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Food Safety And Technology
 

Food Safety And Technology

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    Food Safety And Technology Food Safety And Technology Presentation Transcript

    • Food Safety & Food Technology Brittany, Yu & Matt
    • Fact or Fiction
      • On average, each day, over 200,000 people in the United States fall ill with foodborne illness.
      • Of those, 14 die.
      • FACT
      • Estimate of foodborne
      • illness in the U.S
      • each year
      76 million people become ill 5,000 people die
    • Foodborne microorganisms can cause illness for the body
      • Definition
        • Foodborne illness : illness transmitted to human beings through food and water; caused by an infectious agent or poisonous substance arising from microbial toxins, poisonous chemicals or other harmful substances.
        • Foodborne illness = Food poisoning
    • People with a higher risk of foodborne illness Pregnant women Infants Young children and older adults People with weakened immune systems and individuals with certain chronic diseases
    • Symptoms of Foodborne illness
      • Diarrhea and/or vomiting, typically lasting 1 to 7 days.
      • Abdominal cramps, nausea, fever, joint/back aches, and fatigue.
      • “ Stomach flu ” may actually be a foodborne illness caused by a pathogen (i.e., virus, bacteria, or parasite) in contaminated food or drink.
      • The incubation period (the time between exposure to the pathogen and onset of symptoms) can range from several hours to 1 week.
      • Microorganism can cause foodborne illness either by infection or intoxication
      • Food infection
        • Bacteria are consumed
        • Body reacts by raising temperature- fever
        • Longer incubation
      • Food intoxication
        • Toxin contaminated food is eaten
        • Shorter incubation
      Foodborne microorganisms can cause illness for the body (cont)
    •  
    • Safe Food Handling
      • Food can provide ideal conditions for bacteria to multiply and to produce toxins.
      • Disease causing bacteria require these three conditions to thrive
        • Nutrients
        • Moisture
        • Warmth (40oF – 140oF)
    • Be Food Safe
    • Keep your hands and surface clean
    • Wash your hand
      • Use freshly water
      • Wash hand properly at least 15 seconds , not just rinsing them.
      • Clean under fingernails
      • Wash hand before, after handling raw food
      • Hand-washing is the most effective way to prevent spread of foodborne illness.
    • Clean during food preparation
      • Wash
        • Cutting boards
        • Knives
        • Utensils
        • Counter tops
      • Using hot, soapy water after preparing each food and before going on to the next.
    • Keep Raw Food Separate
    • Use different Cutting Board
      • Separate raw, cooked and ready-to-eat foods while shopping, preparing or storing food.
      • Use one Cutting Board for raw meat, poultry and seafood.
      • Separate another one for fresh produce
    • Cook food to a safe temperature to kill microorganisms.
    • Safe cooking Tips
      • After cooking, food must be held at 140oF or higher .
      • Use thermometers to test the temperature of cooked food.
      • Cook thoroughly
      • Keep Hot food Hot, Cold food Cold
    • For more information about using food thermometers, visit this Web site …
    • Which ground beef patty is cooked to a safe internal temperature? Source: United States Department of Agriculture/Food Safety & Inspection Service http://www.pueblo.gsa.gov/cic_text/food/therm/researchfs.htm A B
    • This IS a safely cooked hamburger, cooked to an internal temperature of 160°F, even though it's pink inside. This is NOT a safely cooked hamburger. Though brown inside, it’s undercooked. Research shows some ground beef patties look done at internal temperatures as low as 135°F. Source: United States Department of Agriculture/Food Safety & Inspection Service http://www.pueblo.gsa.gov/cic_text/food/therm/researchfs.htm A B
    • Chill
    • Safe Chilling Tips
      • Shop cold food last, keep cold food cold.
      • Chill (refrigerate) perishable food promptly and defrost properly.
      • Cooked food must be refrigerated immediately or within 2 hours
      • (1 hour if room temperature
      • approaches 90oF)
      • “ When in doubt, toss it out.”
    • How to be cool
      • Cool food in shallow containers . Limit depth of food to 2 inches or less .
      • Avoid putting hot food in refrigerator because heat can affect the other’s food safety.
      • Place very hot foods on a rack at room temperature for about 20 minutes before refrigeration.
    • Recommended refrigerator & freezer temperatures
      • Set refrigerator at 40°F or below.
      • Set freezer at 0°F .
    • The THAW LAW
      • Plan ahead to defrost foods.
      • The best way to thaw perishable foods is in the refrigerator.
    • Fact or Fiction
      • Food is safe once it's cooked, no matter how long you leave it out. FICTION
      • Food - raw food and cooked food - may not be safe after sitting out at room temperature for more than two hours.  Bacteria grow rapidly in the "danger zone" between 40° F and 140° F.
      • Advice: Follow the "two hour rule": toss perishable foods left out for more than 2 hours.  And if left out in a room or outdoors where the temperature is 90° F or hotter, food should be discarded after just 1 hour.
    • Which food are most likely to make people sick?
      • Meats and poultry
      • Animal Diseases
      • Eggs
      • Seafood
      • Raw Produce
      • Honey
      • Picnics and Lunch Bags
      • Take-out foods and Leftovers
    • Safety Tips
      • Read Labels to determine if it is ready-to-eat
      • Cook to safe temperature .
      • Consume food by the “ used-by ” date
      • Store raw meat, poultry and seafood on the bottom shelf of the refrigerator
      • Avoid washing raw meat and poultry
        • Increase the danger of cross-contamination, spreading bacteria from raw meat to other foods, cooking surface and utensils.
      • Remember, when traveling
      • “ Boil it, cook it, peel it or forget it .”
    • Fact or Fiction
      • Scrambled, poached, fried and hard-cooked eggs are safe when cooked so both yolks and whites are firm, not runny.
      • FACT
      • Avoid raw or partially cooked eggs
      • or foods containing raw eggs
      • and raw/undercooked
      • meat and poultry.
    • Video: Basic Food Safety
      • http:// www.youtube.com/watch?v =DXmgTeu74bY
    • Recent advances aimed at reducing microbial food contamination
      • Irradiation
      • Improved Testing
      • Modified Atmospheric Packaging
      • Bacteria-Killing Wraps and Films
      • Bacteria-Killing Virus
    • Irradiation
      • Definition : the application of ionizing radiation to foods to reduce insect infestation or microbial contamination or to slow the ripening or sprouting process
      • Irradiation = cold pasteurization
      • During irradiation, foods are exposed briefly to a radiant energy source such as gamma rays or electron beams within a shielded facility.
      • Irradiation is not a substitute for proper food manufacturing and handling procedures.
      • The process, especially when used to treat meat and poultry products, can kill harmful bacteria, greatly reducing potential hazards.
    • How Irradiation works?
      • Low-dose of irradiation protects consumers from foodborne illness by
        • Controlling mold in grains
        • Sterilizing spices and teas for storage at room temperature
        • Controlling insects and extending shelf life in fresh fruits and vegetables.
        • Destroying disease-causing bacteria in fresh and frozen food.
      • Does not noticeably change the taste, texture or appearance of FDA approved foods, nor does it make food radioactive.
    • Labels
      • Treated irradiation food must say so on its labels.
      • The “ radura ” logos is the international symbol for foods treated with irradiation.
      • However, foods include irradiation ingredients, such as spices, does not need to provide this information.
    • Other technologies
      • Improved Testing
        • Testing foods before they reach consumers
        • Microbial Testing
      • Modified Atmospheric Packaging
        • Certain packaging methods used to improve the safety and shelf life of many fresh and prepared food.
        • Modified Atmospheric Packaging = Vacuum Packaging
      • Bacteria-Killing Wraps and Films
      • Bacteria-Killing Virus
    • Toxins, Residues and Contaminants in Food
      • Natural Toxins in Foods
      • Pesticides
      • Animal Drugs
      • Environmental Contaminants
    • Fact or Fiction
      • Natural foods contain natural toxins that can be hazardous if consumed in excess.
      • FACT
      • To avoid poising by toxins:
        • Eat all foods in moderation
        • Treat chemicals from all sources
        • with respect
        • Choose variety of food.
    • Pesticides
      • Chemicals used to control insects, disease, weeds, fungi, and other pests on crops and around animals
      • Used broadly, the term include:
        • Herbicides – to kill weeds
        • Insecticides – to kill insects
        • Fungicides – to kill fungi
      • Pesticides residues on agricultural products can survive processing .
      • It can be hazardous if mishandled
      • The FDA tests for pesticides residues in both domestic and imported food
    • Ways to Reduce Pesticide Residue Intake
      • Trim the fat, skin from the meat,
      • Discard fats and oils in broths and pan dripping
      • Select fruits and vegetables with intact skins
      • Wash fresh produce in warm running water, use scrub brush and rinse thoroughly
      • Consider buying certified organic foods
      • Discard the outer leaves
      • Peel waxed fruits, vegetables
    • Animal Drugs
      • Growth Hormone in Meat and Milk
        • A hormones that promotes growth and that is produced naturally in the pituitary gland of the brain
        • Animals often develop more meat and less fat
        • Increase milk production while reducing feed requirements
      • Antibiotics in Livestock
        • Antibiotics overuse foresters antibiotic resistance in bacteria, threatening human health
      • Arsenic in Food Animals
        • Arsenic drugs are used to promote are used to promote growth in chickens and other livestock.
    • Environmental Contaminants
      • Definition : any substance occurring in food by accident, any food constituent that is not normally present.
      • Harmfulness of Contaminants
        • Persistent environment contaminants pose a significant, but generally small, threat to safety of food.
      • Mercury in Seafood
        • Mercury and other contaminants are of greatest concern during pregnancy, lactation and childhood.
    • Food Additives
      • Additives are substances added to foods , but are not normally consumed by themselves as foods.
      • Give foods desirable characteristic : color, flavor, texture, stability, enhanced nutrient composition and resistance to spoilage.
    • Are Food Additives Safe?
      • Under conditions of its use , additives may or may not be safe.
      • Additives are called hazardous only if they are toxic in the amounts ordinarily consumed .
      • Margin of safety : a zone between the concentration normally used and that at which a hazard exists.
      • The FDA regulates the use of intentional additives: safe, effective and measurable in the final product.
      • Additives on the GRAs – generally recognized as safe- list are assumed to be safe because they have long been used.
      • Approved additives have wide margins of safety.
    • Additives Concerns
      • Microbial food spoilage can be prevented by antimicrobial additives.
      • Sugar and salt have longest history of used to preserved food by withdrawing water from the food – moisture and add flavoring agents.
      • Nitrites added and preserved the colors and prevent the growth of deadly botulinum bacteria.
      • Sulfites prevent oxidation in many
      • processed foods, alcohol beverage
      • and drugs.
      • Monosodium Glutamate (MSG)
      • used to enhance others flavors
      • and added taste. It can cause reaction
      • in people with sensitivities.
    • Organic Food and Genetically Modified Food
      • Genetic modification : intentional changes to the genetic material of living things brought about through a range of methods, including rDNA technology, natural cross-breeding, and agricultural selective breeding.
      • Organic farming practices are
      • designed to encourage soil,
      • water conservation,
      • with respect to animal
      • and reduce pollution.
    • Fact or Fiction
      • Organic candy bar, frozen soy desserts and fried
      • organic snack chips are more nutritious or less fattening than ordinary treats.
      • FICTION
      • The different of nutrient
      • composition between
      • organic foods and
      • conventional produced
      • foods are so small.
    • Pros and Cons
      • Organic
      • Pro
      • Low level of pesticides
      • Improve soil conditions
      • Highly protective waterways and wildlife
      • Use sustainable agricultural techniques
      • Distinctive flavors
      • Slightly increased content of trace mineral, vitamin C
      • Ethical comfort
      • Cons
      • High Price
      • Same potential health risks
      • Less perfect appearances
      • Genetically
      • Pro
      • Fewer pesticides so protect waterways
      • No effect on soil
      • Greater food production at low cost
      • High availability
      • Increasing nutrient and photochemical content.
      • Ease food hunger
      • Cons
      • Harmful to wildlife by altered genes
      • Create “genetic pollution”
    • Credits
      • http://lancaster.unl.edu/food/mypyramid-foodsafety.shtml