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    Wlp Wlp Document Transcript

    • Task 1 Page No.1.1What are the characteristics expecting from a potential applicant At the selecting process?..........................................................................................................................................31.2Identify the type of selection method available for an organization To Select suitable applicant…………………………………………………………………………….…….……..61.3Evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of the selection methods mentioned above (1.2)…………………………………………………………………………………….……….….101.4What are the key issues to consider in deciding a selection strategy? ……………….….131.5Explain the factors contributing for the selection process when Select Right number of people with the right skills…………………………………………………………….. ..141.6Organization need to ensure legal and ethical aspect in Recruitment, Selection and retention procedures. What are the Legal and ethical Considerations in the selection process?.........................................................................................................................17
      Task 2 Page No.What type of knowledge, skills and experience required from the team Members to fulfill the team function?..........................................................................20Identify effective tasks /functions within a team……………………………………….23How these tasks/functions (2.2) will benefit to promote team spirit?......................24What outcome can be expected from a team member relationship…………………25How can encourage team members to effectively participate in their roles at The team activity?........................................................................................................................262.6Empowering team members is a key to organizational success. How can develop team members capabilities to work their own Ways within boundaries set by the organization?................................................................................................................................29
      Task 3 Page No.3.1Explain the types of leadership theories discussed in the HR literature…………………..333.2Identify the styles of leadership, and discuss its advantages and disadvantages………..353.3How leadership can communicate effectively the organizational vision, goals, and value to his team members…………………………………………………………………………….403.4What are the opportunities available to link the Vision, goals and values with the Delegated tasks……………………………………………………………………………………………413.5 It's a leadership responsibility to encourage and motivate team members to achieve Their delegated tasks. Explain the leadership role of encouraging and motivating The team members……………………………………………………………………………………………443.6How can encourage and build-up confidence of team members to cooperate with Organizational change?..................................................................................................................463.7When empower team members, they can make decision, working independently within The pre-set boundaries and demonstrate their capabilities. Elaborate this with the Available theories and your own view……………………………………………………………49
      Task 4 Page No. .
      4.1explain the type of 'objective-setting techniques' apply to obtain productivity
      from delegated task to the employee………………………………………………………..51
      4.2what are the job delegation techniques available to motivate employees and
      get the best out Of them?...................................................................................................53
      4.3How employer can understand the employee development needs and type
      Of training Programs to implement to fulfill that needs………………………………….54
      4.4Explain the possibilities to evaluate the productivity of the conducted
      programs…………………………………………………………………………………………56
      4.5Discuss the suitable methods applying to monitor the performance of the employees……………………………………………………………………………………….57
      4.6What are the contributing factors to the quality performances of the employees?........................................................................................................................59
      4.7How can provide constructive feedback to the employees about their
      performances?...................................................................................................................60
      4.8Explain how to make an individual development plan for employee after
      performance Evaluation program……………………………………………………………61
      4.9What the other alternative plan to deal with the employees performance
      outcomes………………………………………………………………………………….………62
      Question 1.1 what are the characteristic required from a potential applicant for a competitive business organization
      The critical issue that modern organizations are facing is the need to compete for talent in a diminishing pool of skilled workers and the ability to retain talent once selected to the organization. This has led to the need for improved recruitment and selection practices to select the right employee for the job. Selecting and retaining great staff is key for business success. Talented people will continue to develop their skills and increase their value to the Company which they are working for. To select better employees for their organization Human resource managements are using different tools. The important tool that I wish to give as an example is Dynamic HRM Solutions recruitment services to suit an organization’s specific requirements.
      • an Interest on the job - If you ask me what is the most important character an applicant should have I would say his personal interest this is very important character that candidate should have. Anyone cannot put their full effort without their personal interest. Thus, if a person has personal interest he will put full effort in his work. Therefore, organization will get optimal outcomes in business. People must have personal interest on their work. Otherwise, they cannot perform effectively. Especially, people those who are working at customer service, they should have personal interest on their job. Then only, they will work happily. In this case, they will deal the customers in a pleasant way. Thus, organizations will growth due to customer’s satisfaction. Consumers are the real king in the business. If organizations satisfied their customers, they can get loyal customers and constant market shares and this will help to extend their business in market. Therefore, personal interest is very important factor in the customer service.
      • Good Personality - This is one of the most important factors that customer service candidates should have. Because, obviously good personality attracts or charms people. Therefore, mostly organizations are expecting the good personality from candidates to attract the customers or people. In this case, this is one of the factors that will increase the customers in business.
      For example: Stewards (Air hostess) - Mostly Airlines are recruiting young girls that who have pleasing personality for this position. Because, they think, that this will attract the customers. Due to these, good personality is one of the factors that organization expect from the candidates.
      • Good Communication Skills - This is another important factor that organizations should expect from candidates and this is the key element of the customer services. Communication is very essential to deal with the right customers in right way. Otherwise, organization will not satisfy their customer’s needs and wants.
      For example: In Srilanka, a person who is working in Dialog customer service should be able to converse 3 languages (Sinhala, Tamil & English) fluently, then he/she can deal the customers effectively and efficiently. A good sales person who is having good communication skill will sell a bad good as a good.
      • Good Educational Qualifications and professional working Experience - This is another factor that organizations expect from the candidates. we can divide educational qualification in to two categories they are
      Academic qualifications (BA, BSC,MBA,PHD)
      professional qualification(CIMA,ACCA,CIM)
      According to a research which was done by a Srilankan Kelani university lecturer (Mr.Sugeeth) employability of a person who is having only academic qualification will get 22% employability, person who is having professional qualification only get 44% employability but a person who is having academic +professional qualification will get 69% employability So this educational qualification and experience will vary according to the job position
      for example if we take the sales executive job the company will expect only to pass the A/L from the candidate but if we take an Accounting job normally company will expect that person to fully complete Cima or Acca with two or more years experience .
      Gender - This is another factor that organizations are considering to recruit people in customer service and this is important factor too.
      For example: If an organization sells ladies cosmetic products, then mostly organizations should have to recruit girls for the customer service positions than boys. Because, girls more aware of these products than boys. In this case, girls are more prefer choice for the customer service positions than boys.
      According to these situations, gender also the important factor in customer service industry.
      • Age - This is another factor that organizations expect from candidates. Especially, organizations are recruiting youngsters (25-35) to these positions. Because, youngsters are active and they are flexible. Another reason is that youngsters have pleasing personality too. Due to these, organizations are considering age as a factor to recruit people for customer service.
      • Creativity and innovation thinking - Creativity and Innovation fills a crucial gap in management literature between the theory and practice of organizing imagination and innovation. It gives managers insights into introducing innovation within their organizations and accelerating the development of creative performance in organization. So it is very important that the potential applicant should have creativity thinking and innovation while they are working for the organization. organization will give preference to the applicant who has these skills
      • Special commitment - the psychological bond of an employee to an organization, the strength of which depends on the degree of employee involvement, employee loyalty, and belief in the values of the organization. Employee commitment was badly damaged in the late 20th century during corporate reorganizations and downsizing, which undermined job security and resulted in fewer promotion opportunities. This led to the renegotiation of the psychological contract and the need to develop strategies for increasing commitment. These included flexible working and work-life balance policies, teamwork, training and development, employee participation, and empowerment. So it is very important that applicant should have these skills too.
      • Flexibility - there isn't just one definition of workplace flexibility, because it means different things to different people. Basically, flexibility is about an employee and an employer making changes to when, where and how a person will work to better meet individual and business needs. While the basic concept stays the same, it's the type of flexibility which makes the difference. Essentially, flexibility enables both individual and business needs to be met through making changes to the time (when), location (where) and manner (how) in which an employee works.  Flexibility should be mutually beneficial to both the employer and employee and result in superior outcomes.
      So it is very important that potential applicant should have this characteristic also.
      My conclusion
      We can divide the characteristic expecting from a potential applicant in to six types
      Competencies required, including knowledge, skills, attitudes and personal attributes.
      Specific qualifications (if any are needed).
      Previous experience (if any is needed).
      Age range (if this is significant).
      Health (general and specific requirements).
      Special conditions (e.g. travel, unsocial hours, etc.).
      The person specification may sometimes include 'appearance', although we must be cautious about the discriminatory overtones from such a subjective heading. There are, however, some occupations where the perceptions of customers and clients about employees' appearance, however biased and old-fashioned, still need to be considered because of possible adverse effects on business and relationships. Any requirements included under the heading 'health' may vary considerably from one organization to another. In some occupations, such as the armed forces and the police, the standards of health required are necessarily stringent and high.
      The job description and the person specification are both necessary and complementary definitions. Of the two, however, the person specification is especially important, since it provides the criteria for assessing effective performance affecting, as we have already seen, the main functions involved in the management of people at work, and in particular is the basis for job advertisements and candidate details. The job description has a wider applicability and can be used, in various formats, for appraisal and objective-setting, development reviews, etc.
      Question 1.2 what are the selection method can be applied and critically evaluate the same
      Selection is referred to as the final stage of the recruitment process when a decision to be made on who the successful candidate will be. As you can imagine, important decision and should be made in an impartial and objective way, on some or all of a number of selection techniques as follows
      • Interviews
      • Application forms
      • Psychological tests
      • Work based test
      • Assessment centers
      • Bio data
      • References
      • Graphology
      Interviews
      Interviewing, either on a one-to-one basis or by interview panel, could be considered the most popular selection technique. Interviews offer the opportunity for a genuine two-way exchange of information that can be useful in judging whether or not the interviewee will relate well to colleagues and fit into the culture of the organization. According to Shackle ton and Newell (1991), 90 per cent of their sample of organizations always used at least one interview in their selection process. Interviews are said to have low validity but they continue to remain popular (Lewis, 1985).now we will look what are the structure of interview
      Interview structure
      The structure of an interview is based on the degree of control exerted by the interviewer as to the predictability of what questions are asked and what information is sought. When there is a specific informational need, then a more structured approach may be used.
      • Unstructured interviews are unplanned, non-directed, uncontrolled, unformatted, bilateral communications and flexible. They require skills in questioning and probing.
      • Semi-structured interviews are pre-scheduled, directed but flexible, major topic areas are controlled and there is a focused flow.
      • Structured interviews are pre-planned, interviewer directed, standardized, pre-formatted and inflexible. They have a full structure and use highly-designed, closed questions. They assume a consistent format will get consistent responses.
      Interview types
      There are four common type of selection interview:
      • Situational interviews use situation-specific questions based on job and look at hypothetical performance. They are conducted by specialists: psychologists or trained people.
      • Job-related interviews ask about past behavior on job. They are typically conducted by HR or managers.
      • Psychological interviews assess personality traits. They are conducted by work/organizational psychologists.
      • Competency interviews widen psychological interviews to include competencies such as interpersonal skills, leadership and other identified key competencies.
      Available at http://changingminds.org/disciplines/hr/selection/interview.htm
      Application Form
      Application form is a traditional and widely used device for collecting information from candidates. It should provide all the information relevant to selection, where reference for caste, religion, birth place, may be avoided as it may be regarded an evidence of discrimination. (SHAUN TYSON 2000)
      • Bio data
      When candidates apply for a job in an organization they normally complete a standard application form or submit a CV. In these documents one would expect to find certain 'biographical' information related to age, education, personal history, and current and past employment. When one uses biographical information or bio data in a systematic way as a selection tool a questionnaire is used to collect information on a large number of successful performers in the job, and the data are then correlated with the data from candidates. From this exercise could materialize an awareness of bio data (e.g. a certain type of qualification) that is associated with career success. Particular features of a person's biographical profile could receive a higher score than others because of such features' prime importance in influencing good performance. The basic assumption of this approach is that if we know enough about people's life histories we can improve selection by being better able to predict the likely future performance of candidates.(SHAUN TYSON 2000)
      Psychological tests
      Two of the more important psychological tests (often referred to as psychometric tests) used for selection purposes are intelligence tests and personality tests. The justification for considering both intelligence and personality tests in the field of selection is the belief that scores on those tests have some validity in predicting future 'ob performance. (SHAUN TYSON 2000)
      • Intelligence testing
      If an organization gave intelligence tests to recruits, which took the form of tests of [numerical and verbal ability, and found from experience that good test scores were associated with good subsequent performance in the job, then we could conclude that there is a high correlation between a particular test of intelligence and job performance. Tests of verbal and numerical ability, with questions on vocabulary, opposites, arithmetical calculations, etc., are often referred to as general intelligence tests. When people score highly on these tests they are said to have a good capacity to absorb new information, pass examinations and pick up things quickly and perform well at work. But it should be noted that a particular test might only be valid for a particular type of job or activity. (SHAUN TYSON 2000)
      • Personality tests
      There is recognition that personality has a bearing on the competence of the individual to perform effectively at work, and that personality defects can nullify the beneficial aspects stemming from having the appropriate aptitude or ability. It goes without saying that a highly motivated, psychologically well-adjusted employee of greater value to a company than an employee who is emotionally unstable de motivated. (SHAUN TYSON 2000)
      Assessment centre
      Assessment centre’s, which are events rather than places, use a variety of selection methods in order to increase the likelihood of making a good decision. The methods used include the interview, psychometric tests, and individual and group exercises such as role playing and task simulations, including in-tray exercises referred to earlier. (SHAUN TYSON 2000)
      Before assessment commences the organization should ensure that the relevant job or person specification and competences are spelled out and are available. The assessment takes on an individual form when psychometric tests are administered and the candidates are interviewed individually. But an important part of the assessment centre is the evaluation of the candidates' interactive and interpersonal skills in a group exercise. This is done by a number of trained assessors, many of whom are line managers within the organization. One reason for having a number of assessors is to minimize bias in the assessment process. Also, a number of assessors are needed to observe closely the behavior and interactions of the various candidates. Because a number of methods are used, and it is an intensive process, stands to reason that the overall exercise is time consuming (say two or three days) and costly.(SHAUN TYSON 2000)
      References
      A candidate for a job is normally asked to nominate more than one referee. One function of a reference is to provide confirmation that the information provided by the candidate is true, another is to provide a character reference. Normally a reference is taken up when the applicant appears on a shortlist and is seriously considered for the particular job, though there are times when a 'long' shortlist is prepared and a reference has a part to play in the production of the final shortlist. Some candidates are not too keen for a potential employer to approach their current employer with a request for a reference unless a job offer is on the table. They may not want their present employer to know that they wish to move on. Others might positively welcome their current employer being approached, even though they have not received a job offer, because they feel that being considered seriously for another job of some significance is something they would like their current employers to hear about. .(SHAUN TYSON 2000)
      Graphology
      Graph basis of handwriting analysis. The basic premise is that applicants reveal their personality characteristics through their handwriting. Employers using this meth< would ask candidates to submit handwriting samples for analysis. Generally, hand writing analysis would not be used alone as a method of assessment; where it used it is more likely to be one of a number of techniques selected to provide a t profile of the candidate .(SHAUN TYSON 2000)
      My conclusion
      The selection methods which I have explained are very important for an organization in those interviews is the very important and useful to select employees for an organization because in interview method faking is less than CV or application form as non-verbal signals may be found. Nevertheless, interviews are so common that some interviewees acquire significant expertise in the ‘interview technique’, managing impressions and having ready answers for common task. Faking also may appear through dress, words and body language, where impression-management seeks to make a person appear more than they normally are. A recent study shows that in an interview, women showed more openness and older, more experienced people maintained more eye contact, projected a more positive image and answered well to the question. But in an interview, it is very important that fair play is perceived, for example that all candidates should each have a comparable experience, even if the interviewer concludes early on that they are not selected.
      In my point of view am giving a pie chart below. This chart shows how much priority should be given to these selection methods while organization recruiting employees for them.
      Figure 1.2
      1.3 evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of selection method above
      Interview method advantages and disadvantages
      The main advantage of face-to-face or direct interviews is that the researcher can adapt the questions as necessary, clarify doubt and ensure that the responses are properly understood, by repeating or rephrasing  the questions. The researcher can also pick up nonverbal cues from the respondent. Any discomfort, stress and problems that the respondent experiences can be detected through frowns, nervous taping and other body language, unconsciously exhibited by any person. This would be impossible to detect in a telephone interview. So face-to-face helps the interviewee to get the desired results and help them the expression of the person to whom they are interviewing. By reading the facial expression of the respondent the interviewer can easily understand what the respondent want to tell them about anything. The main disadvantages of face-to-face interviews are the geographically limitations they may impose on the surveys and the vast resources needed if such surveys need to be done nationally or internationally. The costs of training interviewers to minimize interviewer's biases for example differences in questioning methods, interpretation of response are also high. Another drawback is that respondents might feel uneasy about the anonymity of their responses when they interact face to face interviews.
      Available at www4.gu.edu.au:8080/adt-root/uploads/.../adt.../05Chapter7-8.pdf -
      Worked based test advantages and disadvantages
      Advantages of work tests include
      High reliability
      High content validity since work samples are a sample of the actual work performed on the job
      Can constitute an objective assessment of the applicant's abilities, in a manner that is consistent for all those being tested.
      Because of their relationship to the job, these tests are typically viewed more favorably by examinees than aptitude or personality tests
      Difficult for applicants to fake job proficiency which helps to increase the relationship between score on the test and performance on the job
      Work tests use equipment that is the same or substantially similar to the actual equipment used on the job.
      Disadvantages of work tests include
      May be costly to administer; often can only be administered to one applicant at a time
      Although useful for jobs where tasks and duties can be completed in a short period of time, these tests have less ability to predict performance on jobs where tasks may take days or weeks to complete
      Less able to measure aptitudes of an applicant thus restricting the test to measuring ability to perform the work sample and not more difficult tasks that may be encountered on the job.
       Other benefits of work tests include:
      Applicants develop positive attitudes toward selection procedures that include work tests
      Applicants report that such tests appraise their potential fairly and allow them to self-assess their own performance. This may result in higher job refusal and lower turnover.
      Applicants report that work tests allow them to show what they can do in a way that an interview cannot
      Available at http://www.hr-guide.com/data/G316.htm
      Advantages and disadvantages of application form
      Advantages
      1. Standardized format, so its easier for employers to scan the information and make comparisons.
      2. They get all the info you need to know in order to schedule an interview, schooling to see if they have the degrees you want, plus work experience to see if you have the experience they want. (SHAUN TYSON 2000)
      Disadvantages
      1. Some require your SSN which is seriously unsafe, especially if in paper.
      2. you don't have the space like you do with your own CV and since some don't allow CV and cover letters (many do but some don’t) so applicants can’t write as much info as they want to or add a cover letter that if they don’t have enough experience or the right kind might convince the employer to interview them anyway. it’s just cold facts on paper then. (SHAUN TYSON 2000)
      Assessment center advantages and disadvantages
      Advantages
      The main advantage of the assessment center is simple: it works. Taken together, the techniques used in an assessment center provide more information about the candidate's probable success in an organization than anything else that's out there. On the management side, that's good; that's what an interview is for. On the employee side, the assessment center has been shown to provide greater opportunity for minorities than more traditional interview methods.  If the exercises are closely patterned on the real job, there can be other benefits. The assessors may gain a new appreciation for what the position requires. The candidate can also get a good preview of the work. So if the candidates don't like what they see, they can quietly drop out of the competition. There are disadvantages. The main drawback for the employer is cost. Typically, the assessment center will cost at least 50000 to 100000 rupees per candidate. There are staff costs. The assessment center will take at least three days for each assessor: one day for training, at least one day for assessing, and one more for making a decision. On the other hand, the cost of this time may be balanced by the reduction in the risk of hiring the wrong person. There is a more subtle but significant disadvantage. The assessment center was designed to be a staff development and promotion tool. The people being assessed - whether in the military or in a business - already belonged to organizations whose unique goals they understood. When the assessment center is used as a hiring tool, the key element of organizational orientation is absent. This results in a loss of reciprocity in the interview process. For another thing, the lack of direct contact between assessor and candidate means that they have no idea how well they'll be able to communicate with each other. They don't know chemistry .Unless the assessment center is based on close-to-fact job situations, candidates could walk away from a grueling day playing stressful and ambiguous games and not have any better idea of what the job entailed, or what their potential boss was looking for, than when they arrived.  The assessment center doesn't provide that kind of information. To that extent, it is not only unfair to job applicants; it's also a waste of their time. 
      Available at http://www.jlarue.com/assessment_center.html
      My conclusion
      The world we are living is an organizational world so we are surrounded by organization and we are participating in them as members, clients, employees, and customers. The organization is providing us goods and services to lives on. In the other hand organization require skillful employee without the skill full employee the organization would disappear so the managers of the organization will keep a close eye on the selection method most of managers will give preference to interview method.
      Question 1.4 what are the key issue to consider in selection strategy
      Recruitment is the phase that immediately precedes selection. Its purpose is to pave the way for the selection procedures by producing, ideally, the smallest number of candidates who appear to be capable either of performing the required tasks of the job from the outset, or of developing the ability to do so within a period of time acceptable to the employing organization.
      Cost factor
      This stage is concerned with general questions about the supply and availability of resources. Here the situation is similar to that which the manufacturer has to face in ascertaining in advance what the limits of the available market are, what competition and other constraints obtain and what, therefore, the share of the market is likely to be. In considering possible sources of recruiting employees (SHAUN TYSON 2000)
      So the best method here is to HR manager should approach to the financial managers to do the budgeting. Here the HR manager can give the finance manager type of selection method and its cost then the finance manager will prepare the budget based on that then they can also calculate RI and ROI based on that then they can decide which method to select employee because every organization wants to earn profit so they should find a way to select the people with less cost
      Reliability
      Reliability here means that the selection methods, tests and ensuing results are consistent and do not vary with time, place or different subjects - that is, test and retest reliability. Thus, a ruler is reliable as an instrument for measuring dimensions whether the subject is wood or cheese, and whether the measurement is done in summer or winter, in Russia or Africa. By this criterion, human selectors of employees are inherently not reliable because standards may vary between selectors and within one selector over a period of time. The issue is the degree of unreliability. This may be reduced by using a variety of measuring devices (tests, interviews), and by training assessors, and using more than one assessed(SHAUN TYSON 2000)
      Validity
      A valid method or test is one which truly measures what it purports to measure. For example, to ask a candidate at interview to define the requirements for effective management might be a valid measure of knowledge. It is certainly not a valid measure of the candidate's performance potential. The answer could in no way be of any use in predicting how successful the candidate might be in practice as a manager. Criterion-related validity is the extent to which the test measures what it is intended to measure, for example, whether the results of the test do predict job performance or the attribute in question. This requires validation of the performance by some independent means, and a statistically significant relationship between performance and the test results for the population involved.(SHAUN TYSON 2000)
      Content-related validity and construct-related validity are issues about the technical construction of the test. Content-related validity is the extent to which the content domain is tested by the method chosen. Construct-related validity explores the independence and presence of the psychological construct or trait, and the validity of the test in finding this. (SHAUN TYSON 2000)
      Authenticity
      Genuineness, realness, truthfulness, validity, reliability, undisputed credibility, and legitimacy are just some of the words that are used when we talk about authenticity. This brings up the issue of " realness" and " reality" and " real-life" which is another facet of the authenticity conundrum. So it is very important there should be authenticity in selection method (lecturer note)
      My conclusion
      Selection strategy is very important factor that should be consider by the HR manager. There are several factors contributing to this strategy these factor will vary with the size of the organization if we take large decentralize organization they won’t consider the cost as much because they want reliable person for their job but if we take small organization they will give priority to cost so selection strategy is not same for every organization depend on the job, available time, and available resource it will vary.
      For example if we take the job position of network engineer the organization cannot stop with just interviewing the person because his job is related more practical so what they need to do is they should give practical exam in the sense network trouble shooting then only they can recruit skill people for the organization
      Question 1.5 explain the factors contributing for the selection process en select right number of people with right skills
      “The selection procedure is the system of functions and devices adopted in a given company to ascertain whether the candidates’ specifications are matched with the job specifications and requirements or not.”
      Key employee retention is critical to the long term health and success of the business. So the managers should be very careful on how to attract an employee to his organization from the competitors. When applying for job the employee will think about his benefits and brand name rather than other thinks so organization should provide better facilities to attract young talent cream.
      Available at http://humanresources.about.com/od/retention/Retention_of_Employees_Tips_and_Tools_for_Employee_Retention.htm
      Now we will look what are the factors the employee will consider before applying for particular job this factor will also be considered as factors which makes the selection process of the organization to enhance now we will look at what they are.
      Brand position of the company
      Brand is a product, service, or concept that is publicly distinguished from other products, services, or concepts so that it can be easily communicated and usually marketed. Branding can be applied to the entire corporate identity as well as to individual product and service names. Think there is a job vacancy for an accountant in Unilever Srilanka and Abs private ltd before applying for a job the suitable applicant will think which company has the good brand name in society and more benefits for him. So he will choose Unilever Company without any doubt because Unilever Company has a good brand name in business society and they are treating their employees as their current asset. The other qualified applicants will also think like this and will choose Unilever Company so the selection process of Unilever Company will be a success one than Abs company because more qualified and talented person will apply for Unilever. The Unilever Company will get better talented person for their organization because of they are providing good benefits for their employees. Now we will look at other factors which the applicant/employee will consider before applying for a job which also have a big impact in selection process of the organization.
      The ability of the employee to speak his or her mind freely within the organization is another key factor
      Does organization solicit ideas and provide an environment in which people are comfortable providing feedback if so, employees offer ideas, feel free to criticize and commit to continuous improvement. If not, they bite their tongues or find themselves constantly " in trouble" - until they leave. So this is an important factor which the applicants will consider before applying for a particular organization. None of the employee wants to work as a slave.
      Available at:
      http://humanresources.about.com/od/retention/a/more_retention.htm
      Talent and skill utilization is another environmental
      A motivated employee wants to contribute to work areas outside of his specific job description. How many people could contribute far more than they currently do? The HR managers just need to know their skills, talent and experience. As an example, in a private company, a company manager pursued a new marketing plan and logo with the help of external business consultants. An internal sales manager, with 10 years of advertisement agency and logo development experience, repeatedly offered to help the manager of the organization. His offer was ignored and he found this as one reason why he resigns his job. That person joins their competitors and did a great job. After this the organization try to get his sales manager back but he refused to join his team because the competitors motivated him and they are still doing more to keep them with them so every managers should not forget to motivate his employee.
      Available at:
      http://humanresources.about.com/od/retention/a/more_retention.htm
      Employee must feel rewarded, recognized and appreciated.
      Frequently saying thank you goes a long way. Cash rewards, bonuses and gifts like free cars and home make the thank you even more appreciated. Understandable raises, tied to accomplishments and achievement, help retain employee. I can bet that work is about the money and almost every individual wants more of them.
      Available at:http://humanresources.about.com/od/retention/a/more_retention.htm
      Best employees, those employees the HR managers want to retain, seek frequent opportunities to learn and grow in their careers, knowledge and skill.
      Without the opportunity to try new opportunities, sit on challenging committees, attend seminars and read and discuss books, they feel they will stagnate. A career-oriented, valued employee must experience growth opportunities within your organization.
      The factors given above heavily influenced in selection process and also help the HR managers to get talented cream for their organization (the company which is providing the factors which I have explained above will get better talented person for their organization this means the selection process of the organization is a success one). The company which has the good will for employee will get talented employee (successful recruitment for an organization). But these factors are the factors which will be considered by the employee while he is applying for a job. The company which has the perfect HR planning will get qualified talented employees for their organization means successful recruitment and retention. There are some other factors also helps the organization to enhance its selection process. There are some other factors which also helps the HR managers to make their selection process a success one.
      Below I am giving an organization which is known for better HR practicing to attract employee for their organization now we will look how they are treating and attracting employees for their organization.
      Google cooperation was ranked as the Number 1 company in America to work for by Fortune 500 rankings in 2008, and life @ Googolplex is called by its employees as the Next best Thing to Not Working. The silicon valley start-up by 2 Stanford university students Larry Paige and Sergey Brine at a friend's Garage, has " a stock worth of 700 $ per share and its 99% out of its J 5000 odd employees gets to share the profits increasing 150 Billion USD.(CIMA BPP 2008)
      • Free Food the Google HR rule is that No employee should be more than 100m away from food. As a result there are a wide array of Catenaries serving FREE food and beverages.
      • Programmers Skate Boarding along to reach the Pool Tables
      • Free Day Care for babies and Unto 18 Weeks of fully paid leave for moms and 7 weeks for Dads. The program is called Google onsides
      • Free Massage Therapies and Saloon and beauty Treatments
      • State of the Art Gym for a workouts. Relaxing Swimming pools with water therapy, and Resting Rooms with large Aquariums with exotic and colorful Fish
      • Retaining Employees through commitments to internal clubs and groups such as Black Google’s Network and Google Female Engineers Club.
      • Free laundry services for the employees
      • 20 % time initiative which allows employees to work on one day of the week in any project they like.
      • Google Movie Nights: where by the company would rent out 1 whole movie theater so that all its Employees could enjoy the First Release premier of a movie.
      • Extra Skills development such as Chinese / French language classes
      In Google the employees will feel happier than at home because the Google Company is providing everything free for their employees what the Google company want is to get better talented employee for their organization because they are a profit organization think when there is a job vacancy in Google Company almost more than 20000 applicant will apply the reason for this the way the Google treating employees (welfare) and their brand name. So now we can clearly understand what are the factors affecting selection process and how they are affecting a selection process?(CIMA BPP 2008)
      When recruiting employee for the organization there are some factors which will influence selection process. We can divide those in to two categories first one is the factor which will consider by the employee (applicant) on what are the benefits he is going to get and brand position of the company the second one is how the organization is reaching the suitable applicant through various methods such like internet. The organization which practice better HR, have good brand name. And reaching suitable qualified applicant very quickly will succeed in selection process (CIMA BPP 2008)
      Question 1.6 organization need to ensure legal and ethical aspect in recruitment, selection and retention procedures what are the legal and ethical considerations in the selection process
      There are some legal/ethical considerations to follow when the organizations recruit people. They are,
      Avoid discrimination
      Discrimination means treating some people differently from other people. It isn't always unlawful after all people are paid different wages depending on their status and skills. Now we will look what are the types of discrimination
      Racial discrimination
      It’s unlawful for an employer to discriminate against employees because of their race. Employees are protected against racial discrimination at all stages of employment.
      What is racial discrimination?
      The 1976 Race Relations Act makes it unlawful for an employer to discriminate against you on racial grounds. Race includes:
      color
      nationality
      ethnic or national origins
      Under the Act, it doesn't matter if the discrimination is done on purpose or not. What counts is whether (as a result of an employer's actions) you're treated unfavorably because of your race.
      The Race Relations Act protects all racial groups, regardless of their race, color, nationality, religious beliefs, national or ethnic origins.
      The different kinds of racial discrimination at work
      The laws against racial discrimination at work cover every part of employment. This includes recruitment, terms and conditions, pay and benefits, status, training, promotion and transfer opportunities, right through to redundancy and dismissal.
      The law allows a job to be restricted to people of a particular racial or ethnic group where there is a 'genuine occupational requirement'. An example is where a black actor is needed for a film or television program
      There are four main kinds of discrimination:
      direct discrimination - deliberate discrimination (eg where a particular job is only open to people of a specific racial group)
      indirect discrimination - working practices, provisions or criteria that disadvantage members of any group (like introducing a dress code without good reason, which might discriminate against some ethnic groups)
      harassment - participating in, allowing or encouraging behavior that offends someone or creates a hostile atmosphere (eg making racist jokes at work)
      victimization - treating someone less favorably because they've complained or been involved in a complaint about racial discrimination (eg taking disciplinary action against someone for complaining about discrimination against themselves or another person)
      Available at:
      http://www.direct.gov.uk/en/Employment/ResolvingWorkplaceDisputes/DiscriminationAtWork/DG_10026667
      Employers who don't stop discrimination, harassment and bullying by their employees may be breaking the law.
      Age discrimination
      Age discrimination at work is unlawful in almost all types of employment. All employees and workers of any age are protected from age discrimination including partners of firms, contract workers and anyone in vocational training.
      All aspects of your employment (or prospective employment) are protected from age discrimination, including your recruitment, employment terms and conditions, promotions, transfers, dismissals and training.
      In some cases different treatment of a worker or employee because of their age can be justified, for example making special provisions for younger or older workers in order to protect their safety and welfare. See section on objective justification below. Age discrimination protection does not cover the provision of goods and services.
      Available at:
      http://www.direct.gov.uk/en/Employment/ResolvingWorkplaceDisputes/DiscriminationAtWork/DG_10026667
      Discrimination on the grounds of marital status
      The Sex Discrimination Acts make it unlawful to discriminate against married people in any way, for example, if an employer believes that a single man will be able to devote more time to a job than a married man.(CIMA BPP 2008)
      Racial discrimination
      Discrimination on the grounds of race is prohibited by the Race Relations Act 1976, which also set up the Commission for Racial Equality. The Act's provisions are similar to the Sex Discrimination Act 1975. The exceptions are
      Authenticity in entertainment, art or photography;
      Personal services;
      Maintaining ethnic authenticity in a bar or restaurant.
      An individual employee may apply to an industrial tribunal if he or she considers that his or her rights have been infringed by discrimination.(CIMA BPP 2008)
      Disability discrimination
      The Disability Discrimination Act 1995 gives disabled people similar rights to those already enjoyed in relation to sex and race.(CIMA BPP 2008)
      Example 1
      TARLING V WISDOM TOOTHBRUSHES LTD
      Wisdom Toothbrushes Ltd was found guilty of disability discrimination when dismissing a factor worker with a clubfoot whose productivity was declining. It appears that the company had failed to make reasonable adjustments in the workplace to accommodate Mrs. Tarling's disability in that she might have been better able to work using a special chair which the Department of Education and Employment advised Wisdom to use, and which would have cost only £200.
      Held: The employer must know about the disability to be able to be found guilty of discrimination (CIMA BPP 2008)
      Question 2.1 to build a winning team we need the mix of knowledge, skills, and experience” explain this Statement in the context of “Working with and leading people”.
      The knowledge-based society, tasks have become more interdependent than ever. Team working is the right strategy to execute these interdependent tasks. Team, though as old as any her HRM practice, the mixed results it delivered has become a potential deterrent for its widespread adoption in the organizational working and many managers are overcautious with the implementation of team structures. However, experiences and research studies have consistently highlighted that teams failed to deliver results wherever they are dealt wrongly, especially in their formation and development stage. Therefore, understanding these difficulties and mastering solutions should be the primary responsibility of all HR professionals.
      Now I am going to explain what type of knowledge, skills, and experience is needed from team members
      What type of Knowledge is needed?
      Problem solving The power of teamwork dynamics is engaged when team members come together to focus collectively on goals, issues, challenges, and problems. Team leaders must carefully manage the processes of team meetings in order to maximize the power of the collective knowledge and skills of the team members. Research indicates the most effective teams when focused on dealing with issues requiring the team's attention and maximizes the power of the collective knowledge and skills of the team members.
      Available at http://www.teamworkdynamics.com/id20.html
      Goal setting The second step involves establishing goals, with the active participation of the team. Goals are stated in terms that cannot be measurable, but they are more focused than a vision. For example, " The organization must reduce transportation costs." This establishes the framework of the vision. So it is very important to set the right goal for this a team members should have right knowledge about the job and his team members(lecturer note)
      Critical thinking The work teams is carried out by individual members of the team. When a team has developed a plan of actions that are necessary to achieve their goals or overcome barriers individual members must commit to carrying out specific actions. When a team in a position to make decision critical thinking is very important for example when deciding a price for a product critical analyzed should be firstly need to carry out then based on that price will be made but if there isn’t critical thinking when making pricing decision it will leads to poor performance in organization
      Available at http://www.teamworkdynamics.com/id20.html
      What type of skill is needed?
      Committed Leadership
      Every team needs a leader who focuses the members of the team on the mission, purpose, andgoals of the team. This individual must be committed to the team's results and must bewilling to be held accountable by the team's sponsor and other stakeholders, for leading theteam through processes that insure the team's goals are reached. The team leader mustengage eachteam member in the processes of the team and build a platform of mutual trust
      that leads to open debate, collaboration, individual commitment, and personal accountability.
      Available at http://www.teamworkdynamics.com/id20.html
      Mutual Trust
      The most important element of successful team work is the establishment of a platform of mutual trust that enables the team to engage in open debate and decision making that leads to commitments to action by individual members of the team. Building this trust requires openness
      That allows team members to know and understand the beliefs and behaviors of all members of the team so that team actions can be structured to take advantage of each members uniqueness and talents. Behavioral and values assessments are powerful tools in developing an understanding how each member of the team views themselves and responds to others in the team.
      Available at http://www.teamworkdynamics.com/id20.html
      Allocating Roles and Diversity Teams have different needs, and people should be d for a team to ensure that there is diversity and that all various roles are filled. We can identify nine potential team roles successful work teams have people to fill all these roles and have selected people in these roles based on their skills and preferences. Managers need to understand the individual strengths that each person can bring to a team, select members with their strengths in mind, and allocate work assignments that fit with members' preferred styles. By matching individual preferences with team role demands, managers increase the like hood that the team members will work well together.(SHAUN TYSON 2000)
      Member Flexibility in Teams made up of flexible individuals have members who can complete each other's tasks. This is an obvious plus to a team because it improves its adaptability and makes it less reliant on any single member, so selecting members who themselves value flexibility, then cross-training them to be able to do each other's jobs, should lead to higher team performance over(SHAUN TYSON 2000)
      Team building Not every employee is a team player. Given the many employees will select themselves out of team participation. When who would prefer to work alone are required to team-up, there is a direct the team's morale and to individual member satisfaction. This suggests that when selecting team members, individual preferences should be considered as abilities, personalities, and skills. High-performing teams are likely to compose of people who prefer working as part of a group.(SHAUN TYSON 2000)
      What type of experience is needed?
      Team participation An effective team will have team members who are actively engaged in the work and focus of the team. This will require that each team member emotionally commits to actively and openly participate in the team's processes in the pursuit of the team's goals. The team member must willingly commit to carry out action plans to complete individual actions necessary for the team to reach their team goals. The team member must be dependable and carry the full weight of personal responsibility to complete their individual commitments by me date committed to. Engaged team members enthusiastically support each other and add value to other team members. They prepare for team processes and choose to engage others in a positive manner to find solutions to issues and challenges they individually or as a team face. They constantly seek to improve themselves for the benefit of the team and never, never, never quit.
      Available at http://www.teamworkdynamics.com/id20.html
      My conclusion
      What is the one hand clapping? Fine performance comes from fine teams. in the fine teams they will have the knowledge skills and experience required so that’s why they succeed among other teams here I would like to take real scenario to explain this question Tigers of Tamil Elam have been considered as one the most terrorist organizations in the world. But almost four months ago they were successfully defeated by the Sri Lankan armed forces. This success is the main talking point presently among international and local defense circles who believe that the unique strategies adopted by the Sri Lankan armed forces were the chief reason for victory.
      The battle last for the thirty years before our president took control of the country after he took the control of the country they have destroyed the terrorism in our country but still country like India struggling to defeat the terrorist in their country how is this possible
      The president, and the defense minister, and the army chief get together and share their knowledge. Our defense minister is educated in us this helps the army of Srilanka in several ways then they have create several group in armies and let them work as a team mean while in other hand terrorist group doesn’t have a good team work they have conflicts with themselves this helps our force to won the battle easier

      Source(http://i.telegraph.co.uk/telegraph/multimedia/archive/00640/news-graphics-2007-_640653a.jpg)
      Then the government took action to motivate every srilankan to get together against terrorist group and also they got the helps from neighbor countries
      The main reason for their success is their goal is one just to destroy terrorism from the country this helps them to won the battle From this scenario we can understand what can be achieved through team work and what is needed for the team work
      TEAM = Together Everyone Achieves More
      Question 2.2 identify effective tasks within a team
      Tolerance
      Tolerance means acknowledging that there is no " one true way." All persons are deserving of freedom and equal treatment under the law. Tolerance means accepting even those people who have views that are the opposite of mine. It means that all people, regardless of race, religion, sexual identity, political views, appearance and socio-economic status should be free to live their lives as they see fit, so long as they do not harm others.  Traditionally organization see its employee as a tool to just to get the work done but the modern organization is looking its employee as a human being not the labor force when the employee is feeling free in an organization he is happy to work for the organization and he will give his 100% commitment while he is working for the organization (lecturer note)
      Flexibility
      We examine the role of flexibility in project team effectiveness. Specifically, we hypothesize that it will mediate the relationship between staffing quality and effectiveness and its relationship with team effectiveness will be moderated by project complexity, where more flexibility will be required when projects are complex. Hypotheses are tested using data collected from 60 cross-functional project teams. The results indicated that flexibility mediates the relationship between staffing quality and team performance (goal achievement and cohesion, but not project efficiency). Additionally, we find that two-dimensions of project complexity moderate the flexibility–performance relationship. Specifically, the more alternatives a team must consider, the stronger the negative relationship between flexibility and project efficiency is. The flexibility–cohesion relationship also was moderated, such that the relationship is more positive when the project is more ambiguous and more negative when the project team faces many alternatives. Implications for research and practice are discussed.(lecturer note)
      Accepting the uncertainty
      Barriers to team and individual progress will occur in every team effort and must be dealt with quickly to continue progress towards the team's goals. The team leader must continuously monitor the status of each individual's commitments and initiate barrier removal processes where appropriate. Team-based processes for developing action plans to overcome barriers impacting individual commitments should be instilled as a part of the team's culture. Effective teamwork is essential in today's world, but as you'll know from the teams you have led or belonged to. you can't expect a new team to perform exceptionally from the very outset. Team formation takes time, and usually follows some easily recognizable stages, as s from being a group of strangers to becoming united team with a common goal.
      Available at http://www.teamworkdynamics.com/id20.html
      Collaborates To Set Direction and Solve Problems
      The power of teamwork dynamics is engaged when team members come together to focus
      Collectively on goals, issues, challenges, and problems. Team leaders must carefully manage the processes of team meetings in order to maximize the power of the collective knowledge and skills of the team members. Our research indicates the most effective teams include at least. Six but no more than twelve individuals who follow a meeting methodology that is focused on dealing with issues requiring the team's attention and maximizes the power of the collective knowledge and skills of the team members. Patrick Lencioni's book " Death by meeting provides excellent guidance in planning and conducting team meetings.
      Available at http://www.teamworkdynamics.com/id20.html
      2.3 How these functions will benefit to promote team sprit
      What is team spirit?
      " Exponential gains in organization effectiveness are possible at the intersection of team and spirit. Despite the potency of this synergy of team and spirit, the notion is still incompletely understood by modern enterprises. To realize the possibility of spirited, high performing teams requires a shift in awareness, a shift in values, and with it a shift in the way teams work."
      Team Spirit delivers motivation, team building, corporate entertainment and event management with energy and passion. Pride, for many people, is more important than money. In organizations in which people are disrespected and poorly treated, higher pay becomes a key way of compensating for the soul-destroying drudgery of the job. In contrast, highly spirited and well-led organizations are often competitive in their financial pay scales but way ahead of their counterparts in " psychic pay" via higher levels of pride and satisfaction. Most people want to be on a winning team, to feel proud of the organization and their own accomplishments. This emotional connection provides a deep sense of making a difference through meaningful work. Highly effective leaders nurture a strong " pride of craft" for the products or services the organization provides and what these do for customers. Workers feel valued for what they do. Individual, team, and organizational accomplishments and milestones are celebrated. Everyone feels emotionally committed to the team or organization's goals, purpose, and customers.
      Available at http://www.teamspirit123.com/
      How this function will promote team spirit
      There are many ways that strong leaders can build organization spirit. Here are a few suggestions:
      Build a highly customer-focused organization. Bring a constant stream of customers into your organization. Invite them to planning sessions, feature them at recognition or celebration events, ask them to tell stories about how your products/services are being used and making a difference. Capture those stories on video, audio or in print, and circulate them widely. Frequently get people in your organization (especially those serving the people who are serving customers) out to meet customers.
      Keep things simple and direct. Keep business units small and give teams autonomy. Keep pruning back the bureaucracy of centralization, rules, complicated systems and multistep processes. These disconnect and frustrate people while killing spirit and making work meaningless.
      Encourage and promote humor to release tension in a situation and keep people looking at the lighter side of things. But ensure that humorous comments don't disguise barbs and " sniping" among team members. And avoid humorous putdowns of others that may reinforce a sense of " they are out to get us."
      Lead change with examples of how your organization has gone through tough times or major changes like these before. Appeal to a proud heritage. Tell them how you've all come from a lineage of leaders and it's everyone's obligation to build an even stronger organization as a legacy for future generations.
      Look for every opportunity to recognize and celebrate significant accomplishments and milestones reached. Model and encourage simple " thank you" and reinforce positive behavior whenever you see it.
      Available at http://www.teamspirit123.com/
      2.4what outcome can be expected from the team member’s relationship
      Increasing Productivity through Teamwork
      There are groups of many different types with extremely varied purposes and goals. Whether these groups are organized to perform business, community, and governmental functions, all groups can achieve far more when they work as teams. When productive teams are compared with less productive groups, important differences involving the application of team concepts come into view. Here is an example: A study was made of 20 coal mines operating in the same geologic structure, drawing from the same labor pool, and subject to the same governmental regulations. Productivity was measured in tons of coal produced per employee per shift.
      The mine with the highest productivity delivered 242 tons per employee contrasted with the lowest, which mined 58 tons per employee. The other mines were somewhere in between. Conclusions from this study were summarized as follows: " The primary difference was the way in which company management worked with the employees. The most productive mine provided employees with significantly more individual responsibility and involvement in goal setting and problem solving." (NANCY FOY 1994)
      No conflicts in team
      Everyone will listenIt may sound redundant but again the key here is communication, not just expressing our needs, ideas, and opinions, but listening to the insights, needs and opinions of other team members, and understanding them. This doesn’t mean that we have to agree with them on everything, but compromise is reached much easier when we set aside our agendas listen and collaborate for a fair resolution that benefits the good of the project.
      Available at http://www.thisisaaronslife.com/conflict-and-team-development/
      Give solution for team member’s problem
      We have listened, we have responded with intent to move forward, now comes the part where we actually have to act on it, this can be the hardest part! When we do put things in motion resolving issues that arise and getting our projects heading in the right direction the rewards are very gratifying. Development team success can happen when we understand that it benefits us most when the team succeeds. There is definitely no “I” in team, and no “U” in win, the key is not to focus on ourselves, and even more so not to focus on the faults of others, this is easier said than done, but if I have learned anything working in a team environment it is that is setting aside my pride(which is still a work in progress), and putting the product/project first has led to successful projects, and the earned respect of managers.  This has opened the door for more responsibility, as well as given validity the input I offer on projects. Does it always work this way? No, but just like everything else it is a process, and the more we are willing to learn, and hungrier we are for growth, it will happen, and the rewards will be great!
      Available at http://www.thisisaaronslife.com/conflict-and-team-development/
      Increased Effectiveness from Collaboration
      Working together to achieve common goals, team members stimulates each other to higher levels of accomplishment. Fresh ideas are generated and tested, and the team's productivity exceeds any combined efforts of employees working individually. In this way, collaboration builds interdependence. People recognize the benefits of helping one another and realize it is expected. People collaborating on teams gain personal power in the form of confidence from knowing that others share their views and are acting in concert with them. Team goals become individual goals, arid group problems become individual problems. Members contribute their best to problem solving because they have a personal stake in doing so. The effort is non-tlireateriing. When members help design the systems and methods used by the team, they have the opportunity to see the effect of their effort and the efforts of others on achievement. They understand why controls are important and make a commitment to support them. This is especially true when members know it is possible to revise or improve controls when required.
      Collaboration also helps team members satisfy their participative needs. It helps build a framework in which individual needs can be learned, understood, and supported by all (NANCY FOY 1994)
      Question 2.5 how can encourage team members to effectively participate in their roles at the team activity
      Some people already possess the interpersonal skills to be effective team players. When hiring team members, in addition to the technical skills required to fill the job, care should be taken to ensure that candidates can fulfill their team role as well as technical requirements. now we will look how a leader can encourage team members
      Training On a more optimistic note, a large proportion of people raised on the importance of individual accomplishments can be trained to become team players. Training specialists conduct exercises that allow employees to experience the satisfaction that teamwork can provide. They typically offer workshops to help employees “prove their problem-solving, communication, negotiation, conflict-manage and coaching skills. Employees also learn the five-stage group development.
      At Verizon, for example, trainers focus on how a team through various stages before it finally gels. And employees are reminded of the importance of patience—because teams take longer to make decisions than if employees were acting alone. Emerson Electric's Specialty Motor Division in Missouri, for instant achieved remarkable success in getting its 650-member workforce not only to accept, but to welcome, team training. Outside consultants were brought in to workers practical skills for working in teams. After less than a year, employees' enthusiastically accepted the value of teamwork. (SHAUN TYSON 2000)
      Rewards The reward system needs to be reworked to encourage cooperate forts rather than competitive ones. For instance, Hallmark Cards, Inc., add annual bonus based on achievement of team goals to its basic individual-incentive stem. Trogon Blue Cross Blue Shield changed its system to reward an even split between individual goals and teamlike behaviors.
      Promotions, pay raises, and other forms of recognition should be given to individuals for how effective they are as a collaborative team member. This doesn't an individual contributions are ignored; rather, they are balanced with selfless contributions to the team. Examples of behaviors that should be rewarded include training new colleagues, sharing information with teammates, helping to resolve team conflicts, and mastering new skills that the team needs but in which - deficient. Lastly, don't forget the intrinsic rewards that employees can receive from .work. Teams provide camaraderie. It's exciting and satisfying to be an integral part of a successful team. The opportunity to engage in personal develop-" t and to help teammates grow can be a very satisfying and rewarding employees. .(SHAUN TYSON 2000)
      Motivation A positive motivation philosophy and practice should improve " productivity, quality and service." Managers can use several motivation theory to motivate employee of the organization Motivation helps people to:
      achieve goals
      gain a positive perspective
      create the power to change
      build self-esteem and capability
      manage their own development and help others with theirs
      Available at http://humanresources.about.com/od/motivationsucces3/a/motivatestaff.htm
      Providing a healthy environment – safety work place is very essential nowadays to get the employee to focus on their job when there is no safe in their working environment no one will like to work so the organization cant achieve their goal so it is very important that organization should build up a safe environment for their employees (lecturer note)
      For example we heard lots of news saying that due to the poor safe in the work environment this much people died so this is creating a bad reputation for the company
      Occupational health care: The safe work environment provides the basis for the person to enjoy working. The work should not pose a health hazard for the person. The employer and employee, aware of their risks and rights, could achieve a lot in their mutually beneficial dialogue
      Healthy and friendly environment will motivate employees to give their full commitment
      Providing entertainment while they are working – when a organization create its work place with more fun employee will feel like working at home and they won’t be under stress. Why still the Google Company is one the successful business is they made their working environment for their employee with full of entertainment although they didn’t pay more for their employee everyone wants to work there is due to these reason (lecturer note)
      Getting the employee to focus on his performance is very important take the business to success now we will look this is in a model how this will lead to effective function
      Team based HR practice
      Customer satisfaction
      Team leadership
      Team processTeam empowerment
      Organizational support
      Quality performance
      Work design

      Figure 1.3
      Organization are not empowered people are organization can give power or take it away empowering organization put the spot light on winning by letting their employees to perform at their maximum when the employees are empowered there will be team work which will help to easily achieve quality in their production which will leads to customer satisfaction
      2.6 empowering team members is a key to organizational success how can develop team members capabilities to work their own ways within boundaries set by the organization
      In this section we looks at this overall model for practical empowering a focus on performance, real teams, visible leadership, and communication. Fitting these pieces together so that they m0esh seamlessly is the art of empowering
      In the empowering organization everyone understands what good work is they know what is expected from them In hamstrung organization planners working in the dark leave gaps between their own expectations and those of the people who have to carry out the plans. If the plan is too slack, people don't bother, while if it is too stringent then it becomes impossible, so they still don't bother. The difference between empowered and hamstrung is an intertwined combination of information and motivation. The better the information people have, the more motivated they can be, and the better the information they give their management, the more unified and motivated the organization can be In the empowering organization, people know what their bosses expect, but they also understand what their customers see as good work. Most organizations, including some with expensive TQM programs, have better machinery for finding out what external customers expect than they do for exploring the needs of internal customers. Yet the best results frequently come from responding better to in-house customer needs. (NANCY FOY 1994)
      A group is often encouraged to see higher-ups as customers, at the expense of other groups or departments who depend on their outputs. Colin Minton calls this 'inward-upward management'. An organization that really values performance will ultimately have to put a premium on 'downward-outward managers', because their people are able to deliver. (NANCY FOY 1994)
      Focus on performance
      Today's concept of empowerment is based on some well-established ideas about what makes people tick, as individuals and in groups.
      Some Useful Old Models are
      Herzberg's Hygiene
      Back in the same effervescent period of change - late 'sixties and early 'seventies - Fred Herzberg offered a turning-point for many of us when he distinguished between 'hygiene factors' and 'motivators'. The hygiene factors kept people from. Alistair Mant, who first showed us that it was the difference between role and task that, caused most family squabbles. Being unhappy; it was the motivators that excited them. Herzberg had an elaborate model and some very sensible ways of dealing with
      Hygiene factorMotivation factorPayFunEnvironmentAchievementNot losingWinningPensionAvoiding taxEtcEtc
      Figure 1.4
      People once managers saw the difference between hygiene factors and motivators
      It surprised me then to realize that pay was not a motivator but hygiene factor. Thinking about it now, however, how much more often do you hear people grumbling about something " air with respect to pay, and how seldom does anyone say: I am getting my salary really turns me on. 'Money only becomes a motivator when it's a sign you're winning, which leads to Foy's corollary to Herzberg's and everyone else's laws: (NANCY FOY 1994)
      Maslow’s hierarchy
      This is the most pervasive model of all. When I first learned about Maslow’s work, back in the 'fifties, it was an exciting new idea that people had a hierarchy of needs. We thought then that you only move on from one need to the next when the first had - fulfilled. Our names for the needs were a little different Today we talk about 'self-esteem'. (NANCY FOY 1994)
      Figure 1.5
      Source (http://kandjinvestigations.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/2009/07/health-21.jpg)
      As time went on we began to view Maslow more flexibly. In the old days we assumed it was only Bertrand Russell who was confident enough to be self-actualizing. Nowadays most people be shop floor seem to be bouncing between security and self-.actualization - often several times in a single day. The model is still useful to us it highlights the creative need that is built into people(NANCY FOY 1994)
      Real teams
      What is the sound of one hand clapping? Fine performance comes from fine teams. In empowering people, the sum is greater than the parts - that is 'synergy'. It is also the financial rational for investing in good teamwork. (NANCY FOY 1994)
      Visible leadership
      People want to be led. They want to be aware of leadership from the top; they want to see and hear the managers responsible decisions that affect them; and they want day-by-day leader-ship from their own supervisors. If that leadership, at any level, assume the parent role - 'father knows best' - then the only possible response for the employee is the child's - 'indeed, father »•» s best', whether it be an obedient or a naughty child's role. (NANCY FOY 1994)
      The American management guru Warren Bennie has done a considerable amount of work on developing the picture of the manager as coach - who must be, of course, empowered himself before he can empower his people. (NANCY FOY 1994)
      There are other lists of 'qualities of leadership.
      Author and consultant John Adair2 studied what good leaders actually did, and developed a model which had three element described as
      building the team
      achieving the task
      developing the individuals
      It is the leader's job to control these often-diverging and always demanding phenomena.
      Adair developed a functional approach
      define the task;
      plan;
      communicate;
      control;
      evaluate;
      motivate;
      organize;
      set an example.(NANCY FOY 1994)
      Good communication
      There seems to be hierarchy of needs in communication firstly the employee what is his personal needs this means the me information once the organization satisfied his personal needs the employees will look whether the organization have the energy to satisfy our performance once the organization satisfied the me and us information then the employee will look at them this means what the organization is expecting from us so managers and the employee in the organization should ensure that they are having proper communication in order to achieve the empowerment (NANCY FOY 1994)
      My conclusion
      Everyone will think right now by working on the four elements
      • focus on performance
      • real team players
      • visible leadership
      • good communication we can easily achieve the employee empowerment that’s not the case here to achieve we need the full commitment of top management
      When organization is planning for empowerment, communication, quality things depend on credible management and everyone’s belief so to achieve this everyone needs to work together but in reality that’s not the case
      EMPOWERINGTQM
      For example
      EXCELLENCE
      CUSTOMER CARE
      Figure 1.6
      Quality, empowerment, customer focus, performance, and excellence share many of the elements but to claim for them can get in each other’s way. They often have different owners in the organization so there might be chance politics will occur so the it is very difficult to have empowerment in an organization and to achieve the target
      To solve this single leading edge is needed because energy is concentrated and many related goals have a better chance of being achieved
      The decision making is now the responsible of little top management they need to look at their strategies
      When little top management are allowed to make decision everyone will work for one target without any politics so it is very easy to achieve empowerment in an organization
      Questions 3.1 explain the types of leadership theories discussed in the HR literature.
      Leadership is both a process and a property. As a process leadership involves the use of no coercive influence. As a property, leadership is the set of characteristics attributed to someone who is perceived to someone who is perceived to use influence successfully.
      Now we will look at the different leadership approaches
      Trait theory
      Most of the time the traits are considered to be naturally part of a person’s personality from birth. From this standpoint, leadership trait theory tends to assume that people are born as leaders or not as leaders.
      There is a lot of value in identifying the character traits associated with leadership. It is even more valuable to identify the character traits that followers look for in a leader. These traits would be the characteristics of an individual who is most likely to attract followers.
      However, the idea that leadership traits are inborn and unchangeable appears to be incorrect. It is true that many of our dispositions and tendencies are influenced by our personalities and the way we are born. However, most people recognize that it is possible for someone to change their character traits for the worse. Someone who is known for being honest can learn to be deceitful. The whole idea of saying that someone was “corrupted” is based on the fact that people can learn bad character traits.
      Available at http://culturace.com/blog/?tag=types-of-leadership
      Problem with trait theory
      many of these traits are relatively abstract-- how they are defined may refer to different behaviors
      they may be too abstract to be adequately measured
      they may overlap in meaning making them difficult to distinguish or apply
      hundreds (if not thousands) of traits have been identified-- it's not possible for a leader to have them all
      there are too many exceptions to the rule-- some people don't have these traits but are successful leaders
      some traits are actually opposites of each other
      the trait approach does not consider the role of followers or situational conditions; too much weight is placed on the leader
      Behavioral theory
      Behavioral Leadership is the study of the actions or behaviors that define a leadership style. This theoretical approach to understanding leaders creates categories of styles that are aligned with the actions the leader may take or methods they use to reach their goals.  This is a different approach than situational leadership theories that are focused on the application and effectiveness of leadership styles to the different operating environments that can be found in the workplace. For example, a behavioral leadership theory might focus on explaining a type of leader that exists like a bureaucratic leader -someone that is empowered via the office they hold in a company.  The study of situational leadership examines how different styles can be effective under different workplace conditions.  For example, a coercive leadership style works best when a company turnaround is needed Since behavioral leadership places emphasis on the actions of the leader, it is much better at describing transactional leadership styles than transformational leadership styles.
      Available at http://www.money-zine.com/Definitions/Career-Dictionary/Behavioral-Leadership/
      Contingency theory
      Contingency Theory is a class of behavioral theory that claims that there is no best way to organize a corporation, to lead a company, or to make decisions. Instead, the optimal course of action is contingent (dependant) upon the internal and external situation. Several contingency approaches were developed concurrently in the late 1960s. They suggested that previous theories such as Weber’s bureaucracy and Taylors scientific management had failed because they neglected that management style and organizational structure were influenced by various aspects of the environment: the contingency factors. There could not be " one best way" for leadership or organization. Historically, contingency theory has sought to formulate broad generalizations about the formal structures that are typically associated with or best fit the use of different technologies. The perspective originated with the work of john wood ward, who argued that technologies directly determine differences in such organizational attributes as span of control, centralization of authority, and the formalization of rules and procedures. Contingency model focused on individual leadership.
      Available at http://culturace.com/blog/?tag=types-of-leadership
      My conclusion
      Leadership is obviously a importance in management. As modern research has clearly shown, leadership is a part of the study of group behavior. Leaders cannot operate in isolation, and groups with tasks to perform cannot perform these tasks without leaders. Leaders are members of groups, influencing them and being influenced by them. They are especially concerned with the cohesive development of the group as a prerequisite for the ultimate achievement of the group's goals. If management is defined as a process of making the most effective use of available human and material resources for the achievement of specified goals, then leadership may be described as the component of management that is most concerned with the use of human resources. Until recently, nearly all the emphasis of leadership study had been concentrated on
      Here I am going to give a true story to explain how leadership is important.
      A group of workers and their leaders are set a task of clearing a road through a dense jungle on a remote island to get to the coast where an estuary provides a perfect site for a port.
      The leaders organise the labour into efficient units and monitor the distribution and use of capital assets – progress is excellent.
      The leaders continue to monitor and evaluate progress, making adjustments along the way to ensure the progress is maintained and efficiency increased wherever possible.
      Then, one day amidst all the hustle and bustle and activity, one person climbs up a nearby tree. The person surveys the scene from the top of the tree.
      And shouts down to the assembled group below…
      “Wrong Way!”
      “Management is doing things right, leadership is doing the right things” So according to me only a good leadership can manage effective team.
      3.2 identify the styles of leadership, and discuss its advantages and disadvantages
      The bureaucratic leader is very structured and follows the procedures as they have been established. This type of leadership has no space to explore new ways to solve problems and is usually slow paced to ensure adherence to the ladders stated by the company. Leaders ensure that all the steps have been followed prior to sending it to the next level of authority. Universities, hospitals, banks and government usually require this type of leader in their organizations to ensure quality, increase security and decrease corruption. Leaders that try to speed up the process will experience frustration and anxiety.
      Advantages
      Capable of attaining the highest degree of efficiency;
      Technical efficiency;
      Corporate control over coercive leaders;
      Favors the leveling of social classes
      Disadvantages
      Powerful interests co-opt the offices and turn them into feudal kingdoms;
      Leveling in terms of technical competence;
      Tendency to plutocracy;
      Formalistic spirit of impersonality stunting enthusiasm and passion;
      Duty over personal considerations
      Available at http://culturace.com/blog/?tag=types-of-leadership
      The autocratic leader is given the power to make decisions alone, having total authority. This leadership style is good for employees that need close supervision to perform certain tasks. Creative employees and team players resent this type of leadership, since they are unable to enhance processes or decision making, resulting in job dissatisfaction
      These studies say that autocratic leaders:
      Rely on threats and punishment to influence employees
      Do not trust employees
      Do not allow for employee input
      Advantages
      New, untrained employees who do not know which tasks to perform or which procedures to follow
      Effective supervision can be provided only through detailed orders and instructions
      Employees do not respond to any other leadership style
      There are high-volume production needs on a daily basis
      There is limited time in which to make a decision
      Disadvantages
      Employees become tense, fearful, or resentful
      Employees expect to have their opinions heard
      Employees begin depending on their manager to make all their decisions
      There is low employee morale, high turnover and absenteeism and work stoppage
      Available at http://culturace.com/blog/?tag=types-of-leadership
      The democratic leader listens to the team's ideas and studies them, but will make the final decision. Team players contribute to the final decision thus increasing employee satisfaction and ownership, feeling their input was considered when the final decision was taken. When changes arises, this type of leadership helps the team assimilate the changes better and more rapidly than other styles, knowing they were consulted and contributed to the decision making process, minimizing resistance and intolerance. A shortcoming of this leadership style is that it has difficulty when decisions are needed in a short period of time or at the moment.
      It can be most suitable where team working is essential, and quality is more important than speed to market or productivity
      Advantages
      The leader wants to keep members informed about matters that affect them.
      The leader wants members to share in decision-making and problem-solving duties.
      The leader wants to provide opportunities for members to develop a high sense of personal growth and job satisfaction.
      Disadvantages
      There is not enough time to get everyone’s input.
      It’s easier and more cost-effective for the manager to make the decision.
      The business can’t afford mistakes.
      The manager feels threatened by this type of leadership.
      Employee safety is a critical concern.
      Available at http://culturace.com/blog/?tag=types-of-leadership
      Now we will look other types of leadership styles
      The laissez-faire (" let do" ) leader gives no continuous feedback or supervision because the employees are highly experienced and need little supervision to obtain the expected outcome. On the other hand, this type of style is also associated with leaders that don’t lead at all, failing in supervising team members, resulting in lack of control and higher costs, bad service or failure to meet deadlines.
      Advantages
      • No continuous feedback or supervision is needed because the employees are highly experienced and need little supervision to obtain the expected outcome.
      Disadvantages
      • failing in supervising team members
      • lack of control and higher costs
      Available at http://culturace.com/blog/?tag=types-of-leadership
      The people-oriented leader is the one that, in order to comply with effectiveness and efficiency, supports, trains and develops his personnel, increasing job satisfaction and genuine interest to do a good job.
      Advantages
      This leader is totally focused on organizing, supporting and developing the people in the leader’s team.
      A participative style, it tends to lead to good teamwork and creative collaboration.
      In practice, most leaders use both task-oriented and people-oriented styles of leadership. 
      Disadvantages
      This method requires lot of resources and time.
      Available at http://culturace.com/blog/?tag=types-of-leadership
      The charismatic leader leads by infusing energy and eagerness into their team members. This type of leader has to be committed to the organization for the long run. If the success of the division or project is attributed to the leader and not the team, charismatic leaders may become a risk for the company by deciding to resign for advanced opportunities. It takes the company time and hard work to gain the employees' confidence back with other type of leadership after they have committed themselves to the magnetism of a charismatic leader.
      Advantages
      In this the leader injects huge doses of enthusiasm into his or her team, and is very energetic in driving others forward.
      Charismatic leader can tend to believe more in him or herself than in their team.
      Charismatic leadership carries great responsibility, and needs long-term commitment from the leader.
      Disadvantages
      • leaders may become a risk for the company by deciding to resign for advanced opportunities
      • It takes the company time and hard work to gain the employees
      Available at http://culturace.com/blog/?tag=types-of-leadership
      The task-oriented leader (Fiedler, 1967) focuses on the job, and concentrates on the specific tasks assigned to each employee to reach goal accomplishment. This leadership style suffers the same motivation issues as autocratic leadership, showing no involvement in the teams needs. It requires close supervision and control to achieve expected results. Another name for this is deal maker (Rowley & Roevens, 1999) and is linked to a first phase in managing Change, enhance, according to the Organize with Chaos approach.
      Advantages
      A highly task-oriented leader focuses only on getting the job done, and can be quite autocratic.
      He or she will actively define the work and the roles required, put structures in place, plan, organize and monitor.
      However, as task-oriented leaders spare little thought for the well-being of their teams, this approach can suffer many of the flaws of autocratic leadership, with difficulties in motivating and retaining staff.
      Disadvantages
      • Showing no involvement in team needs
      • It requires close supervision and control to achieve expected results
      Available at http://culturace.com/blog/?tag=types-of-leadership
      The servant leader facilitates goal accomplishment by giving its team members what they need in order to be productive. This leader is an instrument employees use to reach the goal rather than a commanding voice that moves to change. This leadership style, in a manner similar to democratic leadership, tends to achieve the results in a slower time frame than other styles, although employee engagement is higher.
      Advantages
      In many ways, servant leadership is a form of democratic leadership, as the whole team tends to be involved in decision-making.
      Supporters of the servant leadership model suggest it is an important way ahead in a world where values are increasingly important,
      People practicing servant leadership will often find themselves left behind by leaders using other leadership styles.
      Disadvantages
      • Tends to achieve the results in a slower time frame than other styles
      The manager feels threatened by this type of leadership.
      Available at http://culturace.com/blog/?tag=types-of-leadership
      The transformation leader motivates its team to be effective and efficient. Communication is the base for goal achievement focusing the group in the final desired outcome or goal attainment. This leader is highly visible and uses chain of command to get the job done. Transformational leaders focus on the big picture, needing to be surrounded by people who take care of the details. The leader is always looking for ideas that move the organization to reach the company’s vision.
      Advantages
      Transformational leadership, in contrast, goes beyond exchange inducements for desired performance. Transformational leaders transform the organization by developing vision, building commitment, and empowering followers.
      transformation leadership have developed frameworks and measures that have led to a body of research on transformational leadership.
      Disadvantages
      • Focuses on only big picture (Available at http://culturace.com/blog/?tag=types-of-leadership)
      3.3 How leaders can communicate effectively the organizations vision, goals and values to his team members
      Although finding a vision can be quite a creative challenge, the process of getting that vision implemented can be quite easy if you follow the steps: The first step in setting goals and priorities is to personally develop what the organization should look like at some future point, that is, establish a vision. As a junior leader, such as a supervisor or manager, you will mainly be concerned with a department, section, or small group of people. While the senior leaders set the vision for the entire organization, you set the vision for your team. And that vision needs to support the organization's goals. The second step involves establishing goals, with the active participation of the team. Goals are stated in terms that cannot be measurable, but they are more focused than a vision. For example, " The organization must reduce transportation costs." This establishes the framework of your vision. Values are developed from the goals, again with the active participation of team. Communication is the meaningful interaction with people in such a manner that the ideal that the ideal thought is same and getting the feedback also. Communication is commonly defined as “the exchange of thoughts, ideas, feelings, information, opinions, and knowledge”. It also involves mutuality of understanding.
      Available at http://www.communication-type.com/what-types-of-communication-is-there/
      There are two types of Communication they are Verbal and Non-Verbal Communication.
      Verbal Communication
      Oral Communication: Oral communication is information spoken by mouth; the use of speech. Some of the examples of Oral Communication are: Face to face communication, Telephonic Communication, Public Address System (Speech), Informal rumor mill (Grape Wine), Audio & Visual Media(Radio, TV), Lectures, Conference-Interchange of views, Meetings, Cultural Affairs.
      Written Communication: Communication by means of written symbols (either printed or handwritten). Some of the examples are: Orders, Instructions, Letters, Memos, Reports, Policy manuals, Information Bulletin, Complaint System, Suggestion System, etc
      The leaders can communicate to his team members by using verbal communication now we will look how they can do it,
      Nonverbal Communication
      Body Language includes facial expression, eye contact, postures, gestures, touch.
      Para Language is the way we say something rather than what we say, is another nonverbal code.
      Space and Time Language:Space Language includes surroundings (Design & Language). It communicates social status also.
      Sign Language: A sign language is a language which, instead of conveyed sound patterns, uses visually transmitted sign patterns.
      Available at http://www.communication-type.com/what-types-of-communication-is-there/
      Now we will look based on this communication method what are the methods available for the leaders to communicate to his team members
      • Staff Forums:  these are opportunities for the leaders to visit employees in all locations and address the real issues and concerns of staff as well as communicating the big picture. Employee communication tips include handing out cards to attendees so that the questions can be addressed.
      • Site Visits: - These are an excellent employee communication tool for the leaders to find out specifically from the frontline exactly what the issues and concerns are of a particular region or department. The key here is not only to spend time with the team but also to sit with employees and find out what they are working on and inviting them to suggest innovative ways of doing things
      • Employee Achievement: Another way the leader can communicate change is to support and encourage employees personally for their achievements.
      • CEO Blog: Finally where would it be if leader did not mention some form of technology driven communication tool a leaders blog is very effective if it is used to support and report on the transformation process whilst the employee engagement strategy is underway.
      Available at http://changingminds.org/articles/articles/communicate_change.htm
      3.4 What are the opportunities available to link the vision, goals and value with the delegated tasks to team members?
      Setting the standard
      People will naturally follow a person who is sure of their path. Why? Because most people are not sure and are looking for a proven path which they can follow with confidence. Knowing for sure where you are headed will not only ensure that others will make room, but it will also ensure that they will follow you. So it is very important that leaders should set a standard to the employee then based on that standard he can ask his employee to achieve that standard organization can give reward to employees to work on that in almost every organization most of the people are reward waiting employee In financial department of the organization firstly they will set a standard then they will ask the employee to work on that at the end of the year they will compare the actual with standard if there is different they will find it and make necessary change so setting a standard is very important

      Available at http://ezinearticles.com/?Leadership-Development-Success---5-Tips-to-Becoming-a-Better-Leader&id=2459183
      Giving Dead lines
      Giving a particular date to complete the task is very important because if we give more time we can’t get the effectiveness and efficiency from the employee for example in software company like virtusa they will give a particular time period for their workers to create the software once they achieve it they will give rewards for them ones who are not achieved the target will feel bad about this so this makes him to perform well in the next project so giving deadline for the work is very important(lecturer note)
      Quality of work
      Quality
      Quality is directly related to the product. A firm can increase a product’s quality, but that increase may or may not be profitable. For example, Apple can increase the quality of its Mac operating system but that may not lead to an increase in value for the users. (CIMA MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING AND PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OFFICIAL STUDY TEXT 2007)
      Quality management refers to systematic policies, methods, and procedures used to ensure that goods and services are produced with appropriate levels of quality to meet the needs of customers. (CIMA MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING AND PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OFFICIAL STUDY TEXT 2007)
      To achieve quality modern organizations are practicing five techniques they are
      New manufacturing technique
      Modern manufacturing operations technique
      Total quality management
      World class manufacturing
      Drum buffer and rope method/synchronous manufacturing
      To achieve the quality work the organization will use the concept call TQM
      Getting the whole employees of the organization to work together in order to achieve quality and customer satisfaction
      So when the organization achieve quality in their products and work they will eanr more profit by getting more customer
      Giving financial goals
      This means the organization preparing budget and then ask employees to work on that Budgeting is a quantified plan or action relating to a specific future period. A budget will act as a defined target for planning purposes as well as yard stick for control purposes at the end of the financial accounting period organization will take the budget and will compare with the actual and if necessary change required they will make changes by setting financial goals organization get more benefits than disadvantages there are some disadvantages that it will cost more to prepare the budget at the start of the period but the truth is organization can achieve more profit margin by setting the budget at the start of the year(lecturer note)
      My conclusion for 3.3 and 3.4
      Are leaders made or born? There is certainly an element of luck, being in the right place at the right time, but never forget the old
      The person who can become a leader and escape the traps of the culture or 'context' has the best chance of creating his own context; which is one of the important things leaders do for their people.
      The characteristic needed by the leader
      Vision: the clear idea of what you want to do (and why) and the strength to persist until you get it.
      Passion: 'The leader loves what he does, and loves doing it.’ The passion (or enthusiasm) he projects is what inspires others.
      Curiosity: the leader wonders about everything, wants to learn as much as he can, from every experience, good and bad.
      Daring: the leader takes risks, tries new things, doesn't worry too much about failure, learns from adversity.
      It is the leader's job to control these approaches
      define the task;
      plan;
      communicate;
      control;
      evaluate;
      motivate;
      organize;
      Set an example.
      The development task is just as crucial at the front line as it for the top leader. At either level the leader should also be coach, facilitator, trainer, yet a survey in one large company show only 15 per cent of employees saw their front-line manager trainer or coach.
      The signals employees listen from the top leadership are same as the ones they listen to from other levels:
      Who gets hired?
      Who gets fired?
      Why?
      Where are we really going?
      Board members are managers: they just have more management responsibility than anybody else. The board is totally responsible for the organization. Even for a government body the top group has to take decisions and point I directions, with enough vision and passion to get through.
      So the successful of the organization mainly depend on how the leaders are setting their vision and how they are getting their employees to achieve it.
      3.5 It’s a leadership responsibility to encourage and motivate team members to achieve their delegated tasks explain the leadership role of encouraging and motivating the team members
      Management today, tends to be obsessed with employee motivation toward increased motivation and productivity. Companies have adopted numerous motivation philosophies over the last few decades, and many find the same productivity issues exist post-implementation. Psychologists have discovered that productivity in the workplace can be affected positively or negatively with the utilization of various motivational theories available today, dependent. So the leaders can encourage and motivate his team members now we will look at them
      Motivating team members
      Motivation is the inner power or energy that pushes one toward performing a certain action. Motivation has much to do with desire and ambition, and if they are absent, motivation is absent too. Often, a person has the desire and ambition to get something done or achieve a certain goal, but lacks the push, the initiative and the willingness to take action. This shows a lack of motivation and inner drive. Motivation strengthens the ambition, increases initiative and gives direction, courage, energy and the persistence to follow one's goals. A motivated person takes action and does whatever it needs to achieve his/her goals. Motivation is usually strong, when one has a vision, a clear mental image of a certain situation or achievement, and also a strong desire to materialize it. In this case motivation pushes one forward, toward taking action and making the vision a reality. So every leaders should ensure that they are having something to motivate his team members
      Available at http://www.successconsciousness.com/strengthen_motivation.htm
      Having Proper Communication
      We can’t empower team members until they know what's going oral the organization.
      We can't achieve real quality until everyone feels informed we can't change a culture or make an organization more flexible until we get two-way so it is very important that the leader is having a good communication with his team member because it will make the employees what they are working for without knowing their target there is no use in working in hours so proper communication is needed for encourage team member (NANCY FOY 1994)
      Take personal responsibility
      When we lead teams, we can help them develop this habit of taking personal responsibility for their part in a difficult outcome. The trick is to do it without blaming them or ourselves. We can lay the foundation by talking through the issue or challenge with phrases such as:
      As I think about what happened, I can see that I contributed by....
      We all share responsibility for this outcome. For instance, I wish that I had....
      The next time we handle this challenge, I plan to....
      And we can also help our employees and co-workers take ownership of their part by asking questions such as:
      Looking back, how do you think you played a part in this?
      If you could do it over again, what would you do differently?
      What steps do you plan to take the next time you face this situation?
      Available at http://ezinearticles.com/?Building-Teamwork:-Helping-Your-Team-Take-Responsibility-for-Their-Results&id=394404
      Providing a healthy environment – safety work place is very essential nowadays to get the employee to focus on their job when there is no safe in their working environment no one will like to work so the organization cant achieve their goal so it is very important that organization should build up a safe environment for their employees
      For example we heard lots of news saying that due to the poor safe in the work environment this much people died so this is creating a bad reputation for the company
      Occupational health care: The safe work environment provides the basis for the person to enjoy working. The work should not pose a health hazard for the person. The employer and employee, aware of their risks and rights, could achieve a lot in their mutually beneficial dialogue
      Healthy and friendly environment will motivate employees to give their full commitment
      (lecturer note)
      Providing entertainment while they are working – when a organization create its work place with more fun employee will feel like working at home and they won’t be under stress. Why still the Google Company is one the successful business is they made their working environment for their employee with full of entertainment although they didn’t pay more for their employee everyone wants to work there is due to these reason (lecturer note)
      Understanding this scenario with example
      Now I am going to take a practical example to explain the role of leadership will create winning teams every Srilankan know Mr.Sarath fonseka who is the chief of srilankan army now every media is describing him as a good leader who has potential to guide large team. The leadership style of our army chief can be categorize in to participative because before he make the decision he will discuss to his team member.
      Source http://www.lankaweb.com/news/items03/Fonseka.jpg
      His leadership allows lower level of leaders to make decision so the source of decision is coming from different angle and will have enough freedom. He is a good leader because he knows how he can get the army to work together for this he got the help from different leaders in several countries
      By his leadership style he has proven to the world that anyone can put the end to the terror by their leadership quality
      Understanding the key categories that motivate employees can be incredibly valuable. Imagine knowing with relative precision what motivates individual employees. Not all employees are motivated by money. While most employees expect monetary rewards for exceptional performance, it is not what really motivates them. Imagine the money you could save by not needlessly giving raises and bonuses in an effort to retain top employees.
      If team members are in need of a little motivation and inspiration the organization find a way to motivate them
      3.6 How can encourage and build up confidence of team members to cooperate with organization change
      Trust each other
      The most important element of successful team work is the establishment of a platform of mutual trust that enables the team to engage in open debate and decision making that leads to commitments to action by individual members of the team. Building this trust requires openness
      That allows team members to know and understand the beliefs and behaviors of all members of the team so that team actions can be structured to take advantage of each members uniqueness and talents. Behavioral and values assessments are powerful tools in developing an understanding how each member of the team views themselves and responds to others in the team.
      Available at http://www.teamworkdynamics.com/id20.html
      Fostering Team Commitment through Collaboration
      Supervisors cannot do it all, no matter how talented and committed they may be. Their success is measured by their ability to delegate intelligently and then motivate employees to accomplish the organization's goals. A team attains the highest level of achievement when it is committed to the task and fully uses each member's talents. Commitment cannot be forced. It is self-generating and usually develops through a sense of involvement and collaboration. People increase commitment to a team when they are allowed to contribute to its success. They feel more important and needed when they feel a responsibility for results. Once team members are actively involved in goal setting and problem solving, they develop a sense of ownership. They can effectively pursue team goals, much like an entrepreneur does. (NANCY FOY 1994)
      Building a Solid Team through Training
      An essential part of an efficient team is effective training. When people have the tools and knowledge to do their jobs well, then everyone succeeds-the employee, the team, and the organization. To build a well-rounded team, it is important to provide training of various types to accommodate different individuals and needs. (NANCY FOY 1994)
      Classroom Training
      Classroom training can be a valuable team-building tool. Topics such as selling, customer service, and listening demand that people interact with one another. If there is an area in which your entire team could use improvement, a training class might just be the answer. It would give team members an opportunity to build their skills in a safe environment. Spending time together-whether a half day, full day, or multiple days-enables team members to get to know one another and build trust. (NANCY FOY 1994)
      On-the-job Training
      On-the-job training is another useful tool. Empowering people to share their knowledge helps them continue to build connections and relationships. Peer training, when done correctly, can be rewarding for both the trainer and the trainee. The worst kind of on-the-job training, however, is unstructured and impromptu, as in, " George, show Mike how to do this."
      Effective training is well designed and implemented. Both the trainer and the trainee understand the learning objectives, the learning activities that will take place, and how learning will be measured. Ideally, materials (a participant guide, trainer's guide, and any learning aides) are provided to maintain consistency. (NANCY FOY 1994)
      Online or Computer-Based Training
      With the accessibility of technology through the Internet, CD-ROM, and DVD. more training can be conducted through computers. The flexibility that technology provides allows employees to go through training at the time and pace they choose. Such learning is best for technical skills that can be practiced and measured through the computer, such as writing, budgeting, scheduling, and other " hard" skills. (NANCY FOY 1994)
      Promoting Teamwork through Management Style
      To help focus your team's efforts on achieving organizational goals, you must put a strong dose of leadership into the way you work with your team—your management style. Everyone likes to work for a leader who makes it possible to stay motivated and headed in the right direction. Just as professional athletes build loyalty toward coaches who lead them to a championship, people on your team will like to work for someone who leads them to achieve first-rate results. (NANCY FOY 1994)
      The following approaches to management. Which best fits you? >• " I know best."
      This manager believes work gets done by controlling the people who do it. Employees are told what to do, how to do it, and when to stop. Then they are told what they did wrong and what they did right, where they are weak and where they are strong. The " I know best" manager feels this is justified because of her superior knowledge and ability. But this attitude does not invite new ideas, challenge people, or stimulate a cooperative, supportive spirit. Communication is directed one way only. (NANCY FOY 1994)
      >■ " I'll set the goals, you meet them."
      This person feels that because of his superior knowledge, ability, or experience, it is okay to establish goals for others to meet. The employee is given an opportunity to discuss ways to meet goals but has no input into performance objectives. When this happens, commitment is more difficult to obtain from employees because their lack of involvement precludes a sense of ownership. (NANCY FOY 1994)
      >• " Let's review the work together, establish realistic goals, and evaluate performance accordingly."
      This leader emphasizes work performance, not authoritarian control The idea is to first communicate organizational needs, then help team members contribute their ideas. The leader acts as a resource and enabler rather than as a judge. Communication is open and flows in both directions. The value of mutual support and cooperation is recognized and employed. (NANCY FOY 1994)
      My conclusion
      As I mentioned earlier mutual trust on each other and collaboration is very important factor that will increase the team spirit of the employees so manager or leader should focus on this and should make necessary changes in the teams to build a winning teams Team goals and standards should be established with the participation of those responsible for meeting them. After all, well-selected, trained employees should know more about what is achievable than anyone else.
      Working together to achieve common goals, team members stimulates each other to higher levels of accomplishment. Fresh ideas are generated and tested, and the team's productivity exceeds any combined efforts of employees working individually. In this way, collaboration builds interdependence. People recognize the benefits of helping one another and realize it is expected.
      Here I would like to give a perfect example how a leader is encouraged and buildup confidence of his team members
      16 Girls, different states, different backgrounds, different skills sets but one dream-----WINNING
      A common goal - All Functions must work together towards an objective creation of success through a diehard attitude, team work, high energy and extreme passion for work among their team
      A leader who made them realize their own potential-

      • It’s very important to possess right attitude….
      • A positive body language can make a huge difference….
      Because he believes that it is not that we can't win. It's just that we have never believed we can. So he motivates everyone in the team. Finally the team members realized on them and one day they succeed
      Source (http://img101.imageshack.us/i/cdihitmo3.png/)
      Why I have chosen this story is for two reasons in these part of the world still many people thinking that girls are slave and they cannot do anything that is not true and also proven by this story how this is possible is a leader who encouraged them and tell them they can also win matches he build the team spirit and also by that time he make them to practice these all factors lead the team to winning team
      Like the story of Kabir Khan…and his 16 girls, all organizations and its employees should work towards a common vision and be a part of a TEAM that believes in creating a World Class Organization.
      3.7 when empower team members they can make decisions working independently within the pre set boundaries and demonstrate their capabilities elaborate this with the available theories and your own view
      Organizations are not empowered, people are. Organizations can give power, or take it away. The empowering organization puts the spotlight on winning, on giving people opportunities to perform to their maximum effectiveness.
      Limitation in empowerment
      Employee Empowerment is giving employees responsibility and authority to make decisions regarding all aspects some of the disadvantage of employee empowerment include
      employees can abuse the increased power given to them
      it is too much responsibility for some employees
      employees who focus on their own success rather than group's may leave
      there is an increased cost to the organization for training and education
      there is increased time in groups or committees which takes away from regular jobs
      There may be increased conflict or power struggle between employees due to group work; some employees may not be knowledgeable enough to make good business decisions; decisions made on the basis of personality versus logical reasoning.
      Available at http://www.bizhelp24.com/you-and-work/empowering-employees.html
      So the top management always keeps on an eye on empowering employees because if they exceeds the limit the employee will feel they are the big boss and will according to their mind not based on the company goal this will lead to poor quality and customer dissatisfaction. So its managers responsibility to ensure that they are empowering their employee within the boundary now we will look how can they do that
      Building loyalty
      When you get a reputation as a manager or leader that gives people the opportunity to grow and develop, staff become incredibly loyal. They know that you trust them and will go that extra mile when things are tough.
      Available at http://ezinearticles.com/?8-Benefits-of-Empowering-People&id=956778
      Energizing others
      In organization where people are totally energized and upbeat? If so, they were probably part of an organization that empowers people and gets out of the way. When people are energized, they find new ways of breaking down what might have been viewed as obstacles in the past.
      Available at http://ezinearticles.com/?8-Benefits-of-Empowering-People&id=956778
      Performance
      We might have heard the saying practice makes perfect. Another way of looking at it is to say that empowering improves performance. Changes in performance happen more quickly when people get into action and start doing. Empowering is a great way of improving performance.
      Available at http://ezinearticles.com/?8-Benefits-of-Empowering-People&id=956778
      Achieving results
      All managers and leaders are at the end of the day judged on the results they achieve. Empowering others and leveraging the full range of skills, knowledge, experience and personal attributes at their disposal helps achieve results.
      Available at http://ezinearticles.com/?8-Benefits-of-Empowering-People&id=956778
      Empowered people need to give and receive many kinds of information; to know how well they are performing and what is expected of them. The empowering organization, in turn, needs listen, to find out what prevents peak performance, and how it be improved. People need to know what is going on in the organization, and how their work dovetails with others. The empowering organization actually wants to tap people's knowledge and experience. Therefore, as a wise investment, it t develop people. That means it must develop their teams, Development for the managers, like development for 'individuals, comes from many opportunities to tackle new 'challenges, learning to co-operate with others, the development the organization, in turn, stems from the development of the individuals, teams and managers. (NANCY FOY 1994)
      4.1 explain the type of objective setting technique apply to obtain productivity from delegated task to the employees
      What is the most important factor of success and achievement? IQ, self-confidence, perseverance?  Actually, that's a trick question. According to intelligence studies, the answer would be none of the above. In fact, the tendency to set goals is the 1 predictor of success.this also known as setting the technique to achieve the productivity
      BENEFITS OF OBJECTIVE SETTING:
      It sets specific targets for the employee to achieve which are linked to Business / Development Plan
      It states how the performance of the employee is to be measured to assess progress
      It provides direction for the employee
      It allows progress, targets and successes to be monitored and measured by the manager.
      It helps build working relationships between the employee & the manager, and improves overall communication
      Helps to focus on a specific task
      Increases staff motivation
      Helps to Prioritise
      Allows reviews to be undertaken
      Enables success to be measured
      Available at http://www.google.lk/search?hl=en&q=benefits+of+objective+setting&btnG=Search&meta=&aq=f&oq=
      Setting effective objective to guide team and organization is very important for leader to get right. Badly formulated objectives will steer an organization in the wrong direction.
      There are steps in objective setting
      Sort out the difference between objectives and aims, goals and/or targets before you start. Aims and goals etc relate to your aspirations objectives are your battle-plan. Set as many objectives as you need for success.
      SMART stands for Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Realistic and Timely.
      Measurable is the most important consideration. You will know that you’ve achieved your objective, because here is the evidence. I will know too! Make sure you state how you will record your success.
      Achievable is linked to measurable. Usually, there’s no point in starting a job you know you can’t finish, or one where you can’t tell if/when you’ve finished it. How can I decide if it’s achievable?
      you know it’s measurable
      others have done it successfully (before you, or somewhere else)
      it’s theoretically possible (ie clearly not ‘not achievable’)
      you have the necessary resources, or at least a realistic chance of getting them
      you’ve assessed the limitations.
      If it’s achievable, it may not be realistic. If it isn’t realistic, it’s not achievable. You need to know:
      who’s going to do it?
      do they have (or can they get) the skills to do a good job?
      where’s the money coming from?
      who carries the can?
      Realistic is about human resources/time/money/opportunity.
      The main reason it’s achievable but not realistic is that it’s not a high priority. Often something else needs to be done first, before you’ll succeed. If so, set up two (or more) objectives in priority order.
      The devil is in the specific detail. You will know your objective is specific enough if:
      everyone who’s involved knows that it includes them specifically
      everyone involved can understand it
      your objective is free from jargon
      you’ve defined all your terms
      you’ve used only appropriate language.
      It is worth this effort! You’ll know you’ve done your job well, and so will others.
      Available at http://ravenyoung.spaces.live.com/blog/cns!17376F4C11A91E0E!3313.entry
      SMART OBJECTIVES
      All Objectives should be able to meet these key criteria
      SSpecific Ensure there is no ambiguity in the objective – it has a specific outcome to be accomplished. The outcome is stated in a clearly defined manner.MMeasurable Is there a form of measurement in the objective? If it cannot be measured it will be difficult to assess.AAchievable Is it actually possible to achieve the objective given market conditions, time period, resources allocated etc?RRelevant Does the objective meet the long-term activities of the organizationTTime Bound This means clearly stating when the objective will be achieved?
      FIGURE 1.8
      • what are the job delegation techniques available to motivate employees and get the best out of them
      The objective of job delegation is to get the job done by someone else. Not just the simple tasks of reading instructions and turning a lever, but also the decision making and changes which depend upon new information.. The steps in the delegation process include task identification, assessment of skills necessary to execute the task, selection of the subordinate for the task, communication of the task, assignment of the task and the resources for executing it, monitoring, and feedback to the subordinate. Because ambiguities regarding the subordinate's role may result in stress, a distinction should be drawn between routine work and delegated work. Administrators should ensure that delegated work is distributed equally, assign an appropriate degree of authority, ensure that subordinates have equal growth opportunity, and consider job enrichment. Benefits of delegation to the organization include increased results and productivity, faster reactions to various situations, more employees with a broader knowledge of the organization, better communication, clear policies, less employee turnover, and a fuller use of personnel. Delegation benefits administrators in that they may use their time more efficiently. Finally, benefits to subordinates include less stress on the job, increased capabilities, more responsibility and autonomy, increased self-esteem, involvement in professional development, the use of otherwise dormant skills, increased motivation and job satisfaction, and less staff turnover
      Benefits of job delegation
      • With delegation, staff has the authority to react to situations without referring back to managers.
      • Administrators may employ delegation to perform work effectively,
      • increase employee own effectiveness,
      • advance the development of subordinates through job enrichment
      Available at http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/custom/portlets/recordDetails/detailmini.jsp?_nfpb=true&_&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED294330&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=no&accno=ED294330
      There are some techniques available in job delegation they are
      Motivate Employees to Find Solutions –organization should encourage employees to be solution creators instead of problem creators. When employees communicate a problem to leader, look at it as an opportunity to empower the employees. Should ask the employees how they would solve the problem, leaders have just empowered those employees to find ways in the future to create solutions and made team more productive at the same time.
      Available at http://www.ehow.com/how_4665361_motivate-employees-ten-steps.html
      Encouraging them to find Soliciting Opinions - Many times during busy work day, leaders find it difficult to ask for opinions from employees. But just the act of asking for their opinions tells employees that leader value their input and motivates them to accomplish more. (SHAUN TYSON 2000)
      Make Employees to manage Their Level - Learn employees’ skill, experience, and motivation levels for performing workplace tasks. Then assign the task and follow-up based on findings. For example, leader may need to follow up more frequently with an employee who is fairly new to the project or organization as opposed to the “veteran” employee who doesn’t need much follow-up. Remember, the most skilled employee may not be the most motivated for performing the task you request. (SHAUN TYSON 2000)
      Give Encouraging Ideas - Ideas are the lifeblood of any organization, department, and team. that one idea that can increase productivity, reduce expenses, or increase profit. Organization should create safe environment for the employees to share their ideas(SHAUN TYSON 2000)
      Motivate by Embracing Mistakes - Without mistakes, there is no growth. Allowing the employees to make mistakes allows employees to grow, be creative, and provide a vehicle for empowerment. Create a safe work environment so that when employees make mistakes, they are not punished. Use the mistakes the employees make as learning experiences. Ask employees how they would have performed the task differently and allow them to tackle the task again. Employees will gain a new sense of empowerment and feel confident that leader will support them when they try something new.
      Available at http://www.ehow.com/how_4665361_motivate-employees-ten-steps.html
      Making them feels well with Assigning Leadership Roles - Leadership comes at all levels and doesn’t require a title. Take the time to align employees’ skills with leadership opportunities. Make sure provide training in the areas of opportunities for each employee so that they are empowered to step up to new opportunities.
      Available at http://www.ehow.com/how_4665361_motivate-employees-ten-steps.html
      4.3 How employer can understand the employee development needs and types of training programs to implement to fulfill that needs
      Identifying training needs
      An analysis of training needs is an essential prerequisite to the design and provision of effective training. This is the first main stage in the problem solving process that characterizes the SAT, that is, the diagnosis that systematically precedes prescription. In simple terms, the purpose of this diagnosis is to determine whether there is a gap between what is required for effective performance and present levels of performance. (SHAUN TYSON 2000)
      The causes and remedies may be various, and training is only one of a number of possible solutions. Training needs arise at three levels - organizational, group and individual levels. They are interdependent because the corporate performance of an organization ultimately depends on the performance of its individual employees and its subgroups.(SHAUN TYSON 2000)
      The corporate needs of the organization and its groups may be identified in the following ways:
      1 The evidence of human resource planning: this provides information about the demand and supply of human resources and the possible implications for training needs. Thus, a forecast of a possible difficulty in recruiting people with required entry levels in knowledge and skills could affect recruitment and training policy, compelling the organization to recruit at lower levels and then to provide compensatory training to fill the performance gap.(SHAUN TYSON 2000)
      The introduction of new methods: whenever new methods of work, e.g. computers, are introduced, this changes the requirements for effective performance, creates a performance gap in knowledge and skills (and with new technology, in attitudes also, perhaps), and hence a training need. (SHAUN TYSON 2000)
      Collective evidence from performance appraisal and formal methods for needs assessment: information emerging from the performance appraisal of individual employees or from formal methods such as meetings, interviews or questionnaires, in which line managers, HR and training staffs and individual employees are involved, may reveal needs for training that are common throughout the organization or to groups of employees.(SHAUN TYSON 2000)
      This systematically acquired information is an essential basis for seeing what centrally provided training is really needed. Without this information it is very easy for central trainers to provide training on the basis of unsubstantiated views and personal preferences.
      Accurately diagnosing the specific training needs for individuals requires the following system
      Job analysis to determine:
      the objectives and component tasks of the job
      The knowledge, skills and attitudes required for the effective performance of these tasks.
      Assessment of the performance gap by line managers and individuals, based on a comparison of the required levels with present levels.
      Specification of training needs indicated by this comparison.
      Specification of the forms of training needed to satisfy the identified needs.
      (SHAUN TYSON 2000)
      The joint participation of line managers and their individual members of staff to assess training needs is very important. It is more likely to produce a comprehensive and systematic analysis, and commitment on the part of the individual. It is also an opportunity to encourage individuals to assess their own needs and possible solutions as a part of their development. .(SHAUN TYSON 2000)
      It requires time and conscientious effort to make a thorough analysis of jobs and their specific requirements and then to set up formal arrangements for assessing needs, but there is no other basis for designing and providing the training that is really needed. Specific training needs for individuals may arise at any time during their working careers. However, there are particular occasions when a formal assessment is needed, based on the system described above, that is:
      Starting employment: new employees will invariably need some kind of training to fill the gap between their present levels of knowledge and skills and those needed for effective performance of work.
      Appraising performance: in performance appraisal recent performance is compared
      (SHAUN TYSON 2000)
      4.4 Explain the possibilities to evaluate the productivity of the conducted programs.
      Productivity, is measured by the ratio of what was produced to what was required to produce it measured in physical units, or at constant prices . (CIMA FUNDAMENTALS OF ECONOMICS OFFICIAL STUDY TEXT2004)
      For example productive efficiency
      Productivity can also be expressed as the change in output divided by the change in input
      Output may be expressed in units or money terms depending on the situation
      For example
      V(Utt) = Q(Ut) X P(Ut)
      Value equals quantity time price per unit. Where, V = value in monetary terms, Q = quantity in physical terms, P = price per unit, U = Output, and t = the time period. Input contains the use of labor, material and etc input may be expressed in units or money terms depending on the situation
      By Willie Maartens   
      2009)http://www.authorsden.com/categories/article_top.asp?catid=5&id=31506, Cited 15th of September
      Productivity is not production. Productivity does not refer to labor only labor is a part of the production. Where production does not only mean manufacturing, but any process where a product or service is produced. In general this measurement is used to indicate the relationship between the output and the input of production this can be a labor, materials or capital. This relationship is simpler to calculate than total productivity measures.
      By Willie Maartens   
      2009)http://www.authorsden.com/categories/article_top.asp?catid=5&id=31506, Cited 15th of September
      The relationship between total output and individual input is used as a yardstick for productivity, the result may be biased. Comparisons of inputs and sales also lead to false interpretation since the selling price is sufficient enough to cover the cost
      How to achieve a better results in company
      Motivation Identify sourcesReduce extrinsic
      Productivity Find distractionseliminateBetter resultsSatisfactionFind frustrationseliminate
      Figure 1.9
      Productivity Improvement
      The Productivity Improvement is a concept when the efficiency and effectiveness gets better the productivity also will improve. This can be can be realized by 5 situations,
      Achieving more output for the same input
      Achieving the same output from less input
      Achieving much more output for slightly more input
      Getting slightly less output for much less input
      While input decreases the output increases.
      Available at (http://www.accel-team.com/productivity/productivity_01_what.html)
      • discuss the suitable methods applying to monitor the performance of the employees
      Self-Appraisal
      Employee self-appraisal, within a performance management or annual performance review system involves asking the employee to self-evaluate his or her job performance. Typically, prior to meeting with an employee, the manager will ask the employee to complete an evaluation form on his or her own, to be used as a basis for discussion during the annual performance review meeting. Then at the meeting, the manager and employee discuss the self-appraisal results, and negotiate final evaluations based on both the manager's perceptions and those of the employee.
      Actual self evaluations as part of performance management can take the form of evaluating progress towards pre-defined annual objectives and performance standards, involve the employee in rating him or herself using the same rating form the manager uses, or even involve self-ranking.
      Available at http://performance-appraisals.org/faq/selfappraisals.htm
      Subordinate Appraisal of Managers
      Supervisors are reviewed by those they supervise. This method serves to provide feedback on the qualitative aspects of management performance, how well they communicate, provides direction, delegate responsibility, etc. Employees’ fear of appraisal may inhibit them from honestly providing feedback on their supervisor’s performance. However, providing anonymity and working with supervisors to handle constructive criticism may guard against that.
      Available at http://www.nd.gov/hrms/managers/guide/perfeval.html
      Peer
      This method involves co-workers evaluating an employee. It is based on the premise that individuals can relate to an employee as their equal and are in the best position to judge the employee’s performance because they understand the nature of the job and are familiar with the activities of the employee. This method is particularly useful in organizations having self-directed work teams, but could be used in other settings as well. An advantage is that peer appraisal relates more to results than efforts
      Available at http://www.nd.gov/hrms/managers/guide/perfeval.html
      360-Degree Feedback
      There has been an increase in the use of 360-degree feedback processes in the assessment of people. The notion of 360-degree feedback is that employees benefit from feedback from those who are colleagues, customers, their manager and their subordinates from all 'directions': below, above and at the same level. .(SHAUN TYSON 2000)
      Feedback is designed to build confidence, to reinforce desired behaviors, clarify problems, improve self-awareness, give recognition and, ultimately, to improve performance.
      The process usually follows a procedure whereby competencies having been established and defined, individuals are asked to nominate up to, say, six significant others whom they know within the categories (subordinate, colleagues, etc.) to whom feedback forms are sent asking for the respondent's opinion of the subject on the competency dimensions. The respondents may well use a rating scale.(SHAUN TYSON 2000)
      My conclusion
      Historically, performance appraisal in the country originated mainly in the public sector of employment - the armed forces and the Civil Service. Now, formal schemes of performance appraisal are widely used in the majority of work organizations in both public and private sectors. The details of these formal schemes vary considerably depending on the purposes and preferences of individual work organizations. These differences are reflected in terms of the format of reports, degrees of confidentiality and openness, who conducts the appraisal, the level of participation by those being appraised, and the nature of appraisal discussions between those appraising and those being appraised.
      4.6 What are the contributing factors to the quality performance of the company?
      The induction of new employees has to be regarded as a comprehensive and systematic programme continuously monitored and evaluated. Too often it has come to mean little more than a day or two set aside, during which time new employees may have interviews, attend short courses, listen to talks about the organization, receive a quantity of literature, be taken on quick guided tours to glimpse the various sections of the organization and meet a variety of people. This is the kind of programme that might be prepared for visitors with limited time available, rather than for people who presumably are expected to stay with the organization for several years. Induction arrangements of this kind could well do as much if not more harm than good. When a mass of information - much of which may be unnecessary - is crammed into a very short space of time, and many of the questions on which newcomers need reassurance are left unanswered, it is likely that initial feelings of confusion, inadequacy and insecurity will be increased rather than allayed. (SHAUN TYSON 2000)
      Orientation
      Orientation is an on-going process designed to assist employee in making a successful transition to organization life.Orientation is a time to Learn ~ to learn about what organization goal vision and mission what employee life is all about, what services are available to assist us, and what unique opportunities exist to help us broaden our experience. How we will learn how to take full advantage of all that has to offer both inside and outside the organizationOrientation is a time to Meet ~ to meet faculty, staff, administrators, current employeesSo orientation will definitely help to get quality performance in organizationAvailable at http://www.oestrategies.com/papers/orientation.pdf
      Training and development
      Induction training is mainly vocational and designed in order to give new employees the skills and knowledge required for productive employment. It may take the form of short full-time courses or very much longer programme where a high level of performance is essential, such as, for example, during engineering apprenticeships, flying training, etc. Sometimes induction training is given on the job itself. More often than not the programme is a combination of both forms of training. (SHAUN TYSON 2000)
      Reward and recognition
      Rewards and Recognition programs honor both individuals and teams who go the extra mile to service their departments an effective Reward and Recognition strategy delivers measurable organizational benefits. Effective reward and recognition will
      Help organizations to achieve their recruitment and retention objectives
      Enable organizations to build on holistic improvements in the wider HR and people proposition
      Align people’s behavior with business strategy and organizational objectives
      Align and connect performance management, personal development, reward and career progression
      Drive a high performance culture
      Achieve more value from benefits spend
      Communicate the value of total reward to an organization’s employees
      (SHAUN TYSON 2000)
      4.7 how can provide constructive feedback to the employees about their performances
      There has been an increase in the use of 360-degree feedback processes in the assessment of people. The notion of 360-degree feedback is that employees benefit from feedback from those who are colleagues, customers, their manager and their subordinates from all 'directions': below, above and at the same level. .(SHAUN TYSON 2000)
      Feedback is designed to build confidence, to reinforce desired behaviors, clarify problems, improve self-awareness, give recognition and, ultimately, to improve performance.
      The process usually follows a procedure whereby competencies having been established and defined, individuals are asked to nominate up to, say, six significant others whom they know within the categories (subordinate, colleagues, etc.) to whom feedback forms are sent asking for the respondent's opinion of the subject on the competency dimensions. The respondents may well use a rating scale. .(SHAUN TYSON 2000)
      For example, one large organization introduced eight main competencies, which were broken down into their component definitions, and rated by respondents in terms of the importance of the competencies to the job, and the individual's performance (effectiveness). Thus, for example, the competence 'making things happen', included 'establishing and maintaining contacts in all areas of the organization', 'balances day-to-day operations with important projects', 'encourages collaborative working' and seven more parts of the competence. .(SHAUN TYSON 2000)
      Each part is rated on the Performance scale and the Importance scale (see Figure 11.1), for example: 'Balances day-to-day operations with important projects.'
      Averages of the data can be taken, and improvements over time can be plotted. The reports of all the respondents are usually grouped together for each individual, showing how respondents in general rated each competence. Taking these ratings, individuals are encouraged to share the data with their manager (but this is not mandatory) and to discuss what the feedback means. From the discussion, a personal development plan can be drawn up. .(SHAUN TYSON 2000)
      4.8 Explain how to make an individual development plan for employee after performance evaluation program
      The following process is a model. Use what works for your individual situation. Human resources are a major investment your organization uses to accomplish its mission. So taking whatever time and effort are necessary to design, implement, and monitor the IDP makes sense from the perspective of return on investment.
      Benefits of individual development program
      Clearer ideas about the kind of life and work want.
      Greater confidence in the choices make.
      Greater confidence in the skills, qualities and attributes
      Being in a better position to compete for jobs.
      Better problem-solving and planning skills.
      Developing the positive attitudes and approaches associated with successful professional life.
      The process involves the following steps:
      Prepare the Individual Performance Evaluation at the conclusion of the employee’s evaluation period. The Individual Performance Evaluation includes the Individual Development Plan (IDP) as a segment of Part 3. The IDP can consist solely of what you include here, or it can be expanded to be a more detailed document using the format suggested below.
      Consider each area of the employee’s performance from the following perspectives and determine which should be developed in the upcoming evaluation period:
      Strengths that, if enhanced, will contribute to the overall mission of the organization and increase productivity.
      New skills that will be needed in the upcoming evaluation period.
      Areas of performance/skills that need to be improved.
      The above constitute the Purpose of the development activity. Some additional needs that contribute to establishing the Purpose may include:
      Mission need
      Change in technology
      New assignment
      Future staffing need
      Leadership development
      Relationship building
      Once the determinations in #2 have been made, list possible methods to facilitate this development: formal training, on-the-job training, self-development, mentoring or coaching, development activities/learning experiences, or other activities.
      Once the learning methods described above have been selected, you need to refine these to specific activities that have measurable results and time frames. Be clear about expectations. For instance, telling a more senior employee to train the employee on the XYZ process is too vague unless you include as the expected result that, once trained, the employee will be able to complete the process on his or her own in less than two hours with no errors.
      Involve the employee in the design of the IDP. You may want to do this early in the process, when you have only identified major areas where development should take place and let the employee propose the more specific ways to accomplish this. Or, you may prefer to design the plan and then have the employee review it and provide input.
      Ensure that you have higher management support for the IDP, including the time commitment and use of resources.
      You and the employee sign the IDP to document your mutual agreement with it and commitment to completing it. Clarify responsibilities with the employee. If you need to set some of the steps in motion, be sure to follow through; if follow through will be the responsibility of the employee, be sure that is understood.
      Set up a reporting system so that you know the employee’s progress at any given time and can make adjustments to the plan as needed.
      Available at www.das.hre.iowa.gov/.../edpd/the_individ_development_plan.doc
      4.9 What the other alternative plan to deal with the employees’ performance out comes
      For job rotation
      There are really several answers, depending on the type of work an individual is involved in initially. Some describe this concept as a management approach with the goal of broadening the skills and experience of production workers. In this case, managers and business owners want to ensure that someone is available to take on other tasks when vacation and illness cause a spot to be open. In some businesses, the object is to educate employees, giving them information about other operations in the company. Not only does this peak the interest of many on the payroll, but it can also allow employees to ask questions and suggest improvements in areas they wouldn’t normally see. At another level of a larger company, managers and supervisors are sometimes moved, in a series of planned job rotations. Business owners and operating officers might use a rotation plan so that management personnel are familiar with various sections of the business. Then, when the time comes to fill a vacant position due to retirement, for example, there may be more than one candidate familiar with the duties of that slot. Simply put, job rotation means that production workers or office staff takes on duties in two or more areas, even within the same day. The unstable atmosphere some managers fear may be avoided by careful planning and implementation of a rotation program.
      Available at http://www.thegeminigeek.com/what-is-job-rotation/
      For job enrichment
      The concept of job enrichment is not new, by any means. In fact, most material on the subject points back more than 50 years to Frederick Herzberg, who is credited with the system and its name. In its basic form, a job is an activity for which a person is compensated with money or other items of value. In exchange, the individual must produce a physical object or perform some useful service. Enrichment is the process through which something gets better, more pleasing, more satisfying etc. This expansion and change may take place in a number of ways. For job enrichment to be successful there must be a detailed plan, from the start. As one great motivational speaker said, you can’t hit a target you can’t see. The goals and objectives must be realistic and obtainable, and well-within the capabilities of the workers ask to participate.
      The employee must also have the proper tools to perform the job, whether these are in the form of physical equipment, written outlines or design plans. One of the key factors in job enrichment is open sharing of all information about the task and its results. Keeping this information from the employee has the effect of nullifying any prior enrichment of the job and work atmosphere.
      Those who champion job enrichment as a way to improve production, profits and employee satisfaction emphasize that this process is not the same as making a job more challenging or difficult. That alone may lead to resentment and dissatisfaction on the part of the employee.
      During the planning and implementation of job enrichment, the manager, supervisor or other task leader must also introduce variety. This will help with employee satisfaction and can truly enrich the job as an educational process. One of the most effective ways to determine if any change is needed in a work situation is to ask the right questions. In the case of job enrichment, a manager on his or her toes would ask if the employees are bored. Experience has taught businesses large and small that unsatisfactory results may often be traced back to improperly implementing a job-enrichment program. While it is admirable to seek employee growth and company strength by enriching the worker’s position, the initial plan is a most critical factor.
      Available at http://www.thegeminigeek.com/what-is-job-enrichment/
      References
      QUESTION1.1
      ESSENTIAL OF HRM, SHAUN TYSON, ISBN-0-7506-4715-9, 2007, Chapter2, page no 89-99
      QUESTION1.2
      ESSENTIAL OF HRM, SHAUN TYSON, ISBN-0-7506-4715-9, 2007, Chapter3, page no 100-127
      Available at http://changingminds.org/disciplines/hr/selection/interview.htm
      QUESTION1.3
      ESSENTIAL OF HRM, SHAUN TYSON, ISBN-0-7506-4715-9, 2007, Chapter3, page no 100-127
      Available at www4.gu.edu.au:8080/adt-root/uploads/.../adt.../05Chapter7-8.pdf -
      Available at http://www.hr-guide.com/data/G316.htm
      Available at http://www.jlarue.com/assessment_center.html
      QUESTION1.4
      ESSENTIAL OF HRM, SHAUN TYSON, ISBN-0-7506-4715-9, 2007, Chapter3, page no 128-139
      QUESTION1.5
      CIMA study text, Walker.publis, ISBN-978-0-7506-8955-7, 2008, Chapter4 page no-275-277
      QUESTION1.5
      CIMA study text, Walker.publis, ISBN-978-0-7506-8955-7, 2008, Chapter4 page no-275-277
      Available at http://humanresources.about.com/od/retention/Retention_of_Employees_Tips_and_Tools_for_Employee_Retention.htm
      Available at:
      http://humanresources.about.com/od/retention/a/more_retention.htm
      QUESTION1.6
      CIMA study text, Walker.publis, ISBN-978-0-7506-8955-7, 2008, Chapter7page no,374-444
      Available at:
      http://www.direct.gov.uk/en/Employment/ResolvingWorkplaceDisputes/DiscriminationAtWork/DG_10026667
      QUESTION2.1
      ESSENTIAL OF HRM, SHAUN TYSON, ISBN-0-7506-4715-9, 2007, Chapter1, page no 24-35
      Available at http://www.teamworkdynamics.com/id20.html
      QUESTION2.2
      WORKING WITH LEADING PEOPLE, MR.PARAKRAMA ,chapter 3,4,5 page no ,4,7,8,9
      Available at http://www.teamworkdynamics.com/id20.html
      QUESTION2.3
      Available at http://www.teamspirit123.com/
      QUESTION2.4
      EMPOWERING PEOPLE AT WORK, NANCY FOY, ISBN-0-566-07436-2, Chapter1, 2, 3, 4, page no 12-45
      Available at http://www.thisisaaronslife.com/conflict-and-team-development/
      QUESTION2.5
      ESSENTIAL OF HRM, SHAUN TYSON, ISBN-0-7506-4715-9, 2007, Chapter1, page no 28-36
      Available at http://humanresources.about.com/od/motivationsucces3/a/motivatestaff.htm
      QUESTION 2.6
      EMPOWERING PEOPLE AT WORK, NANCY FOY, ISBN-0-566-07436-2, Chapter1, 2, 3, 4, page no 12-45
      QUESTION 3.1
      Ava Available at http://www.money-zine.com/Definitions/Career-Dictionary/Behavioral-Leadership/
      Available at http://culturace.com/blog/?tag=types-of-leadership
      QUESTION 3.2
      Available at http://culturace.com/blog/?tag=types-of-leadership
      QUESTION 3.3
      Available at http://www.communication-type.com/what-types-of-communication-is-there/
      QUESTION 3.4
      CIMA study text, Walker.publis, ISBN-978-0-7506-8955-7, 2008, Chapter2 page no-205--209
      WORKING WITH LEADING PEOPLE, MR.PARAKRAMA ,chapter 3,4,5 page no ,4,7,8,9
      Available at http://ezinearticles.com/?Leadership-Development-Success---5-Tips-to-Becoming-a-Better-Leader&id=2459183
      QUESTION 3.5
      EMPOWERING PEOPLE AT WORK, NANCY FOY, ISBN-0-566-07436-2, Chapter1, 2, 3, 4, page no 12-45
      Available at http://www.successconsciousness.com/strengthen_motivation.htm
      Available at http://ezinearticles.com/?Building-Teamwork:-Helping-Your-Team-Take-Responsibility-for-Their-Results&id=394404
      QUESTION 3.6
      EMPOWERING PEOPLE AT WORK, NANCY FOY, ISBN-0-566-07436-2, Chapter1, 2, 3, 4, page no 12-45
      Available at http://www.teamworkdynamics.com/id20.html
      QUESTION 3.7
      EMPOWERING PEOPLE AT WORK, NANCY FOY, ISBN-0-566-07436-2,Chapter1,2,3,4,page no 12-45
      Available at http://www.bizhelp24.com/you-and-work/empowering-employees.html
      Available at http://ezinearticles.com/?8-Benefits-of-Empowering-People&id=956778
      QUESTION 4.1
      Available at http://ravenyoung.spaces.live.com/blog/cns!17376F4C11A91E0E!3313.entry
      QUESTION 4.2
      ESSENTIAL OF HRM, SHAUN TYSON, ISBN-0-7506-4715-9, 2007, Chapter1, page no 24-35
      Available at http://www.ehow.com/how_4665361_motivate-employees-ten-steps.html
      QUESTION 4.3
      ESSENTIAL OF HRM, SHAUN TYSON, ISBN-0-7506-4715-9, 2007, Chapter7, page no 178-185
      QUESTION 4.4
      CIMA study text, Walker.publis, ISBN-978-0-7506-8955-7, 2008, Chapter1 page no-43-49
      Available at http://www.authorsden.com/categories/article_top.asp?catid=5&id=31506,
      Available at (http://www.accel-team.com/productivity/productivity_01_what.html)
      QUESTION 4.5
      ESSENTIAL OF HRM, SHAUN TYSON, ISBN-0-7506-4715-9, 2007, Chapter7, page no 197-205
      Available at http://performance-appraisals.org/faq/selfappraisals.htm
      Available at http://www.nd.gov/hrms/managers/guide/perfeval.html
      QUESTION 4.6
      ESSENTIAL OF HRM, SHAUN TYSON, ISBN-0-7506-4715-9, 2007, Chapter7, page no 197-205
      QUESTION 4.7
      ESSENTIAL OF HRM, SHAUN TYSON, ISBN-0-7506-4715-9, 2007, Chapter7, page no 208-214
      QUESTION 4.8
      Available at www.das.hre.iowa.gov/.../edpd/the_individ_development_plan.doc
      QUESTION 4.9
      Available at http://www.thegeminigeek.com/what-is-job-rotation/
      Available at http://www.thegeminigeek.com/what-is-job-enrichment/