a right-wing movement: many past - present "hate" groups
“pure”, white, Protestant, heterosexual American society
came to existence - 1865
Create a “pure”, white, Protestant society
Origin of the name
2 theories – ku klux:
"ku" and "klux" - the sound of loading and locking a rifle.
"kyklos" ( κυκλος , circle in Greek).
Also known as “The Knights' Party”.
First Klan existed between 1865 to 1870.
Formed by six Confederate Army veterans in the South after the Civil War and is regarded as the first terrorist group in the United States of America. At that time, the Klan's ideology was mainly known as supporting white supremacy and strongly against African-Americans, yet they not expressed any hatred attitude towards Catholics and Jews.
Next Klan appeared in 1915 and ceased to exist by 1944. During this phase, the Klan adopted the idea of spreading not anti African-American but also anti-Jewish, anti-Catholics, anti-Communist and anti-immigrants.
The current Klan was created in 1946 and is still operating. However, unlike the first two phases, the present KKK splits into 179 small groups (chapters) locating across the country, making them more difficult to trace.
Yet, there are larger, more popular organizations locating, for example: Church of the American Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, Imperial Klans of America, Knights of the White Kamelia and Knights of the Ku Klux Klan. Less violent activities were operated at this stage, while mass protests appears more occasionally.
Why anti-African American, anti-Jews and anti-Protestant?
African-American, Jews and Catholics were the "newcomers" arriving long after the existence of Protestants in the land
=> do not deserve to have equal rights with the "white", Protestant American.
Nathan Bedford Forrest (1821-1877), a general in the Confederate Army during the Civil War.
Before the war, he was a slave trader and an estate agent. He h
Had not been attended to any military school, yet from a private he was promoted as a general officer when the war ended.
Famous for commanding a massacre towards the African-American Union soldier
Joined the KKK when it was spreading at a fast pace and need an experienced leader.
Under his command, the Klan “launched a campaign of midnight parades; ‘ghost’ masquerades; and ‘whipping’ and even ‘killing Negro voters and white Republicans, to scare blacks off voting and running for office’”
denied any connection with the KKK when he testified before the investigation on the organization.
“ the unlawful use or threatened use of force or violence against people or property to coerce or intimidate governments or societies, often to achieve political, religious, or ideological objective ”
U.S Department of Defence
197 murders and 548 cases of serious attack in North and South Carolina in 18 months starting from January 1866.
During the next development periods, 416 African Americans were assassinated from 1918 to 1927, after the World War I ended.
Then there was a bombing of the 16th Baptist Church in Birmingham, Alabama, killing 4 African-American girls in 1964.
=> All these cases created a negative atmosphere within the communities of African American throughout the states, which was the aim that KKK achieves.