CELL Research SeriesSuccessful Schools: New Tech High @ Arsenal Tech                                  Jill Bradley-Levine ...
Letter from Scott                                                            TABLE OF CONTENTSDeFreese, Director          ...
What Is New Tech?The New Tech High School model is                     and responsibility” whereby students        are cha...
What Does New Tech Teaching Look Like?Project-based LearningPBL requires students to tackle complex challenges, questions,...
Findings on Curriculum and InstructionResearch findings show that NTH@AT           researchers visited, which helped stude...
How Does New Tech Affect Student Outcomes?Findings on Learning OutcomesNTH@AT students demonstrated high             learn...
ECA Performance for the 2010-11 Academic Years80.0%	  70.0%	                                                              ...
How Does New Tech Affect the School Environment?Findings on School CultureTo create a positive school culture,            ...
Findings on Professional CultureOpportunities for teacher collaboration                  Teachers experienced this type of...
Research DesignThis study utilized a mixed methods              grades in core content areas, and state         of partici...
transcribed verbatim.                          analyzed using codes generated from the         the results of the t-tests ...
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Cell Successful Schools Arsenal

  1. 1. CELL Research SeriesSuccessful Schools: New Tech High @ Arsenal Tech Jill Bradley-Levine Gina Mosier Tyonka Perkins 1
  2. 2. Letter from Scott TABLE OF CONTENTSDeFreese, Director Letter from Scott DeFreese, Director��������������������������������2 New Tech High School is a What Is New Tech? ��������������������������������������������������������������3 model that rocks teaching What Does New Tech Teaching Look Like?�����������������������4 and learning to its very core, Project-based Learning����������������������������������������������������������������������������� 4 and the implementation of 21st-Century Skill Learning �������������������������������������������������������������������� 4 the model is unimaginably Findings on Curriculum and Instruction���������������������������������������������� 5 profound and complex. To Findings on Partnership Development�������������������������������������������������� 5 provide guidance to those Findings on Technology Integration������������������������������������������������������� 5 interested in implementing the model, here are some lessons How Does New Tech Affect Student Outcomes?��������������6learned while navigating this immense transformation. Findings on Learning Outcomes ������������������������������������������������������������ 6 How Does New Tech Affect the School Environment?�����8When implementing the model as a small learning Findings on School Culture��������������������������������������������������������������������� 8community on a shared campus, do not isolate the New Findings on Professional Culture������������������������������������������������������������ 9Tech program from the rest of the school. Doing so maycreate animosity between non-New Tech teachers and Research Design���������������������������������������������������������������10students, and deprive New Tech students of vital resources References�������������������������������������������������������������������������10available on the larger campus. Instead, invite non-NewTech students and teachers into New Tech classrooms sothat they witness first-hand what the model is all about. Emphasize that you are not “reinventing the wheel” or touting yourself assuperior: show them that you are just trying something new.Having proper staffing in place is paramount. To transform the student culture, you must transform the adults who lead it. Therefore,any staff members who are resistant to the model should transition out of the program. When seeking new candidates, be sure towrite job descriptions that attract top talent and deter traditionally minded candidates from applying. Review candidates’ academictranscripts to ensure they are proficient in their content areas. Further, seek candidates with entrepreneurial, creative and innovativedispositions. Finally, ensure candidates have work experience in their fields of study, as it will enable them to develop real-worldapplications for the teaching standards.Find one lead partner with a wealth of resources in the community rather than piecing together small partnerships. This will provideaccess to a wider array of resources, the most important of which is human capital. The nature of the model requires many non-educators to be involved in the school, as one of the main goals of the model is for students to master 21st-century skills. Therefore,they must have access to professionals who can provide rigorous and constructive feedback, as well as places to practice those skills.A strong community partner can link you to guest speakers, authentic audiences and internship opportunities. Additionally, such apartner can be influential in serving as an advocate for the program if there is any pushback regarding its implementation.Finally, when revising your curriculum, do not focus on 21st-century skills to the point that you ignore other vital skills. The reality isthat students are still assessed by state standardized tests and college entrance examinations. It would do them a disservice to refrainfrom teaching the skills necessary to succeed on those assessments. Fortunately, the New Tech model lends itself to integration of“basic” and critical-thinking skills. To do so, ensure that facilitators integrate test-taking skills, as well as reading and numeracy skillsinto high-level, wall-to-wall project-based learning (PBL) environments through scaffolding workshops and other supports.2
  3. 3. What Is New Tech?The New Tech High School model is and responsibility” whereby students are characteristically smaller highadministered by the New Tech Network and teachers are empowered to make schools located in rural communities.(NTN), a non-profit organization based meaningful contributions to school policy Autonomous schools, often located inin Napa, CA that developed the model in and learning. Third, NT schools emphasize small cities, operate like a magnet programresponse to a concern from local business full-scale technology integration into drawing students from the district toleaders that just meeting basic standards classrooms through one-to-one computing a campus separate from the districtwould not ensure student success. ratios, Internet access, and the use of high school(s). Finally, small learning a learning management system that communities are programs within largeThe model features three key elements. transforms students into self-directed district high schools and usually located inFirst, New Tech (NT) schools utilize the learners and teachers into learning urban areas.project-based learning (PBL) instructional facilitators.strategy, which emphasizes technology use; Implementation of the New Tech model isrigorous, relevant and standards-based The Indiana New Tech high school guided by the School Success Rubric (SSR),projects; and cultivation of community implementation has taken one of three an NTN document that enables schools topartnerships. Second, NT schools forms. Schools that have implemented self assess their progress.develop a school culture of “trust, respect, the model across their whole school New Tech High @ Indiana Secondary School Demographic Profile Arsenal Tech Population (N=190) (N=318,914)* Race/Ethnicity American Indian/Alaska Native 1 (0.5%) 1,098 (0.3%) Black (Not of Hispanic Origin) 105 (55.3%) 37,553 (11.8%) Asian 1 (0.5%) 4,883 (1.5%) Hispanic Ethnicity 22 (11.6%) 21,678 (6.8%) White (Not of Hispanic Origin) 54 (28.4%) 242,582 (76.1%) Multiracial (Two or More Races) 7 (3.7%) 10,954 (3.4%) Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander 0 (0.0%) 166 (0.1%) Special Education Participation Special Education 24 (12.6%) 44,010 (13.8%) Not Special Education 166 (87.4%) 274,904 (86.2%) Free and Reduced-Price Meals/Milk Free Meals/Milk 132 (69.5%) 99,914 (31.3%) Reduced-price Meals/Milk 23 (12.1%) 24,606 (7.7%) Paid Meals/Milk 35 (18.4%) 193,246 (60.6%) Limited English Proficiency English Language Learner 24 (12.6%) 8,930 (2.8%) Not English Language Learner 166 (87.4%) 309,984 (97.2%) *1,148 (0.4%) of students statewide had no meal status recorded. Race/Ethnicity Free and Reduced Meals New Tech High @ Arsenal Tech (NTH@AT) has a diverse More than 80% of NTH@AT students were eligible for free or student population. By race/ethnicity, almost three-quarters reduced-price meals/milk (81.6%). The percent of students that of the population were students of color (71.6%). The percent was eligible for free or reduced-price meals/milk was almost of minority students at NTH@AT was almost twice as large as twice as large as the comparison school (46.8%) and more than the comparison school (37.6%) and three times larger than the twice that of the Indiana secondary school population (39.2%). Indiana secondary school population (23.9%). Limited English Proficiency Special Education Qualification English Language Learners (ELLs) represented 12.6% of the Special education students represented 12.6% of the NTH@ NTH@AT student population. The proportion of ELLs at AT population. The proportion of special education students at NTH@AT was twice as large as that of the comparison school NTH@AT was less than that of the comparison school (20.8%) (5.9%) and more than four times larger than that of the Indiana and the Indiana secondary school population (13.8%). secondary school population (2.8%). 3
  4. 4. What Does New Tech Teaching Look Like?Project-based LearningPBL requires students to tackle complex challenges, questions,and problems through the development of authentic productsand presentations (Buck Institute for Education [BIE], 2011;Thomas, 2000). PBL utilizes standards-based academicinstruction and student-directed, or independent, learning tofoster an environment of investigation (BIE, 2011).PBL curricula requires students to apply the knowledge andskills they learn throughout a project rather than projectsserving as a supplementary component at the end of traditionalinstruction (BIE, 2011). The entire PBL process is organizedaround an open-ended driving question that teachers use toconnect content to current and relevant issues and problems.Through this process, students develop their own questionsto drive learning, study concepts and information that answerthose questions, and apply that knowledge to products theydevelop.21st-Century Skill LearningPBL encourages more rigorous learning resources and revising work, all behaviors economics at the start of the unit (Ravitz because it requires students to take an that were uncharacteristic of them before Mergendoller, 2005). Another study foundactive role in understanding concepts being immersed in PBL instruction that PBL had a positive effect on studentand content related to projects. PBL also (Barron, Schwartz, Vye, Moore, Petrosino, motivation to learn (Bartscher, Gould enables students to develop critical 21st- Zech, Bransford The Cognition and Nutter, 1995). Elementary teachers usingcentury skills including critical thinking, Technology Group at Vanderbilt, 1998). 37% of their overall instruction time onproblem solving, and collaboration. PBL reported that students’ work ethicThese skills increase students’ workforce PBL also fosters students’ development improved, as well as their confidencereadiness and foster an enduring curiosity of collaboration skills. Special education and attitudes toward learning (Tretten and hunger for knowledge (BIE, 2011) students in PBL-taught classes developed Zachariou, 1995).while enhancing engagement and social skills, such as patience and empathycontent relevancy. PBL also facilitates (Belland, Ertmer Simons, 2006). Content Knowledgeopportunities for career exploration, Further, low-ability students demonstrated PBL also improves student contenttechnology use, and community relations initiative, management, teamwork, and learning. Students in PBL-taught classes(Blumenfeld, Soloway, Marx, Krajcik, conscientiousness as they worked in scored higher on standardized exams andGuzdial, Palincsar, 1991; BIE, 2011). groups (Horan, et al., 1996). In addition, ability tests measuring problem-solving students reported enjoying PBL work skills, and content application to real-Specifically, students in PBL classrooms because it gave them opportunities to world problems compared to students inbenefit from improved critical-thinking interact with current friends and make traditionally taught classes (Finkelstein,and problem-solving skills (Mergendoller, new friends through cooperative projects Hanson, Huang, Hirschman Huang,Maxwell Bellisimo, 2006; Shepherd, (Belland, et al.; Lightner, Bober Willi, 2010; Boaler, 1997; Penuel Means, 2000;1998; Tretten Zachariou, 1995). One 2007). Stepien, Gallagher Workman, 1993).study found that after being immersed Students were also able to demonstratein a PBL environment, low-ability Engaging Minds specific content area skills after takingstudents saw a 446% increase in their PBL improves student engagement part in a PBL unit (Mioduser Betzer,use of critical-thinking skills such as (Belland, et al., 2006; Brush Saye, 2008) 2003; Peck, Peck, Sentz Zasa, 1998)synthesizing, evaluating, predicting, and because it places students in real-world, such as applying measurement skills toreflecting (Horan, Lavaroni Beldon, problem-solving contexts (Blumenfeld, develop blueprints for a geometry project1996). High-ability students also saw an et al., 1991). A study of one economics on architecture and design (Barron, etincrease in their use of those skills by 76% class revealed that a PBL unit was al., 1998). Additionally, students in PBL(Horan, et al.). Moreover, during PBL successful in engaging both the lowest- classes emerge with more useful, real-instruction, students showed increased and highest-performing students, as well world content knowledge that can beinitiative, as they were observed utilizing as students who were least interested in applied to a variety of tasks (Boaler, 1997).4
  5. 5. Findings on Curriculum and InstructionResearch findings show that NTH@AT researchers visited, which helped students According to the director, the entire staffteachers utilize the PBL instructional hone their collaboration skills. Teachers decided to “move our math into the handsapproach to teach their classes. During used specialized collaboration rubrics to of a teacher who has a lot more experiencethe World Studies course, students were incorporate such skills into their grading. prepping for a standardized test” whenobserved integrating English, history Further, teachers offered specialized they thought that students’ end-of-and geography skills to map the setting workshops on skills like presentation course assessment (ECA) scores neededof a novel they were reading. In addition, design and etiquette, and offered a full improvement.students in the integrated Algebra II and course on citizenship and ethics.Physics course were observed utilizing School Successmath and science concepts to predict the Teachers utilize various scaffolding Rubric Indicatorstrajectory of a pulley car. techniques to support student learning. Teachers modeled the strategies and Curriculum InstructionTeachers also designed authentic and end products they wanted students to ○○ Teachers use PBL as primarycommunity-based projects, forming develop. They also provided incentives to instructional approach.partnerships with such local organizations incite student participation, and reviewed ○○ Teachers utilize a variety ofas the Indiana Historic Society, Peace assessments and homework to ensure techniques to scaffold studentLearning Center, and Indiana Black Expo. content mastery. skills. ○○ Teachers create integrated,NTH@AT teachers focused on preparing Teachers frequently checked in with authentic, and community-students for the professional world by students to see if they needed more time based projects.integrating 21st-century skills into their to complete their work. Further, teachers ○○ Teachers teach 21st-centurylessons. Students were observed working with specialized skills were asked to work skills.in groups or pairs in every classroom with students requiring additional help. School Success Findings on Technology Integration All NTH@AT students were provided Additionally, teachers encouraged students Rubric Indicators with Macbooks™ or netbooks to complete to use digital resources to complete their Technology coursework and assessments. Teachers coursework, including Google’s™ scientific ○○ School maintains a one-to- also used many online and digital tools for calculator, Google SketchUp™, and one networked computer-to- instruction. SparkNotes™, among many others. student ratio. ○○ Staff uses NTN’s Echo During one observation, teachers used According to the director, teachers posted Collaborative Learning an Internet application to administer classroom agendas and lessons on the Environment. and track students’ answers to an online Echo Collaborative Learning Environment ○○ Teachers incorporate other quiz. Teachers also utilized clicker sets so parents could stay updated on what digital and online tools to connected to the main computer in the students were doing in class. The school support student engagement classroom to enable students to respond to also hosted an open house to introduce and instruction. in-class prompts as a group. parents to Echo and teach them how to use the platform.Findings on Partnership DevelopmentNTH@AT had access to a TechPoint development activities: “We’ve had some School SuccessFoundation for Youth staff member who cases where students have really gottendedicated her time to developing external extremely involved with a particular Rubric Indicatorspartnerships to support the school. community partner and helped build that Partnership DevelopmentTherefore, teachers were able to focus on partnership.” For example, a student who ○○ School provides access todeveloping positive relationships with was involved with Big Brothers Big Sisters college courses throughparents. brought someone from the organization postsecondary partnerships into the school to help with a classroom School offers internshipsThe school hosted an open house for project. through partnerships withparents wanting to learn more about local business.the New Tech model. According to the Other students recruited local community ○○ School supports a communitydirector, approximately 275 parents members for a Net Literacy camp hosted service learning component.attended. Two teachers voluntarily publish at the school. One student continued his ○○ Staff facilitates positivea bimonthly electronic newsletter to keep work with the organization outside of relationships with parents andparents informed about school activities. school, serving as a summer intern. the New Tech Network.Students also participated in partnership 5
  6. 6. How Does New Tech Affect Student Outcomes?Findings on Learning OutcomesNTH@AT students demonstrated high learning. To facilitate such autonomy, find the answer more easily without it.levels of engagement in classroom work teachers afforded students a high leveland activities, especially when granted of freedom in their work. For instance, Teachers also tried to instill a high level ofsmall rewards and incentives. However, during project work time, students were collaboration among students. They notsuch rewards were not the only reason often allowed to listen to music and use only used collaboration rubrics to evaluatestudents participated in class. During one the Internet. One teacher explained that students, but also asked them to useobservation, a student raised his hand to attendance at scaffolding workshops was their criteria to self-reflect on their ownanswer a question and exclaimed, “I just not mandatory: progress in developing other 21st-centurywant to answer [the question]…I don’t skills.even want any candy.” “[We] leave some decision making to the students in the classroom…especiallyWhen students became disengaged, as far as instruction goes. We give them School Successteachers were able to motivate them by the responsibility, a lot of the times, of Rubric Indicatorsworking with them one-on-one and [deciding] what type of instruction theyguiding them through assignments. need. For the most part, they are very Learning OutcomesHowever, teachers reported that most responsible about it…they know if they ○○ Students demonstrate a strong,NTH@AT students did not need such need to go to that workshop.” professional work ethic andguidance because of their experience with take personal responsibility.PBL: Teachers also allowed students to decide ○○ Students use technology the order in which they completed their to conduct research,“I can give them a situation, or an project requirements. communicate, and createassignment or a problem where I haven’t documents.really instructed at all and they have very Students were so accustomed to this ○○ Students utilize theirlimited information,…[and] they can autonomy that teachers faced strong knowledge and skills in aaddress the problem, and they can think pushback if they did not allow students community experience.through it and think about what they need to manage their learning. For example, ○○ Students thoughtfully reflect onto know.” a student spent nearly one-fourth of an their learning. observation questioning a teacher aboutOne of the hallmarks of the New Tech why he needed to use a four-step problem-model is student-directed, independent solving method because he felt he could6
  7. 7. ECA Performance for the 2010-11 Academic Years80.0%  70.0%   71.2%   64.4%  60.0%   During the 2010-11 academic year, NTH@AT50.0%   53.7%   students passed the English 10 ECA at the highest 49.0%   rate (53.7%), followed by Algebra I (49.0%) 46.4%  40.0%   and Biology I (18.6%). NTH@AT students out- performed students at the comparison school30.0%   in all three of the ECA. However, fewer NTH@ 28.0%   AT students passed all three ECA exams than the20.0%   23.7%   Indiana secondary school population during the 18.6%   2010-11 year.10.0%   9.7%   0.0%   Percent  of  Students  Passing   Percent  of  Students  Passing   Percent  of  Students  Passing   (Pass/Pass+)    Algebra  I     (Pass/Pass+)  English  10     (Pass/Pass+)    Biology  I   ECA Performance for the 2009-10 Academic Years80.0%   In 2009-10, a similar pattern to the 2010-1170.0%   academic year was found in ECA performance at NTH@AT. Students passed the English 10 ECA60.0%   64.1%   at the highest rate (56.9%), followed by Algebra I 56.9%   (29.1%) and Biology I (28.9%). Though the pattern50.0%   52.4%   was similar, the percentage of students who passed the Algebra I ECA in 2009-10 was much lower40.0%   than the 2010-11 year (29.1% vs. 49.0%). However, the percent of students who passed the Biology I 36.4%   37.5%   ECA in 2009-10 was larger than 2010-11 (28.9%30.0%   29.1%   29.6%   28.9%   vs. 18.6%). Students at NTH@AT outperformed students at the comparison school in English 10 and20.0%   Biology I ECA performance, but remained steady in Algebra I ECA performance (29.1% vs. 29.6%).10.0%   Similar to the 2010-11 year, fewer Arsenal students 9.2%   passed their ECA’s than the Indiana secondary 0.0%   school population during the 2009-10 year for all Percent  of  Students  Passing   Percent  of  Students  Passing   Percent  of  Students  Passing   three exams. (Pass/Pass+)    Algebra  I   (Pass/Pass+)    English  10   (Pass/Pass+)    Biology  I   New Tech High @ Arsenal Tech Comparison School Indiana Secondary School PopulationEligibility for Graduation (As of the 2010-2011 New Tech High @Academic Year) Arsenal TechAlgebra I ECA When 2009-10 and 2010-11 ECA data was combined, the majority of NTH@AT Number of Students Taking ECA 125 students succeeded, making them eligible for Percent of Students Passing (Pass/Pass+) 59.2% graduation. More than half of those takingEnglish 10 ECA the Algebra I ECA exam (59.2%) and almost two-thirds of those taking the English 10 Number of Students Taking ECA 111 ECA (65.8%) passed these assessments. Percent of Students Passing (Pass/Pass+) 65.8% Note: ECA scores from the 2009-10 and 2010-11 academic years were included. 7
  8. 8. How Does New Tech Affect the School Environment?Findings on School CultureTo create a positive school culture, having to be too stern or authoritarian. School Successteachers regularly recognized student Students illustrated trust of their teachersaccomplishments, instilling a sense of through the comfort of their interactions Rubric Indicatorspride among students. In class, students and willingness to ask for help. School Culture andwere named to the “A List” or designated“Employee of the Week.” Further, there Responsibility Autonomywas a “Wall of Fame” in the school’s main Students were afforded the opportunity ○○ School demonstrateshallway to showcase students’ college to serve as ambassadors, or public commitment to unique schoolacceptance letters. Banquets were also held representatives of the school, to further identity through goals andeach semester to recognize high-achieving empower students and hone their sense of vision.students. responsibility. According to the director, ○○ School promotes a school more than 20% of students signed up for culture of trust, respect, andTrust the positions, demonstrating the high responsibility.Teachers and students at NTH@AT had level of student buy-in and ownership of ○○ Staff empowers students toa positive, relaxed rapport: “The style of the school. Students were also entrusted set school rules, policies andinteraction floats somewhere between with helping to set cultural norms for activities.formal and informal interaction. It works the school, with members of the Student ○○ School exhibits pride in thewell for us.” Teachers’ trust in students was Council and Student Advisory Group school culture, and activelydemonstrated through their ability to joke meeting with school staff, including the work to reinforce and defendwith them and discipline them without director, in the summer months and it. during the school year to plan school 95% activities and solve student issues. Respect teachers, students often self-corrected their misbehavior, and even apologized to teachers without being asked to do NTH@AT boasts a 95.1% To further support the development of so. Students were also observed being attendance rate, which matches professional behaviors, teachers offered respectful to visitors. the Indiana Secondary School workshops and elective courses on Population and is 7% higher than citizenship and ethics. As a result, students Student data indicated that NTH@AT its comparison school. were observed exhibiting mature behavior students were both more likely to attend during observations. Out of respect for class and less likely to get into trouble. SuspensionsMore Engaged = Better Behaved 70.0%  Students in a New Tech environmenthave fewer disciplinary issues than 60.0%  students in a traditional school. 59.7%  Despite the popular conceptions of 50.0%  most urban schools, NTH@AT showssignificantly fewer behavioral issues 40.0%  than its comparison school. Whilestill slightly above the state average,NTH@AT students are 40% less likely 30.0%  to receive in-school suspensions than 28.3%  students at the comparison school, and 20.0%  15% less likely to receive out-of-school 19.5%  suspensions. 10.0%   12.6%   11.5%   9.9%   0.0%   Total  number  of  students  given  in-­‐school   Total  number  of  students  given  out-­‐of-­‐ suspensions   school  suspensions   New Tech High @ Arsenal Tech Comparison School Indiana Secondary School Population8
  9. 9. Findings on Professional CultureOpportunities for teacher collaboration Teachers experienced this type of classrooms. Moreover, when teachers sawand leadership occurred frequently at autonomy outside of their classrooms, students struggling, whether with courseNTH@AT. Teachers across multiple as well, and they noted this as one of the content or personal issues, they made timecontent areas often collaborated to main reasons they enjoyed working at to help them. As one teacher shared, thedevelop lesson plans and deliver course NTH@AT. According to several teachers, school has “really become a place wherecontent. The “co-teachers” of these the director utilized a “distributive kids come for resources beyond what youintegrated courses were mindful to give leadership style,” which enabled them to would normally ask a teacher for.”each other enough time to instruct in “formally and informally take on roles…their individual subjects. They also used [and] take sole ownership of multipleformative and summative student data programs.” One teacher identified this School Successto inform instruction and ensure content practice as one of the main contributors to Rubric Indicatorswas fully absorbed. For example, during the school’s success:one observation, two co-teachers decided Professional Cultureto change their plans for the day and “I think that one of the things that ○○ Staff members collaborateoffer a workshop since students seemed make[s] New Tech so successful is that and share in school decision-to be struggling with the content on an our [director] gives us a lot of autonomy… making.assessment they were giving that day: [and] he trusts our judgment…It feels ○○ Administrators provide good to have that kind of freedom and dedicated time for teacher“We spend a lot of time reassessing the autonomy.” professional development andway we do things, reshaping the way we meetings.do things, [and] being flexible about the This environment helped instill a sense of ○○ Teachers utilize data to reflectdesign of our classroom and the design of passion and commitment among teachers. on and inform teachingour school. We all feel like we have made They often volunteered to stay after school practice.this progress and developed something to tutor students, supervise extracurricularhere with our students.” activities, or complete extra work in their Teacher Leadership Inventory Teachers completed a Teacher Leadership Inventory (Angelle Dehart, 2010) consisting of four scales: Sharing Expertise, Sharing Leadership, Supra-Practitioner, and Principal Selection. These scales measured teachers’ willingness to collaborate with each other to improve student learning, the ways that leadership was shared among and between teachers, and the director, teachers’ willingness to go above and beyond contractual expectations, and the director’s distribution of responsibility among all teachers respectively. For the Principal Selection Scale, teacher responses were lower because questions indicated that the director selected only a few teachers to lead, whereas NTH@AT teachers believed that all teachers should have opportunities to lead. Responses for all four scales were combined to create an Overall Teacher Leadership Scale. Arsenal Tech Overall New Tech Teacher Survey Scales: Arsenal Tech (N=5) (N=105) Results Compared to All Indiana New Tech Teachers at NTH@AT experienced a Schools Mean more collaborative culture compared (standard deviation)* to all Indiana New Tech high schools. 4.24 4.13 Additionally, teachers were more likely Sharing Expertise Scale (0.26) (0.66) to share expertise and strategize with 4.42 3.82 other teachers compared to all Indiana Sharing Leadership Scale New Tech high school teachers. The (0.21) (0.82) same survey reported that NTH@AT 3.60 3.87 teachers were more proactive about Supra-Practitioner Scale (0.76) (0.79) their professional development and 2.13 2.53 willing to put in more time outside of Principal Selection Scale (0.38) (0.65) school hours to improve their school 4.03 3.82 compared to all Indiana New Tech high Overall Teacher Leadership Scale** school teachers. (0.17) (0.57)Note: The Overall New Tech Scores include Arsenal Tech. The mean was used to replace missing responses*1=strongly disagree; 2=disagree; 3=neutral; 4=agree; 5=strongly agree**Scores from the Principal Selection scale were reversed when creating this scale because low scorescorresponded with a more positive rating in teacher leadership, in contrast to the other indicators where a highscore was associated with a more positive perspective of teacher leadership 9
  10. 10. Research DesignThis study utilized a mixed methods grades in core content areas, and state of participant experiences within eachcase study approach (Creswell, 2012), assessment results. Only students enrolled component. Each observation was anexamining the implementation of the New 80% of the school year or more were average of 60 to 90 minutes.Tech model at Arsenal Tech High School. included in the sample. The rationale forThe aim of the study was to explore the this value is that it is the logical midpoint Formal interviews were conductedsuccesses and challenges of the school in between federal and state accountability with NTH@AT teachers and schoolimplementing the model, and to provide enrollment guidelines, with the state administrators. Interviews were conductedfeedback with the intent of addressing guideline being 70% enrollment and the over the phone and in person, and lastedobstacles with progressive solutions. federal guideline being 90% enrollment. approximately 20 to 50 minutes. Each Student data was compared to one other interview followed a semi-structuredData Collection Methods school. This comparison school had a protocol and enabled researchers toMultiple measures of data collection similar demographic profile to NTH@AT. compare similarities and differenceswere employed, including a review of between stakeholder expectations of thepertinent documents, school/classroom Classroom observations focused on New Tech model and their experiences.observations, student focus groups, the PBL instructional approach, use of Sample interview questions included,and interviews with teachers and other 21st-century skills, and student/teacher “How is your school culture unique,”primary stakeholders. engagement. Observations were conducted “How are students involved in the from October to March. Researchers decision-making process at your school,”Individual student-level data was collected followed a non-intrusive hands-off, “How do teachers collaborate and lead atfor the 2010-11 school year, including eyes-on approach and generally did not your school,” “What scaffolding techniquesdemographic indicators (i.e., gender, race/ participate in classroom activities. Notes do you use to support the developmentethnicity, special education status, free or were taken during observations to provide of 21st-century skills,” and “How doesreduced-price meals/milk status, and grade both a description of what was observed your school celebrate accomplishments?”level), attendance rates, behavior statistics, and a parallel interpretive summary The interviews were audio taped andReferencesAchilles, C. M., Hoover, S. P. (1996). Exploring problem-based Brush, T., Saye, J. (2008). The effects of multimedia-supported learning (PBL) in grades 6-12. Paper presented at the Annual problem-based inquiry on student engagement, empathy, and Meeting of the Mid-South Educational Research Association, assumptions about history. The Interdisciplinary Journal of Tuscaloosa, AL. Problem-based Learing, 2(1), 21-56.Angelle, P. Dehart, C. (2010). A four factor model of teacher Buck Institute for Education [BIE]. (2011) What is PBL? Retrieved leadership: Construction and testing of the Teacher May 10, 2011, from http://www.bie.org/about/what_is_pbl Leadership Inventory. Paper presented at the University Council for Educational Administration Convention. New ChanLin, Lih-Juan. (2008). Technology integration applied to Orleans. project-based learning in science. Innovations in Education and Teaching International, 45, 55-65.Barron, B. J. S., Schwartz, D. L., Vye, N. J., Moore, A., Petrosino, A., Zech, L., Bransford, J. D., The Cognition and Creswell, J. W. (2012). Educational research: Planning, Technology Group at Vanderbilt. (1998). Doing with conducting, and evaluating quantitative and qualitative understanding: Lessons from research on problem- and research. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc. project-based learning. The Journal of the Learning Sciences, 7, 271-311. Finkelstein, N., Hanson, T., Huang, C.W., Hirschman, B., and Huang, M. (2010). Effects of Problem Based Economics onBartscher, K., Gould, B., Nutter, S. (1995). Increasing student high school economics instruction. (NCEE 2010-4002). motivation through project-based learning. Master’s Research Washington, DC: National Center for Education Evaluation Project, Saint Xavier and IRI Skylight. and Regional Assistance, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education.Belland, B. R., Ertmer, P. A., Simons, K. D. (2006). Perceptions of the value of problem-based learning among students with Horan, C., Lavaroni, C., Beldon, P. (1996). Observation of special needs and their teachers. The Interdisciplinary Journal the Tinker Tech Program students for critical thinking and of Problem-based Learing, 1(2), 1-18. social participation behaviors. Novato, CA: Buck Institute for Education.Blumenfeld, P., Soloway, E., Marx, R., Krajcik, J., Guzdial, M., Palincsar, A. (1991). Motivating project-based learning: Lightner, S., Bober, M. J., Willi, C. (2007). Team-based activities Sustaining the doing, supporting the learning. Educational to promote engaged learning. College Teaching, 55, 5-18. Psychologist, 26(34), 369-398. Mergendoller, J. R., Maxwell, N. L., Bellisimo, Y. (2006). TheBoaler, J. (1997). Experiencing school mathematics: Teaching effectiveness of problem-based instruction: A comparative styles, sex, and settings. Buckingham, UK: Open University study of instructional methods and student characteristics. Press. The Interdisciplinary Journal of Problem-based Learing, 1(2), 49-69.10
  11. 11. transcribed verbatim. analyzed using codes generated from the the results of the t-tests and ANOVA School Success Rubric. Researchers applied tests, effect sizes (Cohen’s d) were alsoThe document review consisted of a these codes to data clusters and developed calculated, which measure the size ofthorough analysis of both school and NTN additional codes in order to identify the difference between means divideddocuments, such as entry documents, patterns within the data. Representative by the pooled standard deviation. Forevaluation rubrics, and student work examples from observations and the teacher survey, independent t-testsproducts. quotations from interviews were selected were conducted to test for specific group and contextualized. Chosen exemplars differences. To analyze differences amongThe research team administered were re-examined and validated with other three or more groups, one-way ANOVAthe Teacher Leadership Inventory, a data sources to confirm unanimity among tests were computed with post-hoc17-statement instrument created by the specific themes and to validate the analyses performed using Tukey’s HonestlyAngelle and DeHart (2010) to measure conclusions. Significant Difference (HSD) to identifythe perceptions of teacher leadership specific differences between groups. Toin schools. The online survey was The quantitative data included student better substantiate the results of theseadministered through Survey Monkey™. data, observations, and teacher surveys. tests, effect sizes (Cohen’s d) were alsoResults were compared to the other data For the student data and surveys, PASW calculated. The correlation effect size (r)sources to determine their validity. Statistics 18 was used to analyze data. For also was calculated as a measure of effect the student data, independent t-tests were size.Data Analysis utilized to test specific differences betweenThe qualitative data included classroom two groups. Finally, linear regression was used to findand school-wide observations, interviews significant associations between teacherwith teachers and administrators, and For analyzing differences among three experience and the teacher leadership scaledocument review. Observation field notes, or more groups, one-way ANOVA tests items.interview transcripts, and documents were were computed. To better substantiateMioduser, D., Betzer, N. (2003). The contribution of Project- Ravitz, J. Mergendoller, J. (2005). Evaluating implementation based learning to high-achievers’ Acquisition of technological and impacts of problem-based economics in U.S. high knowledge and skills. International Journal of Technology schools. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the and Design Education, 18, 59-77. American Educational Research Association. Montreal, Canada. April, 2005.The Partnership for 21st Century Skills. (2004). What is the framework for learning in the 21st Century? Retrieved May Shepherd, H. G. (1998). The probe method: A problem-based 10, 2011, from http://www.p21.org/index.php?option=com_ learning model’s effect on critical thinking skills of fourth- contenttask=viewid=250Itemid=64 and fifth-grade social studies students. Dissertation Abstracts International, Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences,The Partnership for 21st Century Skills. (2006, October). Are September 1988, 59 (3-A), p. 0779. They Really Ready to Work?: Employers’ Perspectives on the Basic Knowledge and Applied Skills of New Entrants to the Stepien, W. J., Gallagher, S. A., Workman, D. (1993). Problem- 21st Century U.S. Workforce. Retrieved May 10, 2011, from based learning for traditional and interdisciplinary http://www.p21.org/documents/FINAL_REPORT_PDF09- classrooms. Journal for the Education of the Gifted, 16, 338- 29-06.pdf 357.Peck, J. K., Peck, W., Sentz, J., Zasa, R. (1998). Students’ Thomas, J. W. (2000). A review of research on project-based perceptions of literacy learning in a project based learning. Report prepared for The Autodesk Foundation. curriculum. In E. G. Stutevant, J. Dugan (Eds.). Literacy Retrieved from http://www.bie.org/index.php/site/RE/pbl_ and community: The twentieth yearbook: A peer reviewed research/29 publication of the College Reading Association, (pp. 94-100). Carrollton, GA: Beacon. Tretten, R. Zachariou, P. (1995). Learning about project-based learning: Assessment of project-based learning in TinkertechPenuel, W. R., Means, B. (2000). Designing a performance schools. San Rafael, CA: The Autodesk Foundation. assessment to measure students’ communication skills in multi-media-supported, project-based learning. Weng-yi Cheng, R., Shui-fong, L., Chung-yan Chan, J. (2008). Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American When high achievers and low achievers work in the same Educational Research Association, New Orleans. group: The roles of group heterogeneity and processes in project-based learning. British Journal of EducationalRavitz, J. (2008, March). Project Based Learning as a Catalyst in Psychology, 78, 205-221. Reforming High Schools. Paper Presented at the American Education Research Association, New York, NY. 11

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