The Scientific RevolutionThe Scientific RevolutionIn the mid-1500s, scientists beginIn the mid-1500s, scientists beginto question accepted beliefs andto question accepted beliefs andmake new theories based onmake new theories based onexperimentationexperimentation
The Roots of Modern ScienceThe Roots of Modern Science The Medieval ViewThe Medieval View• Most knowledge inMost knowledge inthe Middle Agesthe Middle Agescomes from thecomes from theBible andBible andGreek/RomanGreek/Romansources.sources.Supportsgeocentric theory—moon, sun,planets revolvearound earth
The Roots of Modern ScienceThe Roots of Modern Science A New Way of ThinkingA New Way of Thinking• Renaissance prompts new ways ofRenaissance prompts new ways ofthinking (1300-1600)thinking (1300-1600)• Scientific Revolution—new way ofScientific Revolution—new way ofviewing the natural world—based onviewing the natural world—based onobservation and inquiryobservation and inquiry• New discoveries, overseas explorationNew discoveries, overseas explorationopen up thinkingopen up thinking• Scholars make new developments inScholars make new developments inastronomy and mathematics.astronomy and mathematics.
A Revolutionary Model of the UniverseA Revolutionary Model of the Universe The HeliocentricThe HeliocentricTheoryTheory• Widely acceptedWidely acceptedgeocentric theorygeocentric theorychallenged aschallenged asinaccurateinaccurate• Copernicus developsCopernicus developsthe heliocentric theorythe heliocentric theory—planets revolve—planets revolvearound the sunaround the sun• Later scientistsLater scientistsmathematically provemathematically proveCopernicus to beCopernicus to becorrectcorrectNicolausCopernicus
A Revolutionary Model of the UniverseA Revolutionary Model of the Universe Galileo’s DiscoveriesGalileo’s Discoveries• Italian scientist GalileoItalian scientist GalileoGalilei makes keyGalilei makes keyadvances in astronomy.advances in astronomy.• He makes discoveryHe makes discoveryabout planet surfacesabout planet surfaces• supports heliocentricsupports heliocentrictheorytheory• 4 moons of Jupiter4 moons of Jupiter(Jupiter has 8 moons)(Jupiter has 8 moons)• Sun spotsSun spotsGalileo Galilei
You must Recant!!!!!You must Recant!!!!! Conflict with theConflict with theChurchChurch• Church attacksChurch attacksGalileo’s work, fearsGalileo’s work, fearsit will weakenit will weakenpeople’s faithpeople’s faith• Pope forces GalileoPope forces Galileoto declare his andto declare his andother new findingsother new findingsare wrongare wrongCristiano Bantis 1857 painting Galileofacing the Roman InquisitionBiblical references Psalm 93:1, 96:10, and 1Chronicles 16:30 include text stating that "the worldis firmly established, it cannot be moved." In thesame manner, Psalm 104:5 says, "the Lord set theearth on its foundations; it can never be moved."Further, Ecclesiastes 1:5 states that "And the sunrises and sets and returns to its place" etc.
The Scientific MethodThe Scientific Method A Logical ApproachA Logical Approach• Revolution in thinking leads toRevolution in thinking leads todevelopment of scientific method—adevelopment of scientific method—aseries of steps for forming and testingseries of steps for forming and testingscientific theoriesscientific theories Bacon and DescartesBacon and Descartes• Thinkers Bacon and Descartes help toThinkers Bacon and Descartes help tocreate scientific methodcreate scientific method• Bacon urges scientists to experimentBacon urges scientists to experimentbefore drawing conclusionsbefore drawing conclusions• Descartes advocates using logic and mathDescartes advocates using logic and mathto reason out basic truthsto reason out basic truths
The Scientific MethodThe Scientific MethodFrancis Bacon (1561-1626) René Descartes (1595-1650)
Newton Explains the Law of GravityNewton Explains the Law of Gravity Newton’s TheoriesNewton’s Theories• English scientist IsaacEnglish scientist IsaacNewton develops theoryNewton develops theoryof motion—states someof motion—states someforces rule motion offorces rule motion ofplanets, matter inplanets, matter inspace, and earthspace, and earth• LAW OF GRAVITYLAW OF GRAVITYIsaac Newton in 1689
Newton Explains the Law of GravityNewton Explains the Law of Gravity Newton’s TheoriesNewton’s Theories(continued)(continued)• Motion in space andMotion in space andearth linked by the lawearth linked by the lawof universal gravitationof universal gravitation—holds that every—holds that everyobject is universeobject is universeattracts every otherattracts every otherobjectobject• Newton views theNewton views theuniverse as a vast,universe as a vast,perfect mechanicalperfect mechanicalclockclockIsaac Newton in 1702
The Scientific Revolution SpreadsThe Scientific Revolution Spreads ScientificScientificInstrumentsInstruments• Scientists developScientists developmicroscope,microscope,barometer, andbarometer, andthermometerthermometer• New instrumentsNew instrumentslead to betterlead to betterobservations andobservations andnew discoveriesnew discoveriesmicroscopethermometersimplemercurybarometer
The Scientific Revolution SpreadsThe Scientific Revolution Spreads Medicine and theMedicine and theHuman BodyHuman Body• Andreas VesaliusAndreas Vesaliusimprovesimprovesknowledge ofknowledge ofanatomyanatomyAndreas VesaliusDe humani corporis fabrica (On the Fabric of the Human Body)
The Scientific Revolution SpreadsThe Scientific Revolution Spreads Medicine and theMedicine and theHuman BodyHuman Body(continued)(continued)• Edward JennerEdward Jennerproduces world’sproduces world’sfirst vaccination—first vaccination—for smallpoxfor smallpox
1802 caricature of Jenner vaccinatingpatients who feared it would makethem sprout cow like appendages.
The Scientific Revolution SpreadsThe Scientific Revolution Spreads Discoveries inDiscoveries inChemistryChemistry• Robert Boyle arguesRobert Boyle arguesthat matter is madethat matter is madeof many differentof many differentparticlesparticles• Boyle’s law revealsBoyle’s law revealsinteraction ofinteraction ofvolume,volume,temperature, andtemperature, andgas pressure.gas pressure.
The Enlightenment inThe Enlightenment inEuropeEurope
All humans were naturally selfish andAll humans were naturally selfish andwicked, therefore governments mustwicked, therefore governments mustkeep order.keep order. People should hand over their rightsPeople should hand over their rightsto a strong ruler. This was whatto a strong ruler. This was whatHobbes called aHobbes called a social contractsocial contract.. Strong ruler should have total powerStrong ruler should have total power(an absolute monarchy).(an absolute monarchy). This powerful government withThis powerful government withawesome power is what he called aawesome power is what he called aleviathan (sea monster) therefore heleviathan (sea monster) therefore hetitled his booktitled his book LeviathanLeviathan (1651).(1651).Thomas HobbesThomas Hobbes
John LockeJohn Locke People were reasonablePeople were reasonable(though still selfish) and had(though still selfish) and hadthe natural rights to life, liberty,the natural rights to life, liberty,and property.and property. Purpose of government is toPurpose of government is toprotect these natural rights.protect these natural rights. Government power comesGovernment power comesfrom the consent of thefrom the consent of thepeople.people.“Every man has aproperty in his ownperson. This nobodyhas a right to, buthimself."“Government has noother end, but thepreservation ofproperty."
VoltaireVoltaire Wrote more than 70 books ofWrote more than 70 books ofpolitical essays, philosophy,political essays, philosophy,and drama.and drama. Used satire against hisUsed satire against hisenemies, especially theenemies, especially theclergy.clergy. Beliefs:Beliefs: ToleranceTolerance ReasonReason Freedom of religious beliefFreedom of religious belief Freedom of speechFreedom of speech ““I do not agree with a word youI do not agree with a word yousay but will defend to the deathsay but will defend to the deathyour right to say it.”your right to say it.”
MontesqieuMontesqieu Believed Britain was theBelieved Britain was thebest-governed and mostbest-governed and mostpolitically balanced countrypolitically balanced countryof his own day.of his own day. Proposed the “separationProposed the “separationof powers” betweenof powers” betweenexecutive, legislative, andexecutive, legislative, andjudicial branches ofjudicial branches ofgovernment.government. Proposed “checks andProposed “checks andbalances.”balances.”
Jean-Jacques RousseauJean-Jacques Rousseau PassionatelyPassionatelycommitted tocommitted toindividual freedom.individual freedom. Believed man wasBelieved man wasborn free and goodborn free and goodbut easily corrupted.but easily corrupted. Believed the onlyBelieved the onlygood government wasgood government wasthe “general will” orthe “general will” ordirect democracy.direct democracy.
Cesare Bonesana BeccariaCesare Bonesana Beccaria BeliefsBeliefs Laws existed to preserveLaws existed to preservesocial order, not avengesocial order, not avengecrime.crime. Accused should receiveAccused should receivespeedy trials.speedy trials. Torture should never be used.Torture should never be used. Degree of punishment shouldDegree of punishment shouldmatch seriousness of crime.match seriousness of crime. Capital punishment (deathCapital punishment (deathpenalty) should be abolished.penalty) should be abolished.
Mary WollstonecraftMary Wollstonecraft Women should be equallyWomen should be equallyeducated along with men.educated along with men. Women should enterWomen should enterprofessions traditionallyprofessions traditionallydominated by men likedominated by men likemedicine and politics.medicine and politics. WroteWrote A Vindication ofA Vindication ofthe Rights of Womanthe Rights of Woman
Mary ShelleyMary Shelley Daughter of MaryDaughter of MaryWollstonecraft.Wollstonecraft. Mistress and laterMistress and laterwife of poet Percywife of poet PercyBysshe Shelley.Bysshe Shelley. Author ofAuthor ofFrankensteinFrankenstein in thein thesummer of 1816,summer of 1816,Later published inLater published in1818.1818.
Frivolous But InterestingFrivolous But InterestingInformationInformation
Climate and the writing ofClimate and the writing ofFrankensteinFrankenstein April 1815, MountApril 1815, MountTambora on theTambora on theisland of Sumbawa,island of Sumbawa,Indonesia erupts. ThisIndonesia erupts. Thiswas the world’swas the world’slargest eruption inlargest eruption in1,600 years. (7 on the1,600 years. (7 on theVolcanic ExplosivityVolcanic ExplosivityIndex)Index)
Climate and the writing ofClimate and the writing ofFrankensteinFrankenstein (continued)(continued) Immense amounts of volcanic dust ejectedImmense amounts of volcanic dust ejectedinto the atmosphere.into the atmosphere. In the summer of 1816 temperatures inIn the summer of 1816 temperatures innorthern Europe, Canada, and thenorthern Europe, Canada, and thenortheastern United States were at recordnortheastern United States were at recordlows. Crop failures occurred when a Maylows. Crop failures occurred when a Mayfrost destroyed crops already planted.frost destroyed crops already planted. 1816 has since been called “The Year1816 has since been called “The YearWithout a Summer.”Without a Summer.”
Climate and the writing ofClimate and the writing ofFrankensteinFrankenstein (continued)(continued) Effects of this volcanic winter throughout the worldEffects of this volcanic winter throughout the world Westward migration from the colder New England states in theWestward migration from the colder New England states in theUnited States in search of the richer soil of the upper MidwestUnited States in search of the richer soil of the upper Midwest Food shortages, rioting and looting of food stores in EuropeFood shortages, rioting and looting of food stores in Europewhich was also recovering from the effects of the Napoleonicwhich was also recovering from the effects of the NapoleonicWarsWars Storms and abnormal rainfall in Europe causing massiveStorms and abnormal rainfall in Europe causing massiveflooding of riversflooding of rivers Unusually low temperatures, including summer snowfall in ChinaUnusually low temperatures, including summer snowfall in Chinacausing faminecausing famine Brown and red snow falling in Hungary and Italy from theBrown and red snow falling in Hungary and Italy from thepresence of volcanic ash in the atmospherepresence of volcanic ash in the atmosphere
Climate and the writing ofClimate and the writing ofFrankensteinFrankenstein (continued)(continued) Inventions sparked byInventions sparked bythis volcanic winterthis volcanic winter Velocipede (now calledVelocipede (now calledbicycles) invented becausebicycles) invented becauseof a lack of grain to feedof a lack of grain to feedhorseshorses ChemistChemist Justus von LiebigJustus von Liebig,,who experienced thiswho experienced thisfamine as a child,famine as a child,researched and introducedresearched and introducedchemical fertilizers intochemical fertilizers intoagriculture.agriculture.
Climate and the writing ofClimate and the writing ofFrankensteinFrankenstein (continued)(continued) The Shelley’s (MaryThe Shelley’s (MaryWollstonecraft GodwinWollstonecraft Godwincalling herself Mary Shelleycalling herself Mary Shelleythough she is not yet marriedthough she is not yet marriedto Percy) spend the summerto Percy) spend the summerwith Lord Byron at his villa bywith Lord Byron at his villa byLake Geneva in Switzerland.Lake Geneva in Switzerland. The weather being too coldThe weather being too coldto carry out normal summerto carry out normal summeractivities, the group resideactivities, the group resideindoors staying up all night inindoors staying up all night inintellectual discussions. Theyintellectual discussions. Theyoften sit around the fireoften sit around the firereading German ghostreading German ghoststories.stories.Illustration from the 1831edition.
Climate and the writing ofClimate and the writing ofFrankensteinFrankenstein (continued)(continued) Lord Byron suggests thatLord Byron suggests thatto entertain themselvesto entertain themselvesindoors each of themindoors each of themwrite his or her ownwrite his or her ownsupernatural tale.supernatural tale. During this time MaryDuring this time MaryGodwin conceived of theGodwin conceived of theidea foridea for FrankensteinFrankenstein.. Therefore, being shut inTherefore, being shut indue to the weatherdue to the weathercaused by a volcaniccaused by a volcanicwinter brought about thewinter brought about theoccasion of the writing ofoccasion of the writing ofthis famous novel.this famous novel.Boris Karloff as the Monsterin 1931.
The EnlightenmentThe EnlightenmentSpreadsSpreads
Baroque MusicBaroque MusicRepresentative ComposersRepresentative ComposersAntonio VivaldiAntonio VivaldiJohann Sebastian BachJohann Sebastian BachGeorge Friedrich HandelGeorge Friedrich Handel
Antonio Vivaldi (1678-1741)Antonio Vivaldi (1678-1741) Representative WorksRepresentative Works Most famous workMost famous work LeLequattro stagioniquattro stagioni ((The FourThe FourSeasonsSeasons) written in 1723.) written in 1723. 46 operas46 operas 76 sonatas76 sonatas Chamber musicChamber music Sacred musicSacred musicSpring
Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750)Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750) Representative WorksRepresentative Works cantatascantatas choraleschorales organ worksorgan works lute musiclute music chamber musicchamber music canons and fuguescanons and fugues Famous piece: “Jesu JoyFamous piece: “Jesu Joyof Man’s Desiring”of Man’s Desiring”
George Frederick Handel (1685-1759)George Frederick Handel (1685-1759) Representative WorksRepresentative Works 42 operas42 operas 29 oratorios29 oratorios 120 cantatas, trios, duets120 cantatas, trios, duets numerous ariasnumerous arias chamber musicchamber music Most famous work:Most famous work:MessiahMessiah oratorio traditionallyoratorio traditionallyperformed during theperformed during theChristmas season, includingChristmas season, including“Hallelujah Chorus”.“Hallelujah Chorus”.
Classical MusicClassical Music Representative ComposersRepresentative ComposersJoseph HaydnJoseph HaydnWolfgang Amadeus MozartWolfgang Amadeus MozartLudwig van BeethovenLudwig van Beethoven
Joseph Haydn (1732-1809)Joseph Haydn (1732-1809) Known as “Father of theKnown as “Father of theSymphony” and “FatherSymphony” and “Fatherof the String Quartet”of the String Quartet” Representative WorksRepresentative Works 104 Symphonies104 Symphonies numerous concertos fornumerous concertos forvarious instrumentsvarious instruments 15 operas15 operas other musicother music
Joseph Haydn (1732-1809)Joseph Haydn (1732-1809)
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756-1791)Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756-1791) Representative worksRepresentative works 23 operas23 operas numerous symphoniesnumerous symphonies ““Toy Symphony”Toy Symphony” concertosconcertos ““Flute concerto no. 2 in DFlute concerto no. 2 in DMajor, K 314”Major, K 314” piano musicpiano music chamber musicchamber music sacred musicsacred music massesmasses
Ludwig van BeethovenLudwig van Beethoven Representative WorksRepresentative Works Symphonies (5Symphonies (5ththand 9and 9ththprobably the mostprobably the mostfamous)famous) Piano musicPiano music ““Fur Elise”Fur Elise” Vocal musicVocal music OperasOperas Choral musicChoral music
Enlightened DespotsEnlightened Despots Frederick II (the Great) of PrussiaFrederick II (the Great) of Prussia Joseph II of AustriaJoseph II of Austria Catherine II (the Great) of RussiaCatherine II (the Great) of Russia
Frederick II (the Great) of PrussiaFrederick II (the Great) of Prussia Ruled Prussia from 1740to 1786; granted religiousfreedoms, reducedcensorship, improvededucation
Joseph II of AustriaJoseph II of Austria ReligionReligion Joseph II had the most progressiveJoseph II had the most progressivepolicy of religion toleration in all ofpolicy of religion toleration in all ofEurope. He granted toleration towardEurope. He granted toleration towardJews as well as Protestants. His anti-Jews as well as Protestants. His anti-clerical and liberal innovationsclerical and liberal innovationsprovoked a visit from the Pope Pius VIprovoked a visit from the Pope Pius VIin 1782. Joseph showed himself ain 1782. Joseph showed himself agood Catholic, but was not persuadedgood Catholic, but was not persuadedto change his liberal positions onto change his liberal positions onreligion.religion. The ArtsThe Arts He was known as the “musical king.”He was known as the “musical king.”He was a huge patron of composers.He was a huge patron of composers.He is featured prominently in theHe is featured prominently in themoviemovie AmadeusAmadeus, the fictionalized, the fictionalizedbiography of Mozart.biography of Mozart.
Catherine II (the Great) of RussiaCatherine II (the Great) of Russia Ruled Russia from 1762to 1796; put in placelimited reforms; vastlyenlarged the Russianempire
The American RevolutionEnlightenment ideas help spur theAmerican colonies to shed British ruleand create a new nation.
Britain and Its American Colonies The American Colonies Grow American colonies grow large and populous duringthe 1600s and 1700s Colonies thrive economically through trade withEurope Britain’s Navigation Act restricts that trade (1651) Other trade laws add restrictions and taxes Colonists identify less and less as British subjects
Americans Win Independence British-Colonial Tensions Arise Britain and American colonies win the French andIndian War in 1763 Britain taxes colonists to help pay the war debts Colonists argue that British cannot tax them withouttheir consent
Americans Win Independence Growing Hostility Leads to War Colonists protest tea tax with “Boston Tea Party” in1773 Colonists meet in Philadelphia to address Britishpolicies (1774) British and Americans exchange fire at Lexingtonand Concord in 1775
Americans Win Independence The Influence of the Enlightenment Colonial leaders push for independence, rely onEnlightenment ideas Declaration of Independence—document justifyingcolonial rebellion Leader Thomas Jefferson writes Declaration, usesideas of John Locke
Americans Win Independence Success for the Colonists Despite British military might, colonists haveadvantages: Motivating cause of freedom French assistance War’s expense for Britain British surrender at Yorktown in 1781; colonists winthe war
Americans Create a Republic A Weak National Government Articles of Confederation set government plan fornew republic Articles create legislature only, no executive orjudicial branches Result is weak national government that fails toprovide unity and order
Americans Create a Republic A New Constitution Leaders call Constitutional Convention in 1787 torevise articles Group instead creates a new government under U.S.Constitution Constitution contains many political ideas of theEnlightenment
Enlightenment Ideas and theConstitution
Americans Create a Republic The Federal System Constitution creates three branches of government Provides checks and balances—ensures branches share powerequally Promotes federal system—power divided between nation andstates The Bill of Rights Some fear too much national power, few protections ofrights Leaders win support for Constitution by adding a Bill ofRights Ten amendments to Constitution that protect freedoms