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The Andes Mountains

The Andes Mountains






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    The Andes Mountains The Andes Mountains Presentation Transcript

    • The Andes Mountains
      Tiana Yarbrough
      Professor Arguello
      History 28
    • Geography
      The world’s largest continental mountain range
      Lies along the western coast of South America
      Ranges over 4,300 mi long, 120-430 mi wide, and has an average height of 13,000 ft.
      Highest mountain range outside of Asia
      Highest peak: Aconcagua (22,841 ft)
      Extends over seven countries: Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela
    • Geography
      Andes divided into 3 sections:
      Southern Andes in Angentina and Chile
      Cental Andes in Chilean and Peruvian Cordilleras and parts of Bolivia
      Northern Andes in Venezuela, Colombia, and Ecuador
      In Colombia, Andes split in to three parallel ranges: Cordillera occidental, central y oriental
    • Volcanoes
      A belt of mountains along The Ring of Fire: A zone of volcanic activity
      Andes contain many active volcanoes; all distributed into four sections, separated by areas of inactivity:
      • Northern Volcanic Zone: Southern Colombia and Equador
      • Central Volcanic Zone: Southern Peru, Bolivia, and Northern Chile and Argentina
      • Southern Volcanic Group: Central Chile to the Chile Triple Junction
      - Austral Volcanic Zone: South of Chile Triple Junction
    • Geology
      East of the Andes lie several sedimentary basins such as Orinoco, Amazon Basin, Madre de dios, and Grand Chaco
      Separates Andes from ancient cratons of eastern South America
      West of mountain range lies the Pacific Ocean
      Submerged peaks off the coast of Venezuela make up the Caribbean Islands of Aruba, Bonaire, and Curaçao.
    • Climate
      Climate varies and depends on location, altitude and proximity of the sea.
      The Southern Section is rainy and cool
      Central Andes are typically dry
      Northern Range is rainy and warm
      Average temp in Colombia is 64 degrees F
      Andes of Chile and Argentina divided into two climatic and glaciological zones: the Dry Andes and the Wet Andes
      Climate is known to drastically change in short distances
      Rainforests exist miles away from snow covered peaks
    • Flora
      Rainforests once encircled much of the Northern Andes, but now have been greatly diminished.
      Only 10% of original woodland remains due to modern clearance.
      30,000 species of Vascular plants live in the Andes
      Many plants used for medicinal purposes
      Cinchona pubescens is a small tree used to treat malaria
      Tobacco and Potatoes originated from the Andes
      High-altitude polylepis forests and woodlands found in Andean areas of Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, and Chile
      These trees can be found at altitudes of 14,760 ft above sea level.
    • Fauna
      Very rich in Fauna; nearly 1,000 different species and 2/3 of them endemic to the region
      The most important region in the world for amphibians
      Animal diversity is high: 30,000 species of vascular plants, 1,000 amphibians, 600 species of mammals, 1,700 species of birds, 600 reptiles, and 400 different kinds of fish
    • Agriculture
      Ancient people (Incas) practiced irrigation 6,000 years ago
      Because of the mountain slopes, terracing is quite common
      Potatoes and Maize hold an important role in widely consumed staple crops
      Tobacco, coffee, and cotton are the leading export crops of today
      Coca an important crop for legal local use in mildly stimulating herbal teas
      Also used for the production of cocaine
    • Resources