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  • 1. Weather and Meteorology Presentation Presented by : Tesmond Hurd LMS Weather Station (La Grande Weather Service) http://lagrande.weatherchecker.us http://www.weatherchecker.us
  • 2. The Definition of Weather
    • Weather is the state of the atmosphere regarding wind, moisture, temperature, cloud coverage, pressure, and other meteorological conditions.
    • Meteorology is the scientific study of the Earth’s atmosphere, especially its patterns or climate and weather
  • 3. What’s the difference between weather and climate???
    • Weather is what is currently going on. When somebody says, “It is 32 degrees…” they are talking about weather .
    • Climate is weather, in a sense, but as an average. When somebody says, “The average temperature in July for the last 15 years is 80 degrees…” they are talking about the climate . Climate varies from place to place.
  • 4. What do I do…
    • I collect data
    • Analyze weather patterns
    • Maintain/Manage a website
    • Predict weather/specifically hazardous weather (e.g.: snow, thunderstorms, etc.)
  • 5. About the National Weather Service
    • Mostly meteorologists work for the NWS. The
    • NWS’ job is to analyze and monitor weather conditions and issue advisories, watches, and warnings when weather becomes hazardous. The motto for the NWS is: “For the protection of life and property.” There are several branches of the NWS. Storm Spotters are important to the NWS because they REPORT hazardous weather.
  • 6. NOAA Field Map
  • 7. About meteorologists
    • Starting Pay: $30,000; Top Pay: $146,000
    • EX: Dennis Hull-Warning Coordinator Meteorologist
    • 30 years as meteorologist/10 in PDT
    • His Pay: $100-105,000
    • Education: Bachelor’s degree in Meteorology
    • 3-year internship
    • Meteorology, math, and physics
  • 8. What meteorologists use to help predict the weather… 0.50 0.40 0.30 0.20 0.10 0.00
  • 9. Clouds
    • Clouds are formed when water evaporates in the sky and changes into the gas form, we them as clouds.
    • There are 32 types of clouds including tornadoes!
    Fractus Cirrus, Cumulus, Stratus, Cumulonimbus, Shelf ,Wave, & Wall cloud, Mammatus, and tornado Other Strato Alto Cumulus Nimbo Alto Stratus Cumulus Stratus Cirro
  • 10. Warm/Cold Fronts
    • Warm Fronts
    • A transition zone
    • between a mass of
    • warm air and the
    • colder air it is replacing.
    • Cold Fronts
    • A transition zone
    • between a mass of cold
    • air and the warm air it
    • is replacing.
  • 11. Stationary/Occluded Fronts
    • Stationary Fronts
    • A front between warm and
    • cold air masses that is
    • moving very slowly or not
    • at all.
    • Occluded Fronts
    • A composite front formed
    • when a cold air mass meets
    • and undercuts a warm air
    • mass, and forces the warm
    • air upwards and way from
    • contact with the earths
    • surface.
  • 12. High/Low Pressures
    • High Pressure
    • An area of pressure
    • that is higher than
    • surrounding, lower
    • pressures. High
    • pressures circle
    • clockwise.
    • Low Pressure
    • An area of pressure that
    • is lower than
    • surrounding, higher
    • pressures. Low pressures
    • circle counter-clockwise.
    H L
  • 13. Terminology…
    • Millibar -A unit of atmospheric pressure equal to 1/1000 bar; one unit that is used to measure air pressure.
    • Isobar -A line on a weather map connecting equal pressures.
    • Barometric Pressure -The pressure of the atmosphere, as indicated by a barometer.
    • Radar -A radio device used for locating an object by using ultrahigh-frequency radio waves reflected from the object and received, observed, and analyzed. In this case, precipitation.
    • Weather Balloon -a balloon used to carry meteorological instruments.
    • Weather Station -an observation post where meteorological conditions are (observed and) recorded.
  • 14. National Weather Service Doppler Radar United States of America Canada Pacific Ocean Gulf of Mexico Atlantic Ocean
  • 15. Mixed Surface Analysis Mixed Surface Analysis
  • 16. Snow | Snow Level 8000 ft. 7000 ft. 6000 ft. 5000 ft. 4000 ft. 3000 ft. 2000 ft. 1000 ft. 0 ft. 0 50 100 150 200 250 miles
  • 17. Question: Why does the Grande Ronde Valley get so much wind? Baker City La Grande Ladd Canyon L H
  • 18. Last Weekend H Maritime Polar (mP) Maritime Tropical (mT)
  • 19. Tornadoes
      • Tornadoes are violently
      • rotating column of air, usually
      • suspended to a Cumulonimbus
      • cloud, with circulation reaching
      • the ground. It nearly always
      • starts as a funnel cloud and
      • may be accompanied by a
      • loud roaring noise. On a local
      • scale, it is the most
      • destructive of all atmospheric
      • phenomena. (VIDEO)
    SPRING SEASON : March-June FALL SEASON : August-October
  • 20. Types of Tornadoes
    • Weak Tornadoes
    • 88% of all tornadoes
    • <5% of tornado deaths
    • Lifetime: 1-10+ minutes
    • Winds <110 mph
    • Violent Tornadoes
    • <1% of all tornadoes
    • 70% of all tornado deaths
    • Lifetime can exceed 1 hour
    • Winds >205 mph
    • Strong Tornadoes
    • 11% of all tornadoes
    • Nearly 30% of all tornado deaths
    • May last 20+ minutes
    • Winds 110-205 mph
  • 21. STEP #1 How Tornadoes Form…
  • 22. STEP #2 How Tornadoes Form
  • 23. STEP #3 | Final Step How Tornadoes Form… Low – Level Wind = Updraft
  • 24. [Enhanced] Fujita (Tornado Intensity) Scale E-F6 318+ Inconceivable E-F5 261-317 Incredible E-F4 207-260 Devastating E-F3 158-206 Severe E-F2 113-157 Considerable E-F1 73-112 Moderate E-F0 40-72 Light E. Fujita # Wind Damage
  • 25. Tornado: Fact or Fiction ?
    • Every state has had at least one tornado.
    • Tornadoes can’t form anytime during the year.
    • People caught in the open, should seek shelter under highway overpasses.
    • Areas near lakes, rivers, and the ocean aren’t safe from tornadoes.
    • Tornadoes can happen in the mountains or in high elevations.
    True False False True True
  • 26. Tornado Facts
    • Tornado State Rankings
    • Florida
    • Kansas
    • Illinois
    • Iowa
    • Alabama
    • Oregon
    • # of Tornadoes
    • 1999-2008
    • 1291 tornadoes
    • 123 EF2+ tornadoes
    • 1989-1998
    • 1165 tornadoes
    • 143 EF2+ tornadoes
    • 1979-1988
    • 820 tornadoes
    • 161 EF2+ tornadoes
  • 27. UNION COUNTY TORNADO Begin Date: June 21, 1983; 1415 (2:15) PDT Begin Location: Not Known Begin LAT/LON: 45°22'N / 118°03'W (LADD CANYON) End Location: Not Known Length: 0 Mile Width: 17 Yards Magnitude: F0 Fatalities: 0 Injuries: 0 Property Damage: $25,000.00 Crop Damage: $0.00 Description: None Reported
  • 28. Hurricanes
    • A tropical cyclone in the
    • Atlantic, Caribbean Sea,
    • Gulf of Mexico, or
    • eastern Pacific, which
    • the maximum 1-minute
    • sustained surface wind is
    • 74 mph greater. Hurricanes
    • are classified on the Saffir-
    • Simpson Scale to describe
    • their wind speeds. (VIDEO)
  • 29. Step #1 How Hurricanes Form… L
  • 30. Step #2 How Hurricanes Form
  • 31. Step #3 | Final Step How Hurricanes Form… H
  • 32. Saffir-Simpson (Hurricane Intensity) Scale
  • 33. NWS Building Entrance
  • 34. NWS Office
  • 35. NWS Office
  • 36. NWS Office
  • 37. NWS Radar What does RADAR stand for? RA dio Detection A nd R anging
  • 38. NOAA Weather Radio NWR N OAA W eather R adio
  • 39. Thank you for listening to my presentation…I hope you enjoyed it! Copyright © 2009 La Grande Weather Service, National Weather Service/NOAA, & Intellicast/WSI.com