
  47. 47. REFERENCES <ul><li>Murphy, Raymond (2004). English Grammar in Use, CUP, P. 6 </li></ul>
  48. 48. SUBJECT-OBJECT QUESTIONS <ul><li>WHO / WHAT as subject: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Who lives in this house? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>( somebody lives in it, but who?) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What is happening? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>( something is happening , but what ) </li></ul></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  49. 49. SUBJECT-OBJECT QUESTIONS <ul><li>In these questions WHO / WHAT is the object: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Who do you admire? I admire Nicole Kidman. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What does George like? Oranges </li></ul></ul>
  50. 50. SUBJECT-OBJECT QUESTIONS <ul><li>Verbs followed by an object: </li></ul><ul><li>Watch Admire Buy Enjoy </li></ul><ul><li>Like Have Do Speak </li></ul>
  51. 51. REFERENCES <ul><li>Murphy, Raymond (2007). English Grammar in Use, 3dr. Ed. CUP, P. 100 </li></ul>
  52. 52. EXPRESSING OPINION Do you really …think so? … like warching tv? <ul><li>I don’t agree. </li></ul><ul><li>I hate them. </li></ul><ul><li>No they are not. </li></ul><ul><li>You’re joking! </li></ul><ul><li>- You’re right </li></ul><ul><li>I agree. </li></ul><ul><li>I think they are really exciting. </li></ul><ul><li>What do you think of… </li></ul><ul><li>… documentaries? </li></ul><ul><li>… street surveys? </li></ul>DISAGREEING AGREEING QUESTIONING OPINIONS GIVING OPINION ASKING FOR AN OPINION
  53. 53. UNIT 4: MAKING A LIVING <ul><li>Grammar : a) present simple and present continuos b) present continuos with </li></ul><ul><li> future meaning </li></ul><ul><li>Vocabulary : Jobs and work </li></ul><ul><li>Function : Likes and dislikes </li></ul>
  54. 54. UNIT 4: MAKING A LIVING <ul><li>PRESENT PROGRESSIVE </li></ul><ul><li>We use present progressive or continuous to talk about: </li></ul><ul><li>Things happening at the time you’re speaking: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>I’ m tak ing a day off from work </li></ul></ul></ul>
  55. 55. UNIT 4: MAKING LIVING <ul><li>b) Things that are temporary: </li></ul><ul><li>I’ m work ing on Sundays this month . </li></ul><ul><li>c) Things are going to happen in a near future: </li></ul><ul><li>I’ m leav ing my job next week. </li></ul>
  56. 56. UNIT 4: MAKING A LIVING <ul><li>Compare the ideas from the boxes: </li></ul>PRESENT He is leav ing to Brazil next week. He is catch ing a crocodile in this moment. He catch es crocodiles. He is teach ing about crocodiles in Zambia. He teach es about crocodiles in Brazil. Now, Salvador is work ing in Zambia. Salvdor usually work s in Brazil. PROGRESSIVE SIMPLE
  57. 57. UNIT 4: MAKING A LIVING <ul><li>TIME EXPRESSIONS </li></ul>At 8 o’clock Tomorrow Next week On May 25th. In the summer Now Today At this moment Right now FOR THE FUTURE FOR THE PRESENT
  58. 58. UNIT 4: MAKING A LIVING <ul><li>JOB Vs WORK </li></ul><ul><li>Analise the following definitions: </li></ul><ul><li>WORK (n) (U) </li></ul><ul><li>An activity you are paid for doing, especially regularly. </li></ul><ul><li>A general word when talking about several different jobs. </li></ul><ul><li>JOB (n) (C) </li></ul><ul><li>Activity you do to earn you living, especially if you work for somebody else. </li></ul><ul><li>A specific piece of work that has to be done. </li></ul>
  59. 59. LIKES AND DISLIKES <ul><li>EXPRESSING LIKES: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I love… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I like… </li></ul></ul><ul><li>EXPRESSING DISLIKES: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I don’t like… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I dislike… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I can’t stand… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I hate… </li></ul></ul><ul><li>EXPRESSING NOR DISLIKE NEITHER DISLIKE… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I don’t mind… </li></ul></ul>
  60. 60. LIKES AND DISLIKES <ul><li>If there is a verb after all the expressions before, it must be in …ing form: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I love exercising outdoors. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I hate getting up early. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I don’t mind eating out every day. </li></ul></ul>
  61. 61. UNIT 5 : ON THE MOVE <ul><li>Grammar: Prepositions of </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a) place </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li> b) movement </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Vocabulary: Public Transportation </li></ul><ul><li>Function: Arranging to meet </li></ul>
  62. 62. UNIT 5 : ON THE MOVE <ul><li>Prepositios of place and directions: </li></ul>
  63. 63. UNIT 5 : ON THE MOVE <ul><li>The climbers stood on top of the mountain </li></ul><ul><li>The climbers stood opposite each other </li></ul>
  64. 64. UNIT 5 : ON THE MOVE <ul><li>TRANSPORTATION VOCABULARY: </li></ul><ul><li> A terminal is a place where you can take a ferry. </li></ul><ul><li>A platform is a place where you can get onto the train. </li></ul>
  65. 65. UNIT 5 : ON THE MOVE <ul><li>A ticket is a piece of paper you need to travel on a train, plane or bus. </li></ul><ul><li>An airport is a place where you can take a plane. </li></ul>
  66. 66. UNIT 5 : ON THE MOVE <ul><li>An elevato r is a small room that carries people up and down. </li></ul><ul><li>To board, means to “get onto” a plane, train, or bus. </li></ul>
  67. 67. UNIT 5 : ON THE MOVE <ul><li>A gate is a place where people wait before they get on the plain. </li></ul><ul><li>A terminal is a place where you can take a ferry. </li></ul>
  68. 68. UNIT 5 : ON THE MOVE <ul><li>A platform is a place where you can get on a bus. </li></ul>
  69. 69. REFERENCES <ul><li>Harmer Jeremy, et al. (2007) Just Right Pre-Intermediate American edition, Workbook, pp. 26 </li></ul>
  70. 70. UNIT 5 : ON THE MOVE <ul><li>ARRANGING TO MEET </li></ul><ul><li>Fine, see you at … </li></ul><ul><li>OK , ( time it is, then. </li></ul><ul><li>That sounds good . </li></ul><ul><li>I have a better idea . </li></ul><ul><li>Or we could meet…? </li></ul><ul><li>I could meet you at … </li></ul><ul><li>How about …? </li></ul><ul><li>Let’s meet… </li></ul><ul><li>Let`s say… </li></ul><ul><li>We could meet at… </li></ul><ul><li>Why don’t we go to … </li></ul><ul><li>What time should we meet? </li></ul><ul><li>Have you got any idea ? </li></ul><ul><li>What’s the best time to meet? </li></ul><ul><li>Where do you suggest to … ? </li></ul><ul><li>Where should we …? </li></ul>Agreeing Offering alternatives Making suggestions Asking for suggestions
  71. 71. REFERENCES <ul><li>Harmer, Jeremy (2007) Just Right American Edition Student’s book, p 42 </li></ul>
  72. 72. UNIT 6 MEMORIES <ul><li>Grammar : a) Past Simple </li></ul><ul><li> b) Used to </li></ul><ul><li>Vocabulary : Life stages </li></ul><ul><li>Functions : commenting </li></ul>
  73. 73. UNIT 6 MEMORIES <ul><li>SIMPLE PAST AFFIRMATIVE FORM: REGULAR VERBS </li></ul><ul><li>The past simple tense is made by adding –ed to the regular verbs: </li></ul>Need ed Need Stay ed Stay Danc ed Dance Start ed Start Clean ed Clean work ed Work PAST INFINITIVE
  74. 74. UNIT 6 MEMORIES <ul><li>If the verb is regular and ends in –y , it drops the y by i and adds –ed: </li></ul>cop ied copy Stud ied Study Tr ied Try PAST INFINITIVE
  75. 75. UNIT 6 MEMORIES <ul><li>SIMPLE PAST TENSE AFFIRMATIVE FORM FOR IRREGULAR VERBS: </li></ul><ul><li>Some verbs are irregular because do not add –ed, but they change completely: </li></ul>drank drink Did Do Came Come Caught Catch Bought Buy Built Build Brought Bring Broke Break Began Begin PAST INFINITIVE
  76. 76. UNIT 6 MEMORIES <ul><li>SIMPLE PAST NEGATIVE FORM </li></ul><ul><li>We use did not ( didn’t ) + infitinitve verb to make the negative form in the past: </li></ul><ul><li>I played tennis but I didn’t win . </li></ul><ul><li>We went to the cinema, but we didn’t enjoy the film. </li></ul>
  77. 77. UNIT 6 MEMORIES <ul><li>SIMPLE PAST INTERROGATIVE FORM </li></ul><ul><li>We use auxiliar Did and the infinitive form of the verb to make the interrogative form for simple past tense: </li></ul><ul><li>Did you enjoy the party? </li></ul><ul><li>Did you see him yesterday? </li></ul><ul><li>Did it rain last week? </li></ul><ul><li>Did your parents have a good holiday? </li></ul>
  78. 78. UNIT 6 MEMORIES <ul><li>TIME ADVERBS FOR SIMPLE PAST : </li></ul><ul><li>Yesterday </li></ul><ul><li>Last night / week / weekend / month / summer / year / etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Ago before a noun: I had dinner an hour ago </li></ul><ul><li>Tom went out ten minutes ago . </li></ul>
  79. 79. REFERENCES <ul><li>Murphy, Raymond (2007) Essential Grammar in Use with answers. 3rd. Ed. CUP, Italy, p 32 </li></ul>
  80. 80. UNIT 6 MEMORIES <ul><li>USED TO </li></ul><ul><li>We use the expression “ used to ” to talk about events that happened regularlyl in the past, but no longer happens: </li></ul><ul><li>I used to play soccer when I was a child, but not any more. </li></ul>past I used to play soccer Not any more present
  81. 81. UNIT 6 MEMORIES <ul><li>USED TO </li></ul><ul><li>We used to live in Xico, but now we live in Xalapa. </li></ul><ul><li>There used to be three cinemas in Xalapa, now there are about 20. </li></ul>
  82. 82. UNIT 6 MEMORIES <ul><li>USED TO </li></ul><ul><li>When I was a child I used to like chocolates but now I don’t </li></ul><ul><li>Liz used to have long hair but now she has short hair. </li></ul>
  83. 83. UNIT 6 MEMORIES <ul><li>USED TO NEGATIVE FORM </li></ul><ul><li>When I was a child I did not (didn’t) use to like tomatoes, but now I do. </li></ul><ul><li>I didn’t use to go to work, but now I do. </li></ul><ul><li>I didn’t use to drive a car, now I do. </li></ul>
  84. 84. UNIT 6 MEMORIES <ul><li>USED TO INTERROGTIVE FORM </li></ul><ul><li>Did you use to watch tv when you were a child? </li></ul><ul><li>Did your parents use to have a cell phone when they were children? </li></ul><ul><li>Did you use to travel by car when you were a child? </li></ul>
  85. 85. REFERENCES <ul><li>Murphy, Raymond (2004). English Grammar in Use with answers, CUP, 3rd. ed, p 36 </li></ul><ul><li>Murphy, Raymond (2007). Essential Grammar in Use with answers, CUP, 3rd. ed, p. 82 </li></ul>
  86. 86. UNIT 6 MEMORIES <ul><li>A) Useful questions to talk about childhood: </li></ul><ul><li>When were you born? </li></ul><ul><li>What were you like? </li></ul><ul><li>What was your favorite toy/ tv program/ piece of cloth/ etc ? </li></ul>
  87. 87. UNIT 6 MEMORIES <ul><li>4. Who was your favorite teacher? </li></ul><ul><li>5. What was your favorite school subject? </li></ul><ul><li>6. What time did you…? </li></ul><ul><li>7. Who did you… with? </li></ul><ul><li>8. What did you do …? </li></ul><ul><li>9. How long did you…? </li></ul><ul><li>10. What was ( the weather) like in the afternoons…? </li></ul>
  88. 88. UNIT 6 MEMORIES <ul><li>B) Useful words to answer about childhood: </li></ul><ul><li>My favorite teacher/ toy/ tv program/ piece of cloth was… </li></ul><ul><li>When I was a child… </li></ul><ul><li>… the weather was… </li></ul><ul><li>… there were/weren’t… </li></ul><ul><li>… there was/there wasn’t </li></ul>
  89. 89. UNIT 6 MEMORIES <ul><li>It wasn’t (very) pleasant </li></ul><ul><li>It was boring </li></ul><ul><li>It was terriric! / exciting / fun / very nice / pleasant. </li></ul>UNPLEASANT PLEASANT EXPRESSING
  90. 90. UNIT 6 MEMORIES <ul><li>COMMENTING </li></ul>You’re joking! How funny! No! Wow! Uh, oh. That sounds familiar Oh, no! I know what you mean! How stupid! I know the feeling EXCLAMATIONS MAKING COMMENTS
  91. 91. UNIT 7: TIME OFF <ul><li>Grammar: a) ing nouns(gerunds) </li></ul><ul><li> b) verb + ing </li></ul><ul><li> c) verb + to + infinitive </li></ul><ul><li>Vocabulary: Activities </li></ul><ul><li>Places to do activities . </li></ul><ul><li>Function: Inviting </li></ul>
  92. 92. UNIT 7: TIME OFF <ul><li>ING NOUNS (GERUNDS) </li></ul><ul><li>We often use and –ing noun or gerund , when we talk about an activity in a general way: </li></ul><ul><li>Watching tv is very popular in USA. </li></ul><ul><li>Listening to music is prefered by teenagers. </li></ul>
  93. 93. UNIT 7: TIME OFF <ul><li>Some –ing nouns refer to sports or leisure activities: </li></ul><ul><li>Skating is not very popular sport in Mexico. </li></ul><ul><li>Bowling is not a common sport in Mexico. </li></ul><ul><li>Swimming is a popular sport in Mexico. </li></ul>
  94. 94. UNIT 7: TIME OFF <ul><li>… ING VERBS </li></ul><ul><li>When we use two verbs together the second verb is often + ing: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I love play ing baseball. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I hate listen ing to music when I am studying </li></ul></ul>
  95. 95. UNIT 7: TIME OFF <ul><li>Other verbs which take …ing are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Admit Avoid Consider </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> Deny Dislike Enjoy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enjoy Finish keep </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mind Suggest practice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Start Stop </li></ul></ul>
  96. 96. UNIT 7: TIME OFF <ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>Everybody stopped talk ing . </li></ul><ul><li>I’ll do the shopping when I’ve finished clean ing the flat. </li></ul><ul><li>He tried to avoid answer ing my questions. </li></ul><ul><li>I don’t fancy go ing out this evening. </li></ul><ul><li>She loves tak ing exercise. </li></ul>
  97. 97. UNIT 7: TIME OFF <ul><li>VERB + TO + INFINITE </li></ul><ul><li>After some verbs the second verb is always to + infinite: </li></ul><ul><li>I decided to stay. </li></ul><ul><li>She wanted to see him . </li></ul><ul><li>Simon was in a difficult situation, so I agreed to help him. </li></ul>
  98. 98. UNIT 7: TIME OFF <ul><li>Some other verbs which are always followed by to are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Arrange forget Hope offer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Promise refuse plan afford </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fail learn pretend </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Claim seem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Afford try </li></ul></ul>
  99. 99. REFERENCES <ul><li>Harmer, Jeremy (2007) Just Right Pre-intermediate American Edition mini-grammar </li></ul><ul><li>Murphy, Raymund (2004) English Grammar in Use with answers, 3rd. Ed. pp106-107 </li></ul>
  100. 100. UNIT 7: TIME OFF <ul><li>PLACES TO PRACTICE SPORTS </li></ul><ul><li>A golf course </li></ul><ul><li>A soccer pitch </li></ul><ul><li>A baseball field </li></ul>
  101. 101. UNIT 7: TIME OFF <ul><li>A tennis court </li></ul><ul><li>A snooker table </li></ul><ul><li>A boxing ring </li></ul><ul><li>A bowling alley </li></ul>
  102. 102. UNIT 7: TIME OFF <ul><li>INVITING PEOPLE </li></ul>No thanks. Why not? Do you want to…? That would be great! I’d rather not. I’m not really sure I’d love to How about a …? I’d love to but… Perhaps What a fantastic idea! Would you like to… REFUSING NOT SURE ACCEPTING INVITING
  103. 103. UNIT 8: FEELINGS <ul><li>Grammar: a) Past continuos </li></ul><ul><li>b) past continuos VS simple </li></ul><ul><li> past </li></ul><ul><li>Vocabulary: Feelings </li></ul><ul><li>Functions: Apologizing </li></ul>
  104. 104. PAST CONTINUOUS <ul><li>We use the past continuous to talk about things which were “in progress” at a particular time. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use was/were + ing.verb </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>She was watching TV at half past eleven last night. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>They were living in Argentina last year. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  105. 105. PAST CONTINUOUS AFFIRMATIVE FORM Were You We They Doing homework Yesterday night. Was I He She It
  106. 106. PAST CONTINUOUS NEGATIVE FORM Were not (weren’t) You We They Doing homework yesterday night. Was not (wasn’t) I He She It
  107. 107. PAST CONTINUOUS INTERROGATIVE FORM I He She It Was reading a book? playing soccer? watching tv? you we they Were No,I wasn’t No, he wasn’t No, she wasn’t No, it wasn’t Yes, I was Yes, he was Yes, she was Yes, it was No, you weren’t . No, we weren’t. No, they weren’t. Yes, you were Yes, We were Yes they were
  108. 108. Past Continuous Vs Past Simple <ul><li>Look at the following sentences, then look at the diagram that explains the difference between both past tenses: </li></ul><ul><li>The telephone rang when </li></ul><ul><li>Past x present </li></ul><ul><li>we were working at my house. </li></ul><ul><li>Past xxxxxxxxxx present </li></ul>
  109. 109. Past Continuous Vs Past Simple <ul><li>The action of working was interrupted by the action of the cellphone ringing. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><li>I was looking up things on the internet when she phoned. </li></ul>
  110. 110. FEELINGS
  111. 112. FEELINGS WORRIED SAD IN LOVE JEALOUS FRIGHTENED HAPPY NERVOUS PROUD ANGRY EXCITED NEGATIVE POSITIVE
  112. 113. APOLOGIZING Don’r worry about it. Not at all I didn’t mean to… Never mind I’m sorry that you… That’s OK Sorry! That’s all right I apologize for being late. Apology accepted I apologize RESPONDING TO APOLOGIES APOLOGIZING
  113. 114. UNIT 11: BEFORE I’M THIRTY <ul><li>Grammar: a) The presente perfect </li></ul><ul><li> b) for and since </li></ul><ul><li>Vocabulary: Performance </li></ul><ul><li>Function: Reserving tickets , tables, </li></ul><ul><li>rooms. </li></ul>
  114. 115. PRESENT PERFECT <ul><li>We use the Present Perfect Simple to talk about things that started in the past and which are still true: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I have worked with my father for a long time. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They have never lost a competition. </li></ul></ul>
  115. 116. PRESENT PERFECT <ul><li>Present Perfect tense form needs Subjetc (Name or Pronoun) + auxiliar Has /have + past participle of the verb: </li></ul><ul><li>I have studied English for two years. </li></ul><ul><li>She has bought the cake for the party. </li></ul><ul><li>They have swumn in the river before. </li></ul>
  116. 117. PRESENT PERFECT <ul><li>To make the Negative form for Present Perfect use Subject + have + not (haven’t) + past participle verb + complement: </li></ul><ul><li>I haven’t been to India </li></ul><ul><li>She hasn’t called me. </li></ul>
  117. 118. PRESENT PERFECT <ul><li>To make the interrogative form for the Present Perfect you need to change the order between the auxiliar and the subject: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>She has studied English </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Has she studied English? </li></ul></ul>
  118. 119. Present Perfect <ul><li>To give a short answer take the auxiliar have/has +not: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Has she studied English? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Yes, she has </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No, she hasn’t </li></ul></ul></ul>
  119. 120. Present Perfect: for / since <ul><li>We use for to talk about a period of time: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>They have lived in England for three years . </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>I haven’t had a cup of coffee for two hours . </li></ul></ul></ul>
  120. 121. Present Perfect: for / since <ul><li>We use since to talk about a specific time in the past: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>I haven’t seen him since Friday. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>She’s been in Greece since January. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  121. 122. Performance <ul><li>Review : A piece of writing about a play or a film. </li></ul><ul><li>Moving : A good thing that makes you feel very emotional </li></ul>
  122. 123. Performance <ul><li>Slow : Not fast. </li></ul><ul><li>Clapped : Put their hands togeher </li></ul>
  123. 124. Performance <ul><li>Booked : Bought/ordered a ticket before the show. </li></ul><ul><li>Stage : the place where the actors are. </li></ul>
  124. 125. Performance <ul><li>Curtain : Large piece of material between the stage and the audience. </li></ul><ul><li>Performance : Show / play </li></ul><ul><li>Boring: not exciting </li></ul>
  125. 126. Making Reservations <ul><li>Can I help you? </li></ul><ul><li>When is that for? </li></ul><ul><li>What time do you want to see the movie? </li></ul><ul><li>What dates are you thinking of? </li></ul><ul><li>How many tickets do you want? </li></ul><ul><li>Where would you like to sit? </li></ul><ul><li>Can you give me your credit card? </li></ul><ul><li>Is there anything else I can do for you? </li></ul><ul><li>I’d like some tickets for Dine Warrior V, please. </li></ul><ul><li>I’d like to reserve a table. </li></ul><ul><li>I’d like a room for two nights. </li></ul><ul><li>At the front </li></ul><ul><li>In the middle somewhere. </li></ul><ul><li>An aisle seat </li></ul><ul><li>Not to near the back. </li></ul>Clerck Questions Customer Needs
  126. 127. Making Reservations <ul><li>Clerk’s apologies: </li></ul><ul><li>I’m afraid that performance is sold out. </li></ul><ul><li>I’m afraid that there aren’t any tickets for that performance. </li></ul><ul><li>I’m afraid we’re full tomorrow. </li></ul><ul><li>I’m sorry Sir. The hotel/restaurant is full on… </li></ul><ul><li>I think we can’t do that. </li></ul>
  127. 128. UNIT 12: Making a difference <ul><li>Grammar: 1) Future simple for predictions and unplanned decisions . </li></ul><ul><li> 2) Probability modals </li></ul><ul><li>Vocabulary: </li></ul><ul><li>Function Offering to help </li></ul>
  128. 129. FUTURE SIMPLE <ul><li>FOR PREDICTIONS </li></ul><ul><li>We use Will future to make predictions about the future (we can shorten will to ‘ll) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I think Brazil will win the World Cup. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>She’ll probably be here in a few minutes. </li></ul></ul>
  129. 130. FUTURE SIMPLE <ul><li>We use will when we make sudden unplanned decisions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I’ll call back in a few minutes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It’s OK. I’ll wash the dishes. </li></ul></ul>
  130. 131. FUTURE SIMPLE <ul><li>We can ask questions by changing the order of Will and the subject: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Will Brazil with World Cup? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Will you wash the dishes? </li></ul></ul>
  131. 132. Probability Modals <ul><li>Use the modals will, might, could , may and won’t to talk about how probable the future is: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>I’ll see you tomorrow (I am 100% certain) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>I won’t see you tomorrow (I am 100% certian I won’t see you) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>I might see you tomorrow I’m 50% certain) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>I could /may see you tomorrow (I’m 40% certain) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  132. 133. Word Families <ul><li>There are words which come from the same family but changes the kind of word it is: </li></ul>Rescued Rescuer Rescue Married Marriage Marry Protected Protection Protect Moved Movement Move Discovered Discovery Discover Scientific Scientist / Science ADJECTIVE NOUN VERB
  133. 134. Offering to Help Let me … Should I …? No, thanks, I can do it by myself. Can I help you to … Don’t worry about it. Would you like some help with . . . Thanks Why don’t you let met…? Accepting Help Offering to Help
  134. 135. UNIT 13: Talents and abilities <ul><li>Grammar: a) Going to </li></ul><ul><li> b) Plans and intentions </li></ul><ul><li>Vocabulary: Abilities and talents </li></ul><ul><li>Function: Asking for language help </li></ul>
  135. 136. Going to <ul><li>We use going to future to talk about future plans and intentions. Going to is followed by an infinitive verb: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Next year is going to be fantastic. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>I am going to Nayarit next holidays. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  136. 137. Going to Negatie Form <ul><li>Use is/are not going to make negative sentenes (we can shorten is not and are not to isn’t and aren’t) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>I’m not going to be late. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>He isn’t going to travel to St. Petersburg. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  137. 138. Going to Interrogative Form <ul><li>You need to change the verb Be at the beginning to make a question: Are you going to travel to Europe next </li></ul>
  138. 139. This is the end of the Group Couseling <ul><li>We hope you have good results in your next examinatios. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>GOOD LUCK!!! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Self Acces Staff </li></ul>
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