0
Multiple
Choice Test
Introduction
The multiple – choice test is
regarded as one of the best
forms of testing. This form is
the most valuable an...
Introduction
The multiple – choice item is
considered somewhat more
difficult to construct than the
other objective items....
Introduction
The multiple – choice type of test is a
form of assessment in which students are
asked to select the correct ...
Introduction
Oftentimes, multiple – choice tests
include a stimulus material where
the item or question is drawn. A
stimul...
Introduction
A multiple – choice test is
made up of items each of
which presents two or more
responses, only one of which ...
Introduction

The multiple – choice item
consists of two parts: (a) the
stem, which identifies the
question or problem; an...
Example

Item stem:
•Which of the following is
a chemical change?
Example

Response alternatives:
•A. Evaporation of Alcohol
•B. Freezing of water
•C. Burning of oil
•D. Melting of wax
Introduction
The given options are the
possible answers that the
examinees can choose
from, with the correct answer
called...
Introduction
In short, each multiple – choice
item consist of a stem and a
series of alternative
responses, one of which i...
Stem
The introductory part of an item is
called the stem, and its functions
are to ask question, set the task to
be perfor...
Stem
The stem is the beginning part of the item
that presents the item as a problem to be
solved, a question asked of the ...
Stem
Example of a direct
question:
•Who is the President of
the Philippines after
EDSA I?
Stem
Example of an incomplete
statement:

•The President of the
Philippines after EDSA I is
Stem
A stem may also be presented
in the form of a mathematical
equation:

•In the equation 2x + 3 =
4, solve for x.
Stem
The stem in multiple –
choice question should
present the problem so
clearly that the students
will know exactly what...
Stem
It should be constructed in such a
way that it leads directly to the
alternatives without ambiguity.
This can be assu...
Stem

Example:

The Connecticut
River originates at
the Connecticut
Lakes in Northern
Vermont.
Stem
Stated this way, the entire item
is more likely to have a clearly –
stated stem and a good set of
alternatives. Then,...
Stem

Example:

The Connecticut River
originates at the
Connecticut Lakes in:
A. Southern Canada
B. Northwestern New
Hamps...
Stem
It does not matter very
much where the stem is
split so long as it makes
good sense and contains
most of the informat...
Stem
Items at this level should
provide clues for accurate
recall in order for the
students to be accurate in
their select...
Stem
It does not matter either
whether the stem is
written as an incomplete
sentence, as above or
whether it is restated a...
Stem

Example:

Where does
Connecticut River
originate?
A. Southern Canada
B. Northwestern New
Hampshire
C. Northern Vermo...
The
Alternatives/Response/
Options
Alternatives/Response/Options

The suggested responses are
called
alternatives/responses/options.
Usually, only one of the...
Alternatives/Response/Options

The remaining incorrect alternatives
are called “distracters” or “foils”.
Their function is...
Alternatives/Response/Options

The alternatives
(sometimes called
options) are the
“multiple choices” from
which students ...
Alternatives/Response/Options

Since alternatives are as
plausible as the correct
responses, they are called
“distracters”...
Advantages of
Multiple – Choice
Test
It has a great versatility in
measuring objectives from the
level of the rote memorization
to the most complex level.

It ...
Because this style of test does
not require a teacher to
interpret the answers, test –
takers are graded purely on
the sel...
Factors irrelevant to the
assessed materials, such as
handwriting and clarity of
presentation, do not come
into play in a ...
Because student writing is
minimized, the teacher can
cover a substantial amount of
course material in relatively
short ti...
Teachers can construct options
that require students to
discriminate among them.
These items vary in the degree
of correct...
Items are more amenable to
item analysis, and this can be
used to detect areas of
student weaknesses, evidence
of the item...
The multiple – choice
item can be used to
test a greater variety
of instructional
objectives.
It does not require the
examinee to write out and
elaborate their
answers, minimizing the
opportunity for less
knowledgeab...
It focuses on reading
and thinking.

Highly reliable test
scores.
A wide sampling of
content or objectives.
Different response
alternatives which can
provide diagnostic
feedback.
Limitations of
Multiple – Choice
Test
This type of test is more
time consuming in terms
of looking for options
that are plausible.
Multiple – choice tests are
ambiguous. Failing to
interpret the question as the
test maker intended can
result in an incor...
The term multiple guess has
been used to describe this
scenario because test –
takers may attempt to
guess, rather than
de...
In a multiple – choice
test, a student who is
incapable of answering a
particular question can
simply select a random
answ...
It is a common practice of
students who have no time
left to give all the
remaining questions
random answers in the
hope t...
Test naïve student complain
of more than one defensible
correct answer.
They require students to
choose from among a fixed...
Poorly written multiple –
choice test items can be
superficial, trivial, and limited
to factual knowledge.
Multiple – choi...
Lead a teacher to favor
simple recall of facts.
Place a high degree of
dependence on student’s
reading ability and
teacher...
Suggestions for
Constructing a
MULTIPLE – CHOICE
TEST
Constructing/Improving
the Main Stem
A. Constructing/Improving the Main Stem

Statements barrowed from
textbooks or other reference
materials must be avoided.
...
A. Constructing/Improving the Main Stem

Question form
The main stem of
the test item
Completion form
may be
constructed i...
Question Form
Which is the same as four hundred
seventy?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Completion Form
Four hundred seventy is the same as
______________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
Direction Form
Add 22 and 43

A.
B.
C.
D.
A. Constructing/Improving the Main Stem

Articles “an” and “a” must be
avoided as last words in an
incomplete sentence. Th...
A. Constructing/Improving the Main Stem

The main stem should be clear.
Avoid awkward stems.
Example of an awkward stem:

If there are 9 chairs in the classroom
and 16 children in the class, the
classroom lacks how ...
Improved stem:

There are 16 children and 9 chairs in the
classroom. How many more chairs are
needed?
A.6
B.7
C.8
D.9
A. Constructing/Improving the Main Stem

In items testing definitions, place
the word or term in the stem and
use definiti...
A. Constructing/Improving the Main Stem

Avoid negatively – worded items.
A. Constructing/Improving the Main Stem

When possible, state the stem as a
direct question rather than as
incomplete stat...
Example

Poor
Better

Alloys are ordinarily
produced by. . .

How are alloys
ordinarily produced?
A. Constructing/Improving the Main Stem

Present a definite, explicit
singular question or problem
in the stem.
Example

Poor
Better

Psychology. . .

The science of mind
and behavior is called.
..
A. Constructing/Improving the Main Stem

Eliminate excessive verbiage
or irrelevant information
from the stem.
Example

Poor
Better

While ironing her
formal, polo shirt June
burned her hand
accidentally on the hot
iron. This was due...
A. Constructing/Improving the Main Stem

Include the stem any word
(s) that might otherwise be
repeated in each
alternativ...
Example

Poor

In the national elections in
the United States, the
President is officially
A. chosen by the people
B. chos...
Example

In the national elections in
the United States, the
President is officially
chosen by

Better

A. the people
B. e...
A. Constructing/Improving the Main Stem

Use negatively questions
sparingly. When
used, underline and/or
capitalized the n...
Example

Poor
Better

Which of the following is
not cited as an
accomplishment of Arroyo
administration?

Which of the fol...
Constructing/Improving Alternatives

Alternatives should be
as closely related to
each other as possible.
Constructing/Improving
Alternatives
B. Constructing/Improving Alternatives

Alternatives should be
arranged accordingly
to length: from shortest
to longest or...
B. Constructing/Improving Alternatives

All options must be plausible
with each other to attract
student to choose detract...
B. Constructing/Improving Alternatives

All options must be
grammatically consistent. For
instance, if the stem is
singula...
B. Constructing/Improving Alternatives

Four or more options
must be provided in
each item to minimize
guessing.
B. Constructing/Improving Alternatives

The order of correct answers
in all items is randomly
arranged rather than
followi...
B. Constructing/Improving Alternatives

A uniform number of options in
each item must be used. For
instance, if there are ...
Constructing/Improving Alternatives

A uniform number of options in
each item must be used. For
instance, if there are twe...
B. Constructing/Improving Alternatives

Avoid using “not
given”, “none of the
above”, “all of the
above”, etc. as alternat...
B. Constructing/Improving Alternatives

Make all alternatives
plausible and attractive to
the less knowledgeable or
skillf...
Example

Poor
A.Digestion
B.Relaxation
C.Respiration
D.Exertion

What process is most nearly
the opposite of photosynthesi...
B. Constructing/Improving Alternatives

Make the alternatives
grammatically parallel with
each other and consistent
with t...
Example

Poor

What would do most to
advance the application of
atomic discoveries to
medicine?

A.Standardized techniques...
Example

Better

What would advance the
application of atomic
discoveries to medicine most?

A.Removal of restriction on t...
B. Constructing/Improving Alternatives

Make the alternatives
mutually exclusive.
Example

Poor

The daily minimum required
amount of milk that a 10 –
year old child should drink is

A. 1 – 2 glasses
B. 2...
Example

Better
A. 1 glass
B. 2 glasses
C. 3 glasses
D. 4 glasses

What is the daily minimum
required amount of milk a 10
...
B. Constructing/Improving Alternatives

When possible, present
alternatives in some logical
order (chronological, most to
...
Example
At 7 a.m. two trucks leave a diner and
travel north. One truck averages 42
miles per hour and the other truck
aver...
Example

Undesirable
A. 6 p.m.
B. 9 p.m.
C. 1 a.m.
D. 1 p.m.
E. 6 a.m.

Desirable
A. 1 a.m.
B. 6 p.m.
C. 9 a.m.
D. 1 p.m.
...
B. Constructing/Improving Alternatives

Be sure that there is only one
correct or best response to the
item.
Example

Poor
A. Precision
B. Reliability
C. Objectivity
D. Consistency

The two most desired
characteristics in a classro...
B. Constructing/Improving Alternatives

Make alternative
approximately equal in
length.
Example

Poor

The most general cause of low
individual incomes in the
United States is

A. Lack of valuable productive se...
Example

Better

What is the most general cause
of low individual incomes in
the United States?

A. A lack of valuable pro...
B. Constructing/Improving Alternatives

Avoid irrelevant
clues, such as
grammatical
structure, well – known
verbal associa...
Example

Grammatical clue

Poor
A chain of islands is called an
A. Archipelago
B. Peninsula
C. Continent
D. Isthmus
Example

Verbal associations

Poor
The reliability of test can be estimated
by the coefficient of
A. Measurement
B. Correl...
Example

Poor

Connection between
stem and answer

The height to which a water dam is built
depends on
A. The length of th...
B. Constructing/Improving Alternatives

Use at least four
alternatives for each item
to lower the probability of
getting t...
B. Constructing/Improving Alternatives

Randomly distribute the correct
responses among the
alternative positions througho...
B. Constructing/Improving Alternatives

Use the alternative NONE OF
THE ABOVE and ALL OF THE
ABOVE sparingly. When
used, s...
An illustration of a
Multiple – Choice
Item that Measures
behavior in the
Cognitive Domain
K
N
O
W
L
E
D
G
E

Where is the mouth of the
Connecticut River Valley located?
A. New Haven
B. New London
C. Saybrook
D. E...
U
N
D
E
R
S
T
A
N
D
I
N
G

Which term most accurately describes
the soil deposited at the base of a
Canyon?

A. Volcanic r...
A
P
P
L
I
C
A
T
I
O
N

To help retain valuable farm lands
along a river, man often builds:
A. Dikes
B. Underwater dams
C. ...
A
N
A
L
Y
S
I
S

A river that flows between steep
mountains for a hundred miles
and then suddenly into a broad
plain will ...
A
N
A
L
Y
S
I
S

In analyzing the flow of such a
river, students should understand
how water from the water from
the mount...
S
Y
N
T
H
E
S
I
S

In addition to providing
drinking water, a reservoir high
in the mountains can be an
important source f...
S
Y
N
T
H
E
S
I
S

Students now will have to
analyze the information
they have gained about
the flow of water in order
to ...
E
V
A
L
U
A
T
I
O
N

Which of the following strategies
would be the most equitable solution
to the perennial drought probl...
E
V
A
L
U
A
T
I
O
N

Each response is plausible
and each poses economic
and emotional problems.
Making a thoughtful
judgme...
Types of Multiple –
Choice Tests
Types of Multiple – Choice Tests

Stimulus Material –
Stem – Options
The papers, of course, had been full of
tragedy – glaring headlines, sandwiched
biographies of every member of the
househo...
Why are the newspapers making
The Mysterious Affair at Style
their lead story?
A. They are bored with regular
news.
B. The...
Types of Multiple – Choice Tests

Stem – Options
Which of the following serves
as an example of formative
evaluation?

A. Diagnostic test
B. Entrance test
C. Periodical te...
Types of Multiple – Choice Tests

Negative stem/The
Negative Variety
The following are examples of
an adjective EXCEPT
Types of Multiple – Choice Tests

Best Answer/The
Best Answer Variety
Since there is no clear –
cut or well defined
policies on observing
privacy in all
instances, the teacher is
simply requir...
Types of Multiple – Choice Tests

Contained Options
Identify the error in the sentence.
My parents was in
A
B
Manila to assist my
C
sister enroll in College.
D
No Error
E
Types of Multiple – Choice Tests

Correct
Answer/Correct
Answer Variety
What is the summer capital
city of the Philippines?
Types of Multiple – Choice Tests

Group Options
Write –
A. If the item is a simple
sentence
B. If the item is a compound
sentence
C. If the item is a complex
sentence
Types of Multiple – Choice Tests

Morse Variety
Write –
A. If W affects X but X affects Y
but Y affects Z.
B. If W does not affect X but X
does not affect Y but Y does
no...
Types of Multiple – Choice Tests

The Multiple –
Response Variety
What factors are principally
responsible for the clotting of
blood?
A. Contact of blood with
foreign substance.
B. Contact...
Types of Multiple – Choice Tests

The Incomplete
Statement Variety
Millions of dollars’ worth of
corn, oats, wheat, and rye are
destroyed annually in the U.S.
by:
Types of Multiple – Choice Tests

Substitution
Variety
Types of Multiple – Choice Tests

The Incomplete –
Alternative
Variety
An apple that has a sharp, pungent, but not
disagreeably sour or bitter, taste is said to be [4]
A. P
B. Q
C. T
E. V
F. W
...
Types of Multiple – Choice Tests

The Combined –
Response Variety
Scoring the Multiple –
Choice Tests
Children below the fourth
grade should probably
answer questions on the
test booklet itself rather
than on a separate shee...
A separate sheet is an
advantage to older children
since the scoring time, and
the scoring and counting of
errors can be r...
Determining the
optimal number of
options
The number of items
on a test and the
number of
alternatives for each
item affect the
accuracy of
measurement.
Current evidence shows
that the teacher would
better off with 80 items
having three alternatives
each than 60 items with
f...
CHECKLIST FOR WRITING MULTIPLE –
CHOICE ITEMS

Are the item and the main problem
in the stem clearly presented?
Has the it...
Have the responses been arranged in some
systematic fashion, such as alphabetically or
by the length of options?

Are all ...
Is there only one correct or best answer?

Has “all the above” been
avoided?
Have all irrelevant clues been
avoided?
Has t...
Have the overlapping
options been avoided?
Have the negative statements
been avoided? If used, has the
negative been under...
If you don’t
know
where you
are
going, you
will
probably
end up
somewhere
else.

Laurence J.
Peter
References
Buendicho, F.C. (2010) Assessment
of Learning 1. Quezon City: REX
Printing Company.
Bandiola, E.I (2003) Asse...
End of
Report
Thank You
for
Listening
Assessment of Learning - Multiple Choice Test
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A powerpoint presentation about the Multiple Choice Test as one of the assessment strategies that can be used by teachers in assessing learners. Also, this includes the introduction, definition, advantages, and limitations of Multiple Choice Test.

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Transcript of "Assessment of Learning - Multiple Choice Test"

  1. 1. Multiple Choice Test
  2. 2. Introduction The multiple – choice test is regarded as one of the best forms of testing. This form is the most valuable and widely – used in standardized test due to its flexibility and objectivity in scoring.
  3. 3. Introduction The multiple – choice item is considered somewhat more difficult to construct than the other objective items. However, it is as much more effective item for measuring higher cognitive processes.
  4. 4. Introduction The multiple – choice type of test is a form of assessment in which students are asked to select the correct or best answer out of the choices from the list. It requires the student to select from the given options that will make the stem complete or correct. All incorrect or less appropriate responses are called “distracters” or “foils”.
  5. 5. Introduction Oftentimes, multiple – choice tests include a stimulus material where the item or question is drawn. A stimulus material, or an introductory material, is added information in the form of chart, graph, stanza of a poem, or novel pictorial.
  6. 6. Introduction A multiple – choice test is made up of items each of which presents two or more responses, only one of which is correct or definitely better than the others.
  7. 7. Introduction The multiple – choice item consists of two parts: (a) the stem, which identifies the question or problem; and (b) the response alternatives. Students are asked to select one alternative that best completes the statement or answers to the
  8. 8. Example Item stem: •Which of the following is a chemical change?
  9. 9. Example Response alternatives: •A. Evaporation of Alcohol •B. Freezing of water •C. Burning of oil •D. Melting of wax
  10. 10. Introduction The given options are the possible answers that the examinees can choose from, with the correct answer called “key”. The minimum number of options is three while the maximum is five.
  11. 11. Introduction In short, each multiple – choice item consist of a stem and a series of alternative responses, one of which is the correct response. Alternatives that are incorrect are, for obvious reasons, called “distracters”.
  12. 12. Stem The introductory part of an item is called the stem, and its functions are to ask question, set the task to be performed, or state the problem to be solved. As a general rule, after the examinee has read the stem, he or she should understand the task at the hand and know what task is required by the stem.
  13. 13. Stem The stem is the beginning part of the item that presents the item as a problem to be solved, a question asked of the students, or an incomplete statement to be completed. It can be presented in three ways: a direction, an incomplete statement, or a mathematical equation. If it is an incomplete statement, all the options or the last one ends with the period. For elementary students, it is advisable to use a direct question.
  14. 14. Stem Example of a direct question: •Who is the President of the Philippines after EDSA I?
  15. 15. Stem Example of an incomplete statement: •The President of the Philippines after EDSA I is
  16. 16. Stem A stem may also be presented in the form of a mathematical equation: •In the equation 2x + 3 = 4, solve for x.
  17. 17. Stem The stem in multiple – choice question should present the problem so clearly that the students will know exactly what is expected of them.
  18. 18. Stem It should be constructed in such a way that it leads directly to the alternatives without ambiguity. This can be assured if both the stem and the correct alternative are written as grammatically complete statements.
  19. 19. Stem Example: The Connecticut River originates at the Connecticut Lakes in Northern Vermont.
  20. 20. Stem Stated this way, the entire item is more likely to have a clearly – stated stem and a good set of alternatives. Then, break the sentence in the following way to construct the alternatives, responses, or distracters:
  21. 21. Stem Example: The Connecticut River originates at the Connecticut Lakes in: A. Southern Canada B. Northwestern New Hampshire C. Northern Vermont D. Northeastern Connecticut
  22. 22. Stem It does not matter very much where the stem is split so long as it makes good sense and contains most of the information.
  23. 23. Stem Items at this level should provide clues for accurate recall in order for the students to be accurate in their selection of an answer.
  24. 24. Stem It does not matter either whether the stem is written as an incomplete sentence, as above or whether it is restated as question.
  25. 25. Stem Example: Where does Connecticut River originate? A. Southern Canada B. Northwestern New Hampshire C. Northern Vermont D. Northeastern Connecticut
  26. 26. The Alternatives/Response/ Options
  27. 27. Alternatives/Response/Options The suggested responses are called alternatives/responses/options. Usually, only one of the alternatives is the correct or best answer to the question or problem posed.
  28. 28. Alternatives/Response/Options The remaining incorrect alternatives are called “distracters” or “foils”. Their function is to appear as plausible answers or solutions to the problem for those examinees who do not possess sufficient knowledge.
  29. 29. Alternatives/Response/Options The alternatives (sometimes called options) are the “multiple choices” from which students select.
  30. 30. Alternatives/Response/Options Since alternatives are as plausible as the correct responses, they are called “distracters”. They are designed to force students to think by making their choices more difficult.
  31. 31. Advantages of Multiple – Choice Test
  32. 32. It has a great versatility in measuring objectives from the level of the rote memorization to the most complex level. It often requires less time to administer than tests requiring written responses.
  33. 33. Because this style of test does not require a teacher to interpret the answers, test – takers are graded purely on the selection, thus creating a lower likelihood of teacher bias in the results.
  34. 34. Factors irrelevant to the assessed materials, such as handwriting and clarity of presentation, do not come into play in a multiple choice assessment.
  35. 35. Because student writing is minimized, the teacher can cover a substantial amount of course material in relatively short time. Scoring is objective since only little interpretation is needed to count the number of correct responses.
  36. 36. Teachers can construct options that require students to discriminate among them. These items vary in the degree of correctness. The effects of guessing are largely reduced since there are more options.
  37. 37. Items are more amenable to item analysis, and this can be used to detect areas of student weaknesses, evidence of the item ambiguity, item difficulty, and the extent to which the item can measure individual differences.
  38. 38. The multiple – choice item can be used to test a greater variety of instructional objectives.
  39. 39. It does not require the examinee to write out and elaborate their answers, minimizing the opportunity for less knowledgeable examinees to “bluff” or “dress up” their answer.
  40. 40. It focuses on reading and thinking. Highly reliable test scores.
  41. 41. A wide sampling of content or objectives. Different response alternatives which can provide diagnostic feedback.
  42. 42. Limitations of Multiple – Choice Test
  43. 43. This type of test is more time consuming in terms of looking for options that are plausible.
  44. 44. Multiple – choice tests are ambiguous. Failing to interpret the question as the test maker intended can result in an incorrect response, even if the test taker’s response is potentially valid.
  45. 45. The term multiple guess has been used to describe this scenario because test – takers may attempt to guess, rather than determine the correct answer.
  46. 46. In a multiple – choice test, a student who is incapable of answering a particular question can simply select a random answer and still have a chance of receiving a mark of it.
  47. 47. It is a common practice of students who have no time left to give all the remaining questions random answers in the hope that they will get at least some of them right.
  48. 48. Test naïve student complain of more than one defensible correct answer. They require students to choose from among a fixed list of options, rather than to create or express their own ideas and solutions.
  49. 49. Poorly written multiple – choice test items can be superficial, trivial, and limited to factual knowledge. Multiple – choice items tend to based on “standardized”, “vulgarized”, or “approved” knowledge and give students the impression that there is a single, correct answer.
  50. 50. Lead a teacher to favor simple recall of facts. Place a high degree of dependence on student’s reading ability and teacher’s writing ability.
  51. 51. Suggestions for Constructing a MULTIPLE – CHOICE TEST
  52. 52. Constructing/Improving the Main Stem
  53. 53. A. Constructing/Improving the Main Stem Statements barrowed from textbooks or other reference materials must be avoided. Use familiar phrasing to test the comprehension of students.
  54. 54. A. Constructing/Improving the Main Stem Question form The main stem of the test item Completion form may be constructed in: Direction form
  55. 55. Question Form Which is the same as four hundred seventy? A. B. C. D.
  56. 56. Completion Form Four hundred seventy is the same as ______________. A. B. C. D.
  57. 57. Direction Form Add 22 and 43 A. B. C. D.
  58. 58. A. Constructing/Improving the Main Stem Articles “an” and “a” must be avoided as last words in an incomplete sentence. These words give clues to the probable answers as to whether the best option starts with a consonant or vowel.
  59. 59. A. Constructing/Improving the Main Stem The main stem should be clear. Avoid awkward stems.
  60. 60. Example of an awkward stem: If there are 9 chairs in the classroom and 16 children in the class, the classroom lacks how many chairs? A.6 B.7 C.8 D.9
  61. 61. Improved stem: There are 16 children and 9 chairs in the classroom. How many more chairs are needed? A.6 B.7 C.8 D.9
  62. 62. A. Constructing/Improving the Main Stem In items testing definitions, place the word or term in the stem and use definitions or descriptions as alternatives.
  63. 63. A. Constructing/Improving the Main Stem Avoid negatively – worded items.
  64. 64. A. Constructing/Improving the Main Stem When possible, state the stem as a direct question rather than as incomplete statement.
  65. 65. Example Poor Better Alloys are ordinarily produced by. . . How are alloys ordinarily produced?
  66. 66. A. Constructing/Improving the Main Stem Present a definite, explicit singular question or problem in the stem.
  67. 67. Example Poor Better Psychology. . . The science of mind and behavior is called. ..
  68. 68. A. Constructing/Improving the Main Stem Eliminate excessive verbiage or irrelevant information from the stem.
  69. 69. Example Poor Better While ironing her formal, polo shirt June burned her hand accidentally on the hot iron. This was due to a transfer of heat because. . . Which of the following ways of heat transfer explains why June’s hand was burned after she touched a hot iron?
  70. 70. A. Constructing/Improving the Main Stem Include the stem any word (s) that might otherwise be repeated in each alternative.
  71. 71. Example Poor In the national elections in the United States, the President is officially A. chosen by the people B. chosen by electoral College C. chosen by members of Congress D. chosen by the House of Representatives
  72. 72. Example In the national elections in the United States, the President is officially chosen by Better A. the people B. electoral College C. members of Congress D. the House of Representatives
  73. 73. A. Constructing/Improving the Main Stem Use negatively questions sparingly. When used, underline and/or capitalized the negative word.
  74. 74. Example Poor Better Which of the following is not cited as an accomplishment of Arroyo administration? Which of the following is NOT cited as an accomplishment of Arroyo administration?
  75. 75. Constructing/Improving Alternatives Alternatives should be as closely related to each other as possible.
  76. 76. Constructing/Improving Alternatives
  77. 77. B. Constructing/Improving Alternatives Alternatives should be arranged accordingly to length: from shortest to longest or vice versa.
  78. 78. B. Constructing/Improving Alternatives All options must be plausible with each other to attract student to choose detractors or incorrect responses where only those with high intellectual levels can get the best option.
  79. 79. B. Constructing/Improving Alternatives All options must be grammatically consistent. For instance, if the stem is singular, the options are all singular.
  80. 80. B. Constructing/Improving Alternatives Four or more options must be provided in each item to minimize guessing.
  81. 81. B. Constructing/Improving Alternatives The order of correct answers in all items is randomly arranged rather than following a regular pattern.
  82. 82. B. Constructing/Improving Alternatives A uniform number of options in each item must be used. For instance, if there are twenty items for this type and if item 1 starts with five options, the rest of the items will have also five options.
  83. 83. Constructing/Improving Alternatives A uniform number of options in each item must be used. For instance, if there are twenty items for this type and if item 1 starts with five options, the rest of the items will have also five options.
  84. 84. B. Constructing/Improving Alternatives Avoid using “not given”, “none of the above”, “all of the above”, etc. as alternatives in best – answer types of items.
  85. 85. B. Constructing/Improving Alternatives Make all alternatives plausible and attractive to the less knowledgeable or skillful student.
  86. 86. Example Poor A.Digestion B.Relaxation C.Respiration D.Exertion What process is most nearly the opposite of photosynthesis? Better A.Digestion B.Assimilation C.Respiration D.Catabolism
  87. 87. B. Constructing/Improving Alternatives Make the alternatives grammatically parallel with each other and consistent with the stem.
  88. 88. Example Poor What would do most to advance the application of atomic discoveries to medicine? A.Standardized techniques for treatment of patients. B.Train the average doctor to apply the radioactive treatments. C.Remove restriction on the use of radioactive substances. D.Establishing hospital staffed by highly trained radioactive therapy specialist.
  89. 89. Example Better What would advance the application of atomic discoveries to medicine most? A.Removal of restriction on the use of radioactive substances. B.Development of standardized techniques for treatment of patients. C.Addition of trained radioactive therapy specialists to hospital staffs. D.Training the average doctor in application of radioactive treatments.
  90. 90. B. Constructing/Improving Alternatives Make the alternatives mutually exclusive.
  91. 91. Example Poor The daily minimum required amount of milk that a 10 – year old child should drink is A. 1 – 2 glasses B. 2 – 3 glasses C. 3-4 glasses D. At least 4 glasses
  92. 92. Example Better A. 1 glass B. 2 glasses C. 3 glasses D. 4 glasses What is the daily minimum required amount of milk a 10 – year old child should drink?
  93. 93. B. Constructing/Improving Alternatives When possible, present alternatives in some logical order (chronological, most to least, alphabetical).
  94. 94. Example At 7 a.m. two trucks leave a diner and travel north. One truck averages 42 miles per hour and the other truck averages 38 miles per hour. At what time will they be 24 hours apart?
  95. 95. Example Undesirable A. 6 p.m. B. 9 p.m. C. 1 a.m. D. 1 p.m. E. 6 a.m. Desirable A. 1 a.m. B. 6 p.m. C. 9 a.m. D. 1 p.m. E. 6 p.m.
  96. 96. B. Constructing/Improving Alternatives Be sure that there is only one correct or best response to the item.
  97. 97. Example Poor A. Precision B. Reliability C. Objectivity D. Consistency The two most desired characteristics in a classroom test are the validity and Better A. Precision B. Reliability C. Objectivity D. Standardization
  98. 98. B. Constructing/Improving Alternatives Make alternative approximately equal in length.
  99. 99. Example Poor The most general cause of low individual incomes in the United States is A. Lack of valuable productive services to sell. B. Unwillingness to work. C. Automation D. Inflation
  100. 100. Example Better What is the most general cause of low individual incomes in the United States? A. A lack of valuable productive services to sell. B. The population’s overall unwillingness to work. C. The nation’s increase reliance on automation. D. An increasing national level of inflation.
  101. 101. B. Constructing/Improving Alternatives Avoid irrelevant clues, such as grammatical structure, well – known verbal associations or connections between stem and answer.
  102. 102. Example Grammatical clue Poor A chain of islands is called an A. Archipelago B. Peninsula C. Continent D. Isthmus
  103. 103. Example Verbal associations Poor The reliability of test can be estimated by the coefficient of A. Measurement B. Correlation C. Testing D. Error
  104. 104. Example Poor Connection between stem and answer The height to which a water dam is built depends on A. The length of the reserve behind the dam. B. The volume of water behind the dam. C. The height of water behind the dam. D. The strength of the reinforcing wall.
  105. 105. B. Constructing/Improving Alternatives Use at least four alternatives for each item to lower the probability of getting the item correct by guessing.
  106. 106. B. Constructing/Improving Alternatives Randomly distribute the correct responses among the alternative positions throughout the test having approximately the same proportion of the alternatives a, b, c, d, and e as the correct response.
  107. 107. B. Constructing/Improving Alternatives Use the alternative NONE OF THE ABOVE and ALL OF THE ABOVE sparingly. When used, such alternatives should occasionally be used as the correct response.
  108. 108. An illustration of a Multiple – Choice Item that Measures behavior in the Cognitive Domain
  109. 109. K N O W L E D G E Where is the mouth of the Connecticut River Valley located? A. New Haven B. New London C. Saybrook D. Essex Simple recall of information is all that is asked.
  110. 110. U N D E R S T A N D I N G Which term most accurately describes the soil deposited at the base of a Canyon? A. Volcanic rock B. Alluvial C. Sedimentary deposit D. Conglomerate Children need to recall information about erosion and soil formation accurately and understand how these phenomena build specific geographic formations.
  111. 111. A P P L I C A T I O N To help retain valuable farm lands along a river, man often builds: A. Dikes B. Underwater dams C. Waterfalls D. Floodgates Children must apply their knowledge and understanding of rivers and flooding to know that dikes will prevent rampaging floods from carrying the soil away.
  112. 112. A N A L Y S I S A river that flows between steep mountains for a hundred miles and then suddenly into a broad plain will require people who live in the plain to build dams: A. At the head of the canyon B. At the mouth of the canyon C. Two miles below the mouth of the canyon D. At the several points along the canyon
  113. 113. A N A L Y S I S In analyzing the flow of such a river, students should understand how water from the water from the mountain streams will swell the water level in the river and cause it to flow faster and dangerous amounts. They should conclude, if they can perform at this cognitive level, that a series of dams will likely afford the best protection.
  114. 114. S Y N T H E S I S In addition to providing drinking water, a reservoir high in the mountains can be an important source for which of the following needs of man? A. Transportation B. Irrigation C. Electricity D. Energy
  115. 115. S Y N T H E S I S Students now will have to analyze the information they have gained about the flow of water in order to synthesize a new way to make use of the reservoir.
  116. 116. E V A L U A T I O N Which of the following strategies would be the most equitable solution to the perennial drought problems of a large population living in a plain below a well – watered upland area? A. Divert the water from the upland lakes by aqueducts. B. Change the course of a major river that serves the upland region. C. Drill deep wells in the plains area. D. Build a series of dams in the upland region to store water for the plains area
  117. 117. E V A L U A T I O N Each response is plausible and each poses economic and emotional problems. Making a thoughtful judgment in terms of available information is called for.
  118. 118. Types of Multiple – Choice Tests
  119. 119. Types of Multiple – Choice Tests Stimulus Material – Stem – Options
  120. 120. The papers, of course, had been full of tragedy – glaring headlines, sandwiched biographies of every member of the household and the usual familiar tag about the police having no clue. Nothing was spared. The war was momentarily inactive and the newspapers seized with avidity on this crime in fashionable life: “the mysterious affair styles” was the topic of the moment. From “The Mysterious Affair at Styles” by Agatha Christie
  121. 121. Why are the newspapers making The Mysterious Affair at Style their lead story? A. They are bored with regular news. B. The Cavendishes were fashionable. C. The war is over.
  122. 122. Types of Multiple – Choice Tests Stem – Options
  123. 123. Which of the following serves as an example of formative evaluation? A. Diagnostic test B. Entrance test C. Periodical test D. Short quizzes
  124. 124. Types of Multiple – Choice Tests Negative stem/The Negative Variety
  125. 125. The following are examples of an adjective EXCEPT
  126. 126. Types of Multiple – Choice Tests Best Answer/The Best Answer Variety
  127. 127. Since there is no clear – cut or well defined policies on observing privacy in all instances, the teacher is simply required to be
  128. 128. Types of Multiple – Choice Tests Contained Options
  129. 129. Identify the error in the sentence. My parents was in A B Manila to assist my C sister enroll in College. D No Error E
  130. 130. Types of Multiple – Choice Tests Correct Answer/Correct Answer Variety
  131. 131. What is the summer capital city of the Philippines?
  132. 132. Types of Multiple – Choice Tests Group Options
  133. 133. Write – A. If the item is a simple sentence B. If the item is a compound sentence C. If the item is a complex sentence
  134. 134. Types of Multiple – Choice Tests Morse Variety
  135. 135. Write – A. If W affects X but X affects Y but Y affects Z. B. If W does not affect X but X does not affect Y but Y does not affect Z. C. If W affects X but X does not affect Y but Y affects Z.
  136. 136. Types of Multiple – Choice Tests The Multiple – Response Variety
  137. 137. What factors are principally responsible for the clotting of blood? A. Contact of blood with foreign substance. B. Contact of blood with injured tissue C. Oxidation of hemoglobin
  138. 138. Types of Multiple – Choice Tests The Incomplete Statement Variety
  139. 139. Millions of dollars’ worth of corn, oats, wheat, and rye are destroyed annually in the U.S. by:
  140. 140. Types of Multiple – Choice Tests Substitution Variety
  141. 141. Types of Multiple – Choice Tests The Incomplete – Alternative Variety
  142. 142. An apple that has a sharp, pungent, but not disagreeably sour or bitter, taste is said to be [4] A. P B. Q C. T E. V F. W (The numeral in the parentheses indicates the number of letters in the correct answers which in this case is “tart”)
  143. 143. Types of Multiple – Choice Tests The Combined – Response Variety
  144. 144. Scoring the Multiple – Choice Tests
  145. 145. Children below the fourth grade should probably answer questions on the test booklet itself rather than on a separate sheet.
  146. 146. A separate sheet is an advantage to older children since the scoring time, and the scoring and counting of errors can be reduced. It can also facilitate the analyzing of the class’ response to each item for diagnosis.
  147. 147. Determining the optimal number of options
  148. 148. The number of items on a test and the number of alternatives for each item affect the accuracy of measurement.
  149. 149. Current evidence shows that the teacher would better off with 80 items having three alternatives each than 60 items with four options each. Three to five choices are reasonable for multiple – choice tests.
  150. 150. CHECKLIST FOR WRITING MULTIPLE – CHOICE ITEMS Are the item and the main problem in the stem clearly presented? Has the item been cast so that there is no repetition of the key words or phrases for each question? Do the options come to the end of the stem?
  151. 151. Have the responses been arranged in some systematic fashion, such as alphabetically or by the length of options? Are all distracters plausible? Have all irrelevant clues been avoided? Are the correct answers randomly assigned throughout the test with approximately equal frequency?
  152. 152. Is there only one correct or best answer? Has “all the above” been avoided? Have all irrelevant clues been avoided? Has the “none of the above” option been used sparingly or only when appropriate?
  153. 153. Have the overlapping options been avoided? Have the negative statements been avoided? If used, has the negative been underlined or written in capital letters?
  154. 154. If you don’t know where you are going, you will probably end up somewhere else. Laurence J. Peter
  155. 155. References Buendicho, F.C. (2010) Assessment of Learning 1. Quezon City: REX Printing Company. Bandiola, E.I (2003) Assessing Student Learning. Quezon City: Great Books Trading.
  156. 156. End of Report Thank You for Listening
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