Assessment of Learning - Multiple Choice Test

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A powerpoint presentation about the Multiple Choice Test as one of the assessment strategies that can be used by teachers in assessing learners. Also, this includes the introduction, definition, …

A powerpoint presentation about the Multiple Choice Test as one of the assessment strategies that can be used by teachers in assessing learners. Also, this includes the introduction, definition, advantages, and limitations of Multiple Choice Test.

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  • 1. Multiple Choice Test
  • 2. Introduction The multiple – choice test is regarded as one of the best forms of testing. This form is the most valuable and widely – used in standardized test due to its flexibility and objectivity in scoring.
  • 3. Introduction The multiple – choice item is considered somewhat more difficult to construct than the other objective items. However, it is as much more effective item for measuring higher cognitive processes.
  • 4. Introduction The multiple – choice type of test is a form of assessment in which students are asked to select the correct or best answer out of the choices from the list. It requires the student to select from the given options that will make the stem complete or correct. All incorrect or less appropriate responses are called “distracters” or “foils”.
  • 5. Introduction Oftentimes, multiple – choice tests include a stimulus material where the item or question is drawn. A stimulus material, or an introductory material, is added information in the form of chart, graph, stanza of a poem, or novel pictorial.
  • 6. Introduction A multiple – choice test is made up of items each of which presents two or more responses, only one of which is correct or definitely better than the others.
  • 7. Introduction The multiple – choice item consists of two parts: (a) the stem, which identifies the question or problem; and (b) the response alternatives. Students are asked to select one alternative that best completes the statement or answers to the
  • 8. Example Item stem: •Which of the following is a chemical change?
  • 9. Example Response alternatives: •A. Evaporation of Alcohol •B. Freezing of water •C. Burning of oil •D. Melting of wax
  • 10. Introduction The given options are the possible answers that the examinees can choose from, with the correct answer called “key”. The minimum number of options is three while the maximum is five.
  • 11. Introduction In short, each multiple – choice item consist of a stem and a series of alternative responses, one of which is the correct response. Alternatives that are incorrect are, for obvious reasons, called “distracters”.
  • 12. Stem The introductory part of an item is called the stem, and its functions are to ask question, set the task to be performed, or state the problem to be solved. As a general rule, after the examinee has read the stem, he or she should understand the task at the hand and know what task is required by the stem.
  • 13. Stem The stem is the beginning part of the item that presents the item as a problem to be solved, a question asked of the students, or an incomplete statement to be completed. It can be presented in three ways: a direction, an incomplete statement, or a mathematical equation. If it is an incomplete statement, all the options or the last one ends with the period. For elementary students, it is advisable to use a direct question.
  • 14. Stem Example of a direct question: •Who is the President of the Philippines after EDSA I?
  • 15. Stem Example of an incomplete statement: •The President of the Philippines after EDSA I is
  • 16. Stem A stem may also be presented in the form of a mathematical equation: •In the equation 2x + 3 = 4, solve for x.
  • 17. Stem The stem in multiple – choice question should present the problem so clearly that the students will know exactly what is expected of them.
  • 18. Stem It should be constructed in such a way that it leads directly to the alternatives without ambiguity. This can be assured if both the stem and the correct alternative are written as grammatically complete statements.
  • 19. Stem Example: The Connecticut River originates at the Connecticut Lakes in Northern Vermont.
  • 20. Stem Stated this way, the entire item is more likely to have a clearly – stated stem and a good set of alternatives. Then, break the sentence in the following way to construct the alternatives, responses, or distracters:
  • 21. Stem Example: The Connecticut River originates at the Connecticut Lakes in: A. Southern Canada B. Northwestern New Hampshire C. Northern Vermont D. Northeastern Connecticut
  • 22. Stem It does not matter very much where the stem is split so long as it makes good sense and contains most of the information.
  • 23. Stem Items at this level should provide clues for accurate recall in order for the students to be accurate in their selection of an answer.
  • 24. Stem It does not matter either whether the stem is written as an incomplete sentence, as above or whether it is restated as question.
  • 25. Stem Example: Where does Connecticut River originate? A. Southern Canada B. Northwestern New Hampshire C. Northern Vermont D. Northeastern Connecticut
  • 26. The Alternatives/Response/ Options
  • 27. Alternatives/Response/Options The suggested responses are called alternatives/responses/options. Usually, only one of the alternatives is the correct or best answer to the question or problem posed.
  • 28. Alternatives/Response/Options The remaining incorrect alternatives are called “distracters” or “foils”. Their function is to appear as plausible answers or solutions to the problem for those examinees who do not possess sufficient knowledge.
  • 29. Alternatives/Response/Options The alternatives (sometimes called options) are the “multiple choices” from which students select.
  • 30. Alternatives/Response/Options Since alternatives are as plausible as the correct responses, they are called “distracters”. They are designed to force students to think by making their choices more difficult.
  • 31. Advantages of Multiple – Choice Test
  • 32. It has a great versatility in measuring objectives from the level of the rote memorization to the most complex level. It often requires less time to administer than tests requiring written responses.
  • 33. Because this style of test does not require a teacher to interpret the answers, test – takers are graded purely on the selection, thus creating a lower likelihood of teacher bias in the results.
  • 34. Factors irrelevant to the assessed materials, such as handwriting and clarity of presentation, do not come into play in a multiple choice assessment.
  • 35. Because student writing is minimized, the teacher can cover a substantial amount of course material in relatively short time. Scoring is objective since only little interpretation is needed to count the number of correct responses.
  • 36. Teachers can construct options that require students to discriminate among them. These items vary in the degree of correctness. The effects of guessing are largely reduced since there are more options.
  • 37. Items are more amenable to item analysis, and this can be used to detect areas of student weaknesses, evidence of the item ambiguity, item difficulty, and the extent to which the item can measure individual differences.
  • 38. The multiple – choice item can be used to test a greater variety of instructional objectives.
  • 39. It does not require the examinee to write out and elaborate their answers, minimizing the opportunity for less knowledgeable examinees to “bluff” or “dress up” their answer.
  • 40. It focuses on reading and thinking. Highly reliable test scores.
  • 41. A wide sampling of content or objectives. Different response alternatives which can provide diagnostic feedback.
  • 42. Limitations of Multiple – Choice Test
  • 43. This type of test is more time consuming in terms of looking for options that are plausible.
  • 44. Multiple – choice tests are ambiguous. Failing to interpret the question as the test maker intended can result in an incorrect response, even if the test taker’s response is potentially valid.
  • 45. The term multiple guess has been used to describe this scenario because test – takers may attempt to guess, rather than determine the correct answer.
  • 46. In a multiple – choice test, a student who is incapable of answering a particular question can simply select a random answer and still have a chance of receiving a mark of it.
  • 47. It is a common practice of students who have no time left to give all the remaining questions random answers in the hope that they will get at least some of them right.
  • 48. Test naïve student complain of more than one defensible correct answer. They require students to choose from among a fixed list of options, rather than to create or express their own ideas and solutions.
  • 49. Poorly written multiple – choice test items can be superficial, trivial, and limited to factual knowledge. Multiple – choice items tend to based on “standardized”, “vulgarized”, or “approved” knowledge and give students the impression that there is a single, correct answer.
  • 50. Lead a teacher to favor simple recall of facts. Place a high degree of dependence on student’s reading ability and teacher’s writing ability.
  • 51. Suggestions for Constructing a MULTIPLE – CHOICE TEST
  • 52. Constructing/Improving the Main Stem
  • 53. A. Constructing/Improving the Main Stem Statements barrowed from textbooks or other reference materials must be avoided. Use familiar phrasing to test the comprehension of students.
  • 54. A. Constructing/Improving the Main Stem Question form The main stem of the test item Completion form may be constructed in: Direction form
  • 55. Question Form Which is the same as four hundred seventy? A. B. C. D.
  • 56. Completion Form Four hundred seventy is the same as ______________. A. B. C. D.
  • 57. Direction Form Add 22 and 43 A. B. C. D.
  • 58. A. Constructing/Improving the Main Stem Articles “an” and “a” must be avoided as last words in an incomplete sentence. These words give clues to the probable answers as to whether the best option starts with a consonant or vowel.
  • 59. A. Constructing/Improving the Main Stem The main stem should be clear. Avoid awkward stems.
  • 60. Example of an awkward stem: If there are 9 chairs in the classroom and 16 children in the class, the classroom lacks how many chairs? A.6 B.7 C.8 D.9
  • 61. Improved stem: There are 16 children and 9 chairs in the classroom. How many more chairs are needed? A.6 B.7 C.8 D.9
  • 62. A. Constructing/Improving the Main Stem In items testing definitions, place the word or term in the stem and use definitions or descriptions as alternatives.
  • 63. A. Constructing/Improving the Main Stem Avoid negatively – worded items.
  • 64. A. Constructing/Improving the Main Stem When possible, state the stem as a direct question rather than as incomplete statement.
  • 65. Example Poor Better Alloys are ordinarily produced by. . . How are alloys ordinarily produced?
  • 66. A. Constructing/Improving the Main Stem Present a definite, explicit singular question or problem in the stem.
  • 67. Example Poor Better Psychology. . . The science of mind and behavior is called. ..
  • 68. A. Constructing/Improving the Main Stem Eliminate excessive verbiage or irrelevant information from the stem.
  • 69. Example Poor Better While ironing her formal, polo shirt June burned her hand accidentally on the hot iron. This was due to a transfer of heat because. . . Which of the following ways of heat transfer explains why June’s hand was burned after she touched a hot iron?
  • 70. A. Constructing/Improving the Main Stem Include the stem any word (s) that might otherwise be repeated in each alternative.
  • 71. Example Poor In the national elections in the United States, the President is officially A. chosen by the people B. chosen by electoral College C. chosen by members of Congress D. chosen by the House of Representatives
  • 72. Example In the national elections in the United States, the President is officially chosen by Better A. the people B. electoral College C. members of Congress D. the House of Representatives
  • 73. A. Constructing/Improving the Main Stem Use negatively questions sparingly. When used, underline and/or capitalized the negative word.
  • 74. Example Poor Better Which of the following is not cited as an accomplishment of Arroyo administration? Which of the following is NOT cited as an accomplishment of Arroyo administration?
  • 75. Constructing/Improving Alternatives Alternatives should be as closely related to each other as possible.
  • 76. Constructing/Improving Alternatives
  • 77. B. Constructing/Improving Alternatives Alternatives should be arranged accordingly to length: from shortest to longest or vice versa.
  • 78. B. Constructing/Improving Alternatives All options must be plausible with each other to attract student to choose detractors or incorrect responses where only those with high intellectual levels can get the best option.
  • 79. B. Constructing/Improving Alternatives All options must be grammatically consistent. For instance, if the stem is singular, the options are all singular.
  • 80. B. Constructing/Improving Alternatives Four or more options must be provided in each item to minimize guessing.
  • 81. B. Constructing/Improving Alternatives The order of correct answers in all items is randomly arranged rather than following a regular pattern.
  • 82. B. Constructing/Improving Alternatives A uniform number of options in each item must be used. For instance, if there are twenty items for this type and if item 1 starts with five options, the rest of the items will have also five options.
  • 83. Constructing/Improving Alternatives A uniform number of options in each item must be used. For instance, if there are twenty items for this type and if item 1 starts with five options, the rest of the items will have also five options.
  • 84. B. Constructing/Improving Alternatives Avoid using “not given”, “none of the above”, “all of the above”, etc. as alternatives in best – answer types of items.
  • 85. B. Constructing/Improving Alternatives Make all alternatives plausible and attractive to the less knowledgeable or skillful student.
  • 86. Example Poor A.Digestion B.Relaxation C.Respiration D.Exertion What process is most nearly the opposite of photosynthesis? Better A.Digestion B.Assimilation C.Respiration D.Catabolism
  • 87. B. Constructing/Improving Alternatives Make the alternatives grammatically parallel with each other and consistent with the stem.
  • 88. Example Poor What would do most to advance the application of atomic discoveries to medicine? A.Standardized techniques for treatment of patients. B.Train the average doctor to apply the radioactive treatments. C.Remove restriction on the use of radioactive substances. D.Establishing hospital staffed by highly trained radioactive therapy specialist.
  • 89. Example Better What would advance the application of atomic discoveries to medicine most? A.Removal of restriction on the use of radioactive substances. B.Development of standardized techniques for treatment of patients. C.Addition of trained radioactive therapy specialists to hospital staffs. D.Training the average doctor in application of radioactive treatments.
  • 90. B. Constructing/Improving Alternatives Make the alternatives mutually exclusive.
  • 91. Example Poor The daily minimum required amount of milk that a 10 – year old child should drink is A. 1 – 2 glasses B. 2 – 3 glasses C. 3-4 glasses D. At least 4 glasses
  • 92. Example Better A. 1 glass B. 2 glasses C. 3 glasses D. 4 glasses What is the daily minimum required amount of milk a 10 – year old child should drink?
  • 93. B. Constructing/Improving Alternatives When possible, present alternatives in some logical order (chronological, most to least, alphabetical).
  • 94. Example At 7 a.m. two trucks leave a diner and travel north. One truck averages 42 miles per hour and the other truck averages 38 miles per hour. At what time will they be 24 hours apart?
  • 95. Example Undesirable A. 6 p.m. B. 9 p.m. C. 1 a.m. D. 1 p.m. E. 6 a.m. Desirable A. 1 a.m. B. 6 p.m. C. 9 a.m. D. 1 p.m. E. 6 p.m.
  • 96. B. Constructing/Improving Alternatives Be sure that there is only one correct or best response to the item.
  • 97. Example Poor A. Precision B. Reliability C. Objectivity D. Consistency The two most desired characteristics in a classroom test are the validity and Better A. Precision B. Reliability C. Objectivity D. Standardization
  • 98. B. Constructing/Improving Alternatives Make alternative approximately equal in length.
  • 99. Example Poor The most general cause of low individual incomes in the United States is A. Lack of valuable productive services to sell. B. Unwillingness to work. C. Automation D. Inflation
  • 100. Example Better What is the most general cause of low individual incomes in the United States? A. A lack of valuable productive services to sell. B. The population’s overall unwillingness to work. C. The nation’s increase reliance on automation. D. An increasing national level of inflation.
  • 101. B. Constructing/Improving Alternatives Avoid irrelevant clues, such as grammatical structure, well – known verbal associations or connections between stem and answer.
  • 102. Example Grammatical clue Poor A chain of islands is called an A. Archipelago B. Peninsula C. Continent D. Isthmus
  • 103. Example Verbal associations Poor The reliability of test can be estimated by the coefficient of A. Measurement B. Correlation C. Testing D. Error
  • 104. Example Poor Connection between stem and answer The height to which a water dam is built depends on A. The length of the reserve behind the dam. B. The volume of water behind the dam. C. The height of water behind the dam. D. The strength of the reinforcing wall.
  • 105. B. Constructing/Improving Alternatives Use at least four alternatives for each item to lower the probability of getting the item correct by guessing.
  • 106. B. Constructing/Improving Alternatives Randomly distribute the correct responses among the alternative positions throughout the test having approximately the same proportion of the alternatives a, b, c, d, and e as the correct response.
  • 107. B. Constructing/Improving Alternatives Use the alternative NONE OF THE ABOVE and ALL OF THE ABOVE sparingly. When used, such alternatives should occasionally be used as the correct response.
  • 108. An illustration of a Multiple – Choice Item that Measures behavior in the Cognitive Domain
  • 109. K N O W L E D G E Where is the mouth of the Connecticut River Valley located? A. New Haven B. New London C. Saybrook D. Essex Simple recall of information is all that is asked.
  • 110. U N D E R S T A N D I N G Which term most accurately describes the soil deposited at the base of a Canyon? A. Volcanic rock B. Alluvial C. Sedimentary deposit D. Conglomerate Children need to recall information about erosion and soil formation accurately and understand how these phenomena build specific geographic formations.
  • 111. A P P L I C A T I O N To help retain valuable farm lands along a river, man often builds: A. Dikes B. Underwater dams C. Waterfalls D. Floodgates Children must apply their knowledge and understanding of rivers and flooding to know that dikes will prevent rampaging floods from carrying the soil away.
  • 112. A N A L Y S I S A river that flows between steep mountains for a hundred miles and then suddenly into a broad plain will require people who live in the plain to build dams: A. At the head of the canyon B. At the mouth of the canyon C. Two miles below the mouth of the canyon D. At the several points along the canyon
  • 113. A N A L Y S I S In analyzing the flow of such a river, students should understand how water from the water from the mountain streams will swell the water level in the river and cause it to flow faster and dangerous amounts. They should conclude, if they can perform at this cognitive level, that a series of dams will likely afford the best protection.
  • 114. S Y N T H E S I S In addition to providing drinking water, a reservoir high in the mountains can be an important source for which of the following needs of man? A. Transportation B. Irrigation C. Electricity D. Energy
  • 115. S Y N T H E S I S Students now will have to analyze the information they have gained about the flow of water in order to synthesize a new way to make use of the reservoir.
  • 116. E V A L U A T I O N Which of the following strategies would be the most equitable solution to the perennial drought problems of a large population living in a plain below a well – watered upland area? A. Divert the water from the upland lakes by aqueducts. B. Change the course of a major river that serves the upland region. C. Drill deep wells in the plains area. D. Build a series of dams in the upland region to store water for the plains area
  • 117. E V A L U A T I O N Each response is plausible and each poses economic and emotional problems. Making a thoughtful judgment in terms of available information is called for.
  • 118. Types of Multiple – Choice Tests
  • 119. Types of Multiple – Choice Tests Stimulus Material – Stem – Options
  • 120. The papers, of course, had been full of tragedy – glaring headlines, sandwiched biographies of every member of the household and the usual familiar tag about the police having no clue. Nothing was spared. The war was momentarily inactive and the newspapers seized with avidity on this crime in fashionable life: “the mysterious affair styles” was the topic of the moment. From “The Mysterious Affair at Styles” by Agatha Christie
  • 121. Why are the newspapers making The Mysterious Affair at Style their lead story? A. They are bored with regular news. B. The Cavendishes were fashionable. C. The war is over.
  • 122. Types of Multiple – Choice Tests Stem – Options
  • 123. Which of the following serves as an example of formative evaluation? A. Diagnostic test B. Entrance test C. Periodical test D. Short quizzes
  • 124. Types of Multiple – Choice Tests Negative stem/The Negative Variety
  • 125. The following are examples of an adjective EXCEPT
  • 126. Types of Multiple – Choice Tests Best Answer/The Best Answer Variety
  • 127. Since there is no clear – cut or well defined policies on observing privacy in all instances, the teacher is simply required to be
  • 128. Types of Multiple – Choice Tests Contained Options
  • 129. Identify the error in the sentence. My parents was in A B Manila to assist my C sister enroll in College. D No Error E
  • 130. Types of Multiple – Choice Tests Correct Answer/Correct Answer Variety
  • 131. What is the summer capital city of the Philippines?
  • 132. Types of Multiple – Choice Tests Group Options
  • 133. Write – A. If the item is a simple sentence B. If the item is a compound sentence C. If the item is a complex sentence
  • 134. Types of Multiple – Choice Tests Morse Variety
  • 135. Write – A. If W affects X but X affects Y but Y affects Z. B. If W does not affect X but X does not affect Y but Y does not affect Z. C. If W affects X but X does not affect Y but Y affects Z.
  • 136. Types of Multiple – Choice Tests The Multiple – Response Variety
  • 137. What factors are principally responsible for the clotting of blood? A. Contact of blood with foreign substance. B. Contact of blood with injured tissue C. Oxidation of hemoglobin
  • 138. Types of Multiple – Choice Tests The Incomplete Statement Variety
  • 139. Millions of dollars’ worth of corn, oats, wheat, and rye are destroyed annually in the U.S. by:
  • 140. Types of Multiple – Choice Tests Substitution Variety
  • 141. Types of Multiple – Choice Tests The Incomplete – Alternative Variety
  • 142. An apple that has a sharp, pungent, but not disagreeably sour or bitter, taste is said to be [4] A. P B. Q C. T E. V F. W (The numeral in the parentheses indicates the number of letters in the correct answers which in this case is “tart”)
  • 143. Types of Multiple – Choice Tests The Combined – Response Variety
  • 144. Scoring the Multiple – Choice Tests
  • 145. Children below the fourth grade should probably answer questions on the test booklet itself rather than on a separate sheet.
  • 146. A separate sheet is an advantage to older children since the scoring time, and the scoring and counting of errors can be reduced. It can also facilitate the analyzing of the class’ response to each item for diagnosis.
  • 147. Determining the optimal number of options
  • 148. The number of items on a test and the number of alternatives for each item affect the accuracy of measurement.
  • 149. Current evidence shows that the teacher would better off with 80 items having three alternatives each than 60 items with four options each. Three to five choices are reasonable for multiple – choice tests.
  • 150. CHECKLIST FOR WRITING MULTIPLE – CHOICE ITEMS Are the item and the main problem in the stem clearly presented? Has the item been cast so that there is no repetition of the key words or phrases for each question? Do the options come to the end of the stem?
  • 151. Have the responses been arranged in some systematic fashion, such as alphabetically or by the length of options? Are all distracters plausible? Have all irrelevant clues been avoided? Are the correct answers randomly assigned throughout the test with approximately equal frequency?
  • 152. Is there only one correct or best answer? Has “all the above” been avoided? Have all irrelevant clues been avoided? Has the “none of the above” option been used sparingly or only when appropriate?
  • 153. Have the overlapping options been avoided? Have the negative statements been avoided? If used, has the negative been underlined or written in capital letters?
  • 154. If you don’t know where you are going, you will probably end up somewhere else. Laurence J. Peter
  • 155. References Buendicho, F.C. (2010) Assessment of Learning 1. Quezon City: REX Printing Company. Bandiola, E.I (2003) Assessing Student Learning. Quezon City: Great Books Trading.
  • 156. End of Report Thank You for Listening