Food Safety And Technology

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  • 1. Food Safety & Food Technology Brittany, Yu & Matt
  • 2. Fact or Fiction
    • On average, each day, over 200,000 people in the United States fall ill with foodborne illness.
    • Of those, 14 die.
    • FACT
    • Estimate of foodborne
    • illness in the U.S
    • each year
    76 million people become ill 5,000 people die
  • 3. Foodborne microorganisms can cause illness for the body
    • Definition
      • Foodborne illness : illness transmitted to human beings through food and water; caused by an infectious agent or poisonous substance arising from microbial toxins, poisonous chemicals or other harmful substances.
      • Foodborne illness = Food poisoning
  • 4. People with a higher risk of foodborne illness Pregnant women Infants Young children and older adults People with weakened immune systems and individuals with certain chronic diseases
  • 5. Symptoms of Foodborne illness
    • Diarrhea and/or vomiting, typically lasting 1 to 7 days.
    • Abdominal cramps, nausea, fever, joint/back aches, and fatigue.
    • “ Stomach flu ” may actually be a foodborne illness caused by a pathogen (i.e., virus, bacteria, or parasite) in contaminated food or drink.
    • The incubation period (the time between exposure to the pathogen and onset of symptoms) can range from several hours to 1 week.
  • 6.
    • Microorganism can cause foodborne illness either by infection or intoxication
    • Food infection
      • Bacteria are consumed
      • Body reacts by raising temperature- fever
      • Longer incubation
    • Food intoxication
      • Toxin contaminated food is eaten
      • Shorter incubation
    Foodborne microorganisms can cause illness for the body (cont)
  • 7.  
  • 8. Safe Food Handling
    • Food can provide ideal conditions for bacteria to multiply and to produce toxins.
    • Disease causing bacteria require these three conditions to thrive
      • Nutrients
      • Moisture
      • Warmth (40oF – 140oF)
  • 9. Be Food Safe
  • 10. Keep your hands and surface clean
  • 11. Wash your hand
    • Use freshly water
    • Wash hand properly at least 15 seconds , not just rinsing them.
    • Clean under fingernails
    • Wash hand before, after handling raw food
    • Hand-washing is the most effective way to prevent spread of foodborne illness.
  • 12. Clean during food preparation
    • Wash
      • Cutting boards
      • Knives
      • Utensils
      • Counter tops
    • Using hot, soapy water after preparing each food and before going on to the next.
  • 13. Keep Raw Food Separate
  • 14. Use different Cutting Board
    • Separate raw, cooked and ready-to-eat foods while shopping, preparing or storing food.
    • Use one Cutting Board for raw meat, poultry and seafood.
    • Separate another one for fresh produce
  • 15. Cook food to a safe temperature to kill microorganisms.
  • 16. Safe cooking Tips
    • After cooking, food must be held at 140oF or higher .
    • Use thermometers to test the temperature of cooked food.
    • Cook thoroughly
    • Keep Hot food Hot, Cold food Cold
  • 17. For more information about using food thermometers, visit this Web site …
  • 18. Which ground beef patty is cooked to a safe internal temperature? Source: United States Department of Agriculture/Food Safety & Inspection Service A B
  • 19. This IS a safely cooked hamburger, cooked to an internal temperature of 160°F, even though it's pink inside. This is NOT a safely cooked hamburger. Though brown inside, it’s undercooked. Research shows some ground beef patties look done at internal temperatures as low as 135°F. Source: United States Department of Agriculture/Food Safety & Inspection Service A B
  • 20. Chill
  • 21. Safe Chilling Tips
    • Shop cold food last, keep cold food cold.
    • Chill (refrigerate) perishable food promptly and defrost properly.
    • Cooked food must be refrigerated immediately or within 2 hours
    • (1 hour if room temperature
    • approaches 90oF)
    • “ When in doubt, toss it out.”
  • 22. How to be cool
    • Cool food in shallow containers . Limit depth of food to 2 inches or less .
    • Avoid putting hot food in refrigerator because heat can affect the other’s food safety.
    • Place very hot foods on a rack at room temperature for about 20 minutes before refrigeration.
  • 23. Recommended refrigerator & freezer temperatures
    • Set refrigerator at 40°F or below.
    • Set freezer at 0°F .
  • 24. The THAW LAW
    • Plan ahead to defrost foods.
    • The best way to thaw perishable foods is in the refrigerator.
  • 25. Fact or Fiction
    • Food is safe once it's cooked, no matter how long you leave it out. FICTION
    • Food - raw food and cooked food - may not be safe after sitting out at room temperature for more than two hours.  Bacteria grow rapidly in the "danger zone" between 40° F and 140° F.
    • Advice: Follow the "two hour rule": toss perishable foods left out for more than 2 hours.  And if left out in a room or outdoors where the temperature is 90° F or hotter, food should be discarded after just 1 hour.
  • 26. Which food are most likely to make people sick?
    • Meats and poultry
    • Animal Diseases
    • Eggs
    • Seafood
    • Raw Produce
    • Honey
    • Picnics and Lunch Bags
    • Take-out foods and Leftovers
  • 27. Safety Tips
    • Read Labels to determine if it is ready-to-eat
    • Cook to safe temperature .
    • Consume food by the “ used-by ” date
    • Store raw meat, poultry and seafood on the bottom shelf of the refrigerator
    • Avoid washing raw meat and poultry
      • Increase the danger of cross-contamination, spreading bacteria from raw meat to other foods, cooking surface and utensils.
    • Remember, when traveling
    • “ Boil it, cook it, peel it or forget it .”
  • 28. Fact or Fiction
    • Scrambled, poached, fried and hard-cooked eggs are safe when cooked so both yolks and whites are firm, not runny.
    • FACT
    • Avoid raw or partially cooked eggs
    • or foods containing raw eggs
    • and raw/undercooked
    • meat and poultry.
  • 29. Video: Basic Food Safety
    • http:// =DXmgTeu74bY
  • 30. Recent advances aimed at reducing microbial food contamination
    • Irradiation
    • Improved Testing
    • Modified Atmospheric Packaging
    • Bacteria-Killing Wraps and Films
    • Bacteria-Killing Virus
  • 31. Irradiation
    • Definition : the application of ionizing radiation to foods to reduce insect infestation or microbial contamination or to slow the ripening or sprouting process
    • Irradiation = cold pasteurization
    • During irradiation, foods are exposed briefly to a radiant energy source such as gamma rays or electron beams within a shielded facility.
    • Irradiation is not a substitute for proper food manufacturing and handling procedures.
    • The process, especially when used to treat meat and poultry products, can kill harmful bacteria, greatly reducing potential hazards.
  • 32. How Irradiation works?
    • Low-dose of irradiation protects consumers from foodborne illness by
      • Controlling mold in grains
      • Sterilizing spices and teas for storage at room temperature
      • Controlling insects and extending shelf life in fresh fruits and vegetables.
      • Destroying disease-causing bacteria in fresh and frozen food.
    • Does not noticeably change the taste, texture or appearance of FDA approved foods, nor does it make food radioactive.
  • 33. Labels
    • Treated irradiation food must say so on its labels.
    • The “ radura ” logos is the international symbol for foods treated with irradiation.
    • However, foods include irradiation ingredients, such as spices, does not need to provide this information.
  • 34. Other technologies
    • Improved Testing
      • Testing foods before they reach consumers
      • Microbial Testing
    • Modified Atmospheric Packaging
      • Certain packaging methods used to improve the safety and shelf life of many fresh and prepared food.
      • Modified Atmospheric Packaging = Vacuum Packaging
    • Bacteria-Killing Wraps and Films
    • Bacteria-Killing Virus
  • 35. Toxins, Residues and Contaminants in Food
    • Natural Toxins in Foods
    • Pesticides
    • Animal Drugs
    • Environmental Contaminants
  • 36. Fact or Fiction
    • Natural foods contain natural toxins that can be hazardous if consumed in excess.
    • FACT
    • To avoid poising by toxins:
      • Eat all foods in moderation
      • Treat chemicals from all sources
      • with respect
      • Choose variety of food.
  • 37. Pesticides
    • Chemicals used to control insects, disease, weeds, fungi, and other pests on crops and around animals
    • Used broadly, the term include:
      • Herbicides – to kill weeds
      • Insecticides – to kill insects
      • Fungicides – to kill fungi
    • Pesticides residues on agricultural products can survive processing .
    • It can be hazardous if mishandled
    • The FDA tests for pesticides residues in both domestic and imported food
  • 38. Ways to Reduce Pesticide Residue Intake
    • Trim the fat, skin from the meat,
    • Discard fats and oils in broths and pan dripping
    • Select fruits and vegetables with intact skins
    • Wash fresh produce in warm running water, use scrub brush and rinse thoroughly
    • Consider buying certified organic foods
    • Discard the outer leaves
    • Peel waxed fruits, vegetables
  • 39. Animal Drugs
    • Growth Hormone in Meat and Milk
      • A hormones that promotes growth and that is produced naturally in the pituitary gland of the brain
      • Animals often develop more meat and less fat
      • Increase milk production while reducing feed requirements
    • Antibiotics in Livestock
      • Antibiotics overuse foresters antibiotic resistance in bacteria, threatening human health
    • Arsenic in Food Animals
      • Arsenic drugs are used to promote are used to promote growth in chickens and other livestock.
  • 40. Environmental Contaminants
    • Definition : any substance occurring in food by accident, any food constituent that is not normally present.
    • Harmfulness of Contaminants
      • Persistent environment contaminants pose a significant, but generally small, threat to safety of food.
    • Mercury in Seafood
      • Mercury and other contaminants are of greatest concern during pregnancy, lactation and childhood.
  • 41. Food Additives
    • Additives are substances added to foods , but are not normally consumed by themselves as foods.
    • Give foods desirable characteristic : color, flavor, texture, stability, enhanced nutrient composition and resistance to spoilage.
  • 42. Are Food Additives Safe?
    • Under conditions of its use , additives may or may not be safe.
    • Additives are called hazardous only if they are toxic in the amounts ordinarily consumed .
    • Margin of safety : a zone between the concentration normally used and that at which a hazard exists.
    • The FDA regulates the use of intentional additives: safe, effective and measurable in the final product.
    • Additives on the GRAs – generally recognized as safe- list are assumed to be safe because they have long been used.
    • Approved additives have wide margins of safety.
  • 43. Additives Concerns
    • Microbial food spoilage can be prevented by antimicrobial additives.
    • Sugar and salt have longest history of used to preserved food by withdrawing water from the food – moisture and add flavoring agents.
    • Nitrites added and preserved the colors and prevent the growth of deadly botulinum bacteria.
    • Sulfites prevent oxidation in many
    • processed foods, alcohol beverage
    • and drugs.
    • Monosodium Glutamate (MSG)
    • used to enhance others flavors
    • and added taste. It can cause reaction
    • in people with sensitivities.
  • 44. Organic Food and Genetically Modified Food
    • Genetic modification : intentional changes to the genetic material of living things brought about through a range of methods, including rDNA technology, natural cross-breeding, and agricultural selective breeding.
    • Organic farming practices are
    • designed to encourage soil,
    • water conservation,
    • with respect to animal
    • and reduce pollution.
  • 45. Fact or Fiction
    • Organic candy bar, frozen soy desserts and fried
    • organic snack chips are more nutritious or less fattening than ordinary treats.
    • The different of nutrient
    • composition between
    • organic foods and
    • conventional produced
    • foods are so small.
  • 46. Pros and Cons
    • Organic
    • Pro
    • Low level of pesticides
    • Improve soil conditions
    • Highly protective waterways and wildlife
    • Use sustainable agricultural techniques
    • Distinctive flavors
    • Slightly increased content of trace mineral, vitamin C
    • Ethical comfort
    • Cons
    • High Price
    • Same potential health risks
    • Less perfect appearances
    • Genetically
    • Pro
    • Fewer pesticides so protect waterways
    • No effect on soil
    • Greater food production at low cost
    • High availability
    • Increasing nutrient and photochemical content.
    • Ease food hunger
    • Cons
    • Harmful to wildlife by altered genes
    • Create “genetic pollution”
  • 47. Credits