Análisis interno

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  • Análisis interno

    1. 1. Ch3- The Internal Environment:The Internal Environment: Resources, Capabilities andResources, Capabilities and Core CompetenciesCore Competencies Michael A. HittMichael A. Hitt R. Duane IrelandR. Duane Ireland Robert E. HoskissonRobert E. Hoskisson ©2000 South-Western College Publishing
    2. 2. Ch3- External Environment What the Firm Might Do Internal Environment What the Firm Can Do SustainableSustainable CompetitiveCompetitive AdvantageAdvantage
    3. 3. Ch3- Resources * Tangible * Intangible Capabilities Teams of Resources Sources of Core Competencies Competitive Advantage Strategic Competitiveness Above-Average Returns Competitive Advantage Gained through Core Competencies Discovering Core Competencies Discovering Core Competencies Criteria of Sustainable Advantages Value Chain Analysis Valuable Rare Costly to Imitate Nonsubstitutable * * * * * Outsource
    4. 4. Ch3- How do we assembleHow do we assemble bundlesbundles of Resources,of Resources, Capabilities and Core Competencies to createCapabilities and Core Competencies to create VALUEVALUE for customers?for customers? Will environmental changes make our coreWill environmental changes make our core competencies obsolete?competencies obsolete? And...And... Are substitutes available for our coreAre substitutes available for our core competencies?competencies? Are our core competencies easily imitated?Are our core competencies easily imitated? Key Questions for Managers in Internal Analysis
    5. 5. Ch3- Conditions Affecting Managerial Decisions About Resources, Capabilities and Core Competencies Uncertainty regarding characteristics of the general and the industry environments, competitor’s actions, and customer’s preferences. Complexity regarding the interrelated causes shaping a firm’s environments and perceptions of the environments Intraorganizational Conflicts among people making managerial decisions and those affected by them
    6. 6. Ch3- Resources * Tangible * Intangible Discovering Core Competencies
    7. 7. Ch3- What a firm has to work with:What a firm has to work with: itsits assetsassets, including its, including its peoplepeople andand the value of itsthe value of its brand namebrand name What a firmWhat a firm HasHas......Resources
    8. 8. Ch3- Resources representResources represent inputs into ainputs into a firm’s production processfirm’s production process...... such as capital equipment, skills ofsuch as capital equipment, skills of employees, brand names, financesemployees, brand names, finances and talented managersand talented managers What a firmWhat a firm HasHas...... What a firm has to work with:What a firm has to work with: its assets, including its peopleits assets, including its people and the value of its brand nameand the value of its brand name Resources
    9. 9. Ch3- What a firm has to work with:What a firm has to work with: its assets, including its peopleits assets, including its people and the value of its brand nameand the value of its brand name Resources represent inputs into aResources represent inputs into a firm’s production process...firm’s production process... such as capital equipment, skillssuch as capital equipment, skills of employees, brand names,of employees, brand names, finances and talented managersfinances and talented managers ““Some genius invented the Oreo. We’re justSome genius invented the Oreo. We’re just living off the inheritance.”living off the inheritance.” F. Ross Johnson,F. Ross Johnson, Former President & CEO,Former President & CEO, RJR NabiscoRJR Nabisco What a firmWhat a firm HasHas......Resources
    10. 10. Ch3-1 Tangible Resources Financial* Physical* Human Resources* Organizational* What a firm Has... What a firm has to work with: its assets, including its people and the value of its brand name Resources represent inputs into a firm’s production process... such as capital equipment, skills of employees, brand names, finances and talented managers Intangible Resources Technological* Innovation* Reputation* “Some genius invented the Oreo. We’re just living off the inheritance.” F. Ross Johnson, Former President & CEO, RJR Nabisco Resources
    11. 11. Ch3-1 Resources * Tangible * Intangible Capabilities Teams of Resources Discovering Core Competencies
    12. 12. Ch3-1 What a firm Does... Capabilities represent:Capabilities represent: the firm’s capacity or ability tothe firm’s capacity or ability to integrateintegrate individual firm resourcesindividual firm resources to achieve a desiredto achieve a desired objective.objective. Capabilities
    13. 13. Ch3-1 What a firm Does... Capabilities develop over time as a result of complex interactions that take advantage of the interrelationships between a firm’s tangible and intangible resources that are based on the development, transmission and exchange or sharing of information and knowledge as carried out by the firm's employees. Capabilities represent: the firm’s capacity or ability to integrate individual firm resources to achieve a desired objective. Capabilities
    14. 14. Ch3-1 What a firm Does... Capabilities represent: the firm’s capacity or ability to integrate individual firm resources to achieve a desired objective. Capabilities develop over time as a result of complex interactions that take advantage of the interrelationships between a firm’s tangible and intangible resources that are based on the development, transmission and exchange or sharing of information and knowledge as carried out by the firm's employees. Capabilities become important when they areCapabilities become important when they are combined incombined in unique combinationsunique combinations which createwhich create core competencies which havecore competencies which have strategic valuestrategic value andand can lead tocan lead to competitive advantagecompetitive advantage.. Capabilities
    15. 15. Ch3-1 Resources * Tangible * Intangible Capabilities Teams of Resources Discovering Core Competencies Sources of Core Competencies Competitive Advantage Discovering Core Competencies
    16. 16. Ch3-1 What a firm Does... that is Strategically Valuable “…“…are the essence of what makes an organizationare the essence of what makes an organization unique in its ability to provide value tounique in its ability to provide value to customers.”customers.” Leonard-Barton, Bowen, Clark, Holloway & WheelwrightLeonard-Barton, Bowen, Clark, Holloway & Wheelwright McKinsey & Co. recommends identifying three to fourMcKinsey & Co. recommends identifying three to four competencies to use in framing strategic actions.competencies to use in framing strategic actions. Core Competencies
    17. 17. Ch3-1 Resources * Tangible * Intangible Capabilities Teams of Resources Sources of Core Competencies Competitive Advantage Discovering Core Competencies Criteria of Sustainable Advantages Valuable Rare Costly to Imitate Nonsubstitutable * * * * Discovering Core Competencies * Outsource
    18. 18. Ch3-1 For a strategic capability to be aFor a strategic capability to be a Core Competency, it must be:Core Competency, it must be: Core Competencies Valuable Rare Costly to Imitate Nonsubstitutable What a firm Does... that is Strategically Valuable
    19. 19. Ch3-1 Valuable Rare Costly to Imitate Capabilities that other firms cannot develop easily, usually due to unique historical conditions, causal ambiguity or social complexity Capabilities that are not possessed by many others Capabilities that help a firm neutralize threats or exploit opportunities Core Competencies What a firm Does... that is Strategically Valuable
    20. 20. Ch3-2 What Criteria Make Core Competencies Costly to Imitate? Unique Historical Conditions Causal Ambiguity Social Complexity This occurs when competitors are unable to detect how a firm uses its competencies as a foundation for competitive advantage Occurs when the firm’s capabilities are the result of complex social phenomena, such as interpersonal relationships, trust and friendships among managers or a firm’s reputation with suppliers and customers Example:Example: Disney created Mickey Mouse at a time whenDisney created Mickey Mouse at a time when animated motion pictures were newanimated motion pictures were new An unusual evolutionary pattern of growth may contribute to the development of competencies in a manner that is unique to those particular circumstances
    21. 21. Ch3-2 Core Competencies must be: Nonsubstitutable Capabilities that do not have strategic equivalents, such as firm- specific knowledge or trust-based relationships What a firm Does... that is Strategically Valuable Core Competencies Valuable Rare Costly to Imitate Capabilities that other firms cannot develop easily, usually due to unique historical conditions, causal ambiguity or social complexity Capabilities that are possessed by few, if any, current or potential competitors Capabilities that either help a firm to exploit opportunities to create value for customers or to neutralize threats in the environment
    22. 22. Ch3-2 Core Competencies ResourcesResources • Inputs to a firm’sInputs to a firm’s production processproduction process Core CompetenceCore Competence • A strategic capabilityA strategic capability The source ofThe source of CapabilityCapability • Integration of aIntegration of a team of resourcesteam of resources Does the capability satisfyDoes the capability satisfy the criteria of sustainablethe criteria of sustainable competitive advantage?competitive advantage? YESYES NONO CapabilityCapability • A nonstrategic teamA nonstrategic team of resourcesof resources
    23. 23. Ch3-2 ValuableValuable RareRare Costly toCostly to ImitateImitate Nonsub-Nonsub- stitutablestitutable CompetitiveCompetitive ConsequencesConsequences PerformancePerformance ImplicationsImplications NONO NONO NONO NONO CompetitiveCompetitive DisadvantageDisadvantage BelowBelow AverageAverage ReturnsReturns YESYES NONO NONO YES/NOYES/NO CompetitiveCompetitive ParityParity AverageAverage ReturnsReturns YESYES NONO YES/NOYES/NOYESYES TemporaryTemporary CompetitiveCompetitive AdvantageAdvantage Aver./AboveAver./Above AverageAverage ReturnsReturns AboveAbove AverageAverage ReturnsReturns YESYESYESYES YESYESYESYES SustainableSustainable CompetitiveCompetitive AdvantageAdvantage Outcomes from Combinations of the Criteria forOutcomes from Combinations of the Criteria for Sustainable Competitive AdvantageSustainable Competitive Advantage
    24. 24. Ch3-2 Resources * Tangible * Intangible Capabilities Teams of Resources Sources of Core Competencies Competitive Advantage Discovering Core Competencies Value Chain Analysis * Outsource Valuable Rare Costly to Imitate Nonsubstitutable * * * * Criteria of Sustainable Advantages Discovering Core Competencies
    25. 25. Ch3-2 Support Activities Primary Activities Value Chain Analysis Identifying Resources and Capabilities That Can Add Value
    26. 26. Ch3-2 Support Activities Primary Activities InboundInbound LogisticsLogistics Value Chain Analysis Identifying Resources and Capabilities That Can Add Value
    27. 27. Ch3-2 Support Activities Primary Activities InboundInbound LogisticsLogistics OperationsOperations Value Chain Analysis Identifying Resources and Capabilities That Can Add Value
    28. 28. Ch3-2 Support Activities Primary Activities InboundInbound LogisticsLogistics OperationsOperations OutboundOutbound LogisticsLogistics Value Chain Analysis Identifying Resources and Capabilities That Can Add Value
    29. 29. Ch3-2 Support Activities Primary Activities InboundInbound LogisticsLogistics OperationsOperations OutboundOutbound LogisticsLogistics MarketingMarketing &Sales&Sales Value Chain Analysis Identifying Resources and Capabilities That Can Add Value
    30. 30. Ch3-3 Support Activities Primary Activities InboundInbound LogisticsLogistics OperationsOperations OutboundOutbound LogisticsLogistics MarketingMarketing &Sales&Sales ServiceService Value Chain Analysis Identifying Resources and Capabilities That Can Add Value
    31. 31. Ch3-3 Support Activities Primary Activities InboundInbound LogisticsLogistics OperationsOperations OutboundOutbound LogisticsLogistics MarketingMarketing &Sales&Sales ServiceService ProcurementProcurement Value Chain Analysis Identifying Resources and Capabilities That Can Add Value
    32. 32. Ch3-3 Support Activities Primary Activities InboundInbound LogisticsLogistics OperationsOperations OutboundOutbound LogisticsLogistics MarketingMarketing &Sales&Sales ServiceService ProcurementProcurement Technological DevelopmentTechnological Development Value Chain Analysis Identifying Resources and Capabilities That Can Add Value
    33. 33. Ch3-3 Support Activities Primary Activities Technological DevelopmentTechnological Development ProcurementProcurement InboundInbound LogisticsLogistics OperationsOperations OutboundOutbound LogisticsLogistics MarketingMarketing &Sales&Sales ServiceService Human Resource ManagementHuman Resource Management Value Chain Analysis Identifying Resources and Capabilities That Can Add Value
    34. 34. Ch3-3 Support Activities Primary Activities Technological DevelopmentTechnological Development Human Resource ManagementHuman Resource Management Firm InfrastructureFirm Infrastructure ProcurementProcurement InboundInbound LogisticsLogistics OperationsOperations OutboundOutbound LogisticsLogistics MarketingMarketing &Sales&Sales ServiceService Value Chain Analysis Identifying Resources and Capabilities That Can Add Value
    35. 35. Ch3-3 Support Activities Primary Activities Technological DevelopmentTechnological Development Human Resource ManagementHuman Resource Management Firm InfrastructureFirm Infrastructure ProcurementProcurement InboundInbound LogisticsLogistics OperationsOperations OutboundOutbound LogisticsLogistics MarketingMarketing &Sales&Sales ServiceService M A R G IN M A R G IN M A R G IN M A R G IN Value Chain Analysis Identifying Resources and Capabilities That Can Add Value
    36. 36. Ch3-3 Support Activities Primary Activities OutsourcingOutsourcing Technological DevelopmentTechnological Development Human Resource ManagementHuman Resource Management Firm InfrastructureFirm Infrastructure ProcurementProcurement InboundInbound LogisticsLogistics OperationsOperations OutboundOutbound LogisticsLogistics MarketingMarketing &Sales&Sales ServiceService M A R G IN M A R G IN M A R G IN M A R G IN Strategic Choice to Purchase Some Activities From Outside Suppliers
    37. 37. Ch3-3 Support Activities Primary Activities Technological DevelopmentTechnological Development Human Resource ManagementHuman Resource Management Firm InfrastructureFirm Infrastructure ProcurementProcurement InboundInbound LogisticsLogistics OperationsOperations OutboundOutbound LogisticsLogistics MarketingMarketing &Sales&Sales ServiceService M A R G IN M A R G IN InboundInbound LogisticsLogistics OperationsOperations OutboundOutbound LogisticsLogistics ServiceService MarketingMarketing & Sales& Sales Technological DevelopmentTechnological Development Human Resource ManagementHuman Resource Management ProcurementProcurement M A R G IN M A R G IN Firms often purchase a portionportion of their value-creating activities from specialty external suppliers who can perform these functions more efficientlymore efficiently OutsourcingOutsourcing Strategic Choice to Purchase Some Activities From Outside Suppliers
    38. 38. Ch3-3 Lets company focus on broader business issues by having outside experts handle various operational details Strategic Rationales for OutsourcingStrategic Rationales for Outsourcing Improve Business Focus Permits firm to redirect efforts from non-core activities toward those that serve customers more effectively Free Resources for Other Purposes Provide Access to World-Class Capabilities Accelerate Business Re-Engineering Benefits Share Risks The specialized resources of outsourcing providers makes world- class capabilities available to firms in a wide range of applications Achieves re-engineering benefits more quickly by having outsiders-- who have already achieved world-class standards--take over process Reduces investment requirements and makes firm more flexible, dynamic and better able to adapt to changing opportunities
    39. 39. Ch3-3 To capitalize on the usefulness of theTo capitalize on the usefulness of the Value ChainValue Chain concept...concept... it is important to recognize that...it is important to recognize that...
    40. 40. Ch3-4 Value Chains are part of a Total Value System Supplier Value ChainSupplier Value Chain Firm Value ChainFirm Value Chain Channel Value ChainChannel Value Chain Buyer Value ChainBuyer Value Chain
    41. 41. Ch3-4 Firm Value ChainFirm Value Chain Channel Value ChainChannel Value Chain Buyer Value ChainBuyer Value Chain Supplier Value ChainSupplier Value Chain Upstream ValueUpstream Value Perform valuable activities that complementcomplement the firm’s activities Value Chains are part of a Total Value System
    42. 42. Ch3-4 Supplier Value ChainSupplier Value Chain Firm Value ChainFirm Value Chain Buyer Value ChainBuyer Value Chain Upstream Value Perform valuable activities that complement the firm’s activities Channel Value ChainChannel Value Chain Each firm must eventually find a way toEach firm must eventually find a way to become a part ofbecome a part of somesome buyer’s value chainbuyer’s value chain Value Chains are part of a Total Value System
    43. 43. Ch3-4 Supplier Value ChainSupplier Value Chain Firm Value ChainFirm Value Chain Channel Value ChainChannel Value Chain Upstream Value Perform valuable activities that complement the firm’s activities Buyer Value ChainBuyer Value Chain Ultimate basis forUltimate basis for differentiationdifferentiation is the abilityis the ability to play a role in ato play a role in a buyer’s value chainbuyer’s value chain This createsThis creates VALUE!!VALUE!! Each firm must eventually find a way to become a part of some buyer’s value chain Value Chains are part of a Total Value System
    44. 44. Ch3-4 Supplier Value Chain Firm Value Chain Channel Value Chain Upstream Value Perform valuable activities that complement the firm’s activities Buyer Value Chain Each firm must eventually find a way to become a part of some buyer’s value chain Ultimate basis for differentiation is the ability to play a role in a buyer’s value chain This creates VALUE!! Value chains vary for firms in an industry, reflecting each firm’s unique qualities: • History • Strategy • Success at Implementation Value Chains are part of a Total Value System
    45. 45. Ch3-4 Core Competencies--Cautions and Reminders Never take for granted that core competencies will continue to provide a source of competitive advantage All core competencies have the potential to become Core Rigidities Core Rigidities are former core competencies that sow the seeds of organizational inertia and prevent the firm from responding appropriately to changes in the external environment Strategic myopia and inflexibility can strangle the firm’s ability to grow and adapt to environmental change or competitive threats
    46. 46. Ch3-4 Resources * Tangible * Intangible Capabilities Teams of Resources Sources of Core Competencies Competitive Advantage Strategic Competitiveness Above-Average Returns Discovering Core Competencies Value Chain Analysis * Outsource Valuable Rare Costly to Imitate Nonsubstitutable * * * * Criteria of Sustainable Advantages Discovering Core Competencies
    47. 47. Ch3-4 External Environment Internal Environment Strategic IntentStrategic Intent Strategic Mission The StrategicThe Strategic ManagementManagement ProcessProcess
    48. 48. Ch3-4 External Environment Internal Environment Strategic IntentStrategic Intent Strategic MissionStrategic Mission Strategic IntentStrategic Intent The StrategicThe Strategic ManagementManagement ProcessProcess
    49. 49. Ch3-4 ExternalExternal EnvironmentEnvironment InternalInternal EnvironmentEnvironment The StrategicThe Strategic ManagementManagement ProcessProcess Strategic MissionStrategic Mission A statement of the firm’s uniqueA statement of the firm’s unique purpose and the scope of itspurpose and the scope of its operations in product marketoperations in product market termsterms Strategic IntentStrategic Intent Strategic MissionStrategic Mission Strategic IntentStrategic Intent Leveraging of a firm’s resources,Leveraging of a firm’s resources, capabilities and core competenciescapabilities and core competencies to accomplish what may appear toto accomplish what may appear to be unattainable goals in the compe-be unattainable goals in the compe- titive environmenttitive environment
    50. 50. Ch3-5 Resources * Tangible * Intangible Capabilities Teams of Resources Sources of Core Competencies Competitive Advantage Strategic Competitiveness Above-Average Returns Competitive Advantage Gained through Core Competencies Discovering Core Competencies Value Chain Analysis Valuable Rare Costly to Imitate Nonsubstitutable * * * * * Outsource Criteria of Sustainable Advantages Discovering Core Competencies
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