3.palcenta fetal membrane

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3.palcenta fetal membrane

  1. 2. Fetal Membranes, Placenta and Twinning Jun Zhou, PhD School of Medicine, ZheJiang University
  2. 3. Fetal membrane — overview <ul><li>Originate from blastocyst, don’t participate in the formation of embryo </li></ul><ul><li>Including: </li></ul><ul><li>1) Chorion </li></ul><ul><li>2) Amnion </li></ul><ul><li>3) Yolk sac </li></ul><ul><li>4) Allantois </li></ul><ul><li>5)Umbilical cord </li></ul>
  3. 4. Chorion <ul><li>Formed by </li></ul><ul><li>trophoblast +extraembryonic mesoderm </li></ul><ul><li>Chorion frondosum -embryonic pole </li></ul><ul><li>Chorion laeve -abembryonic pole </li></ul>
  4. 5. Chorion <ul><li>Primary villi : cytotrophoblast+syncytiotrophoblast </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary villi : extraembryonic mesoderm enter the </li></ul><ul><li>primary villi </li></ul><ul><li>Tertiary villi : extraembryonic mesoderm =>CT+BV </li></ul>
  5. 6. Function of Chorion <ul><li>Exchange of metabolite: </li></ul><ul><li>portion of placenta (Chorion frondosum) </li></ul><ul><li>2) Hormone production: </li></ul><ul><li>human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) </li></ul>
  6. 7. Amnion <ul><li>Amniotic membrane : amniotic epi.+ extraembryonic mesoderm </li></ul><ul><li>Amniotic fluid : </li></ul><ul><li>Produce:1)amniotic cells </li></ul><ul><li>2) infusion of fluid from maternal blood </li></ul><ul><li>3) urine output from the fetus </li></ul><ul><li>4) pulmonary secretions </li></ul><ul><li>Output: 1) absorbed by amniotic cells </li></ul><ul><li>2) fetus swallow </li></ul><ul><li>1 liter – circulate </li></ul>
  7. 8. Amnion - Fluid <ul><li>Functions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mechanically cushion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protect from fetus adhesion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Movement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Temp </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Growth factors </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Abnormalities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1) too much (polyhydramnios) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>>2000 ml </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Abnormal digestive system or CNS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2) too little (oligohydramnios) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li><500 ml </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Abnormal urinary system </li></ul></ul>
  8. 9. Yolk sac and Allantois <ul><li>Yolk sac </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Primitive Gut </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Germ Cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blood island </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Allantois </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allantoic A pairs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allantoic V pairs </li></ul></ul>Umbilical vessels 2A+1V
  9. 10. Umbilical Cord <ul><li>Folding – purse-string closure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Amnion membrane covered </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cord: mucous CT, 3 vessels,yolk sac ,allantois </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>50-60 cm, 2cm diameter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Long – knots </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Short – abruption </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 vessel – 20-30% other </li></ul></ul>
  10. 11. Placentation - Overview <ul><li>Functions as: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lungs, GI tract, Liver, Kidneys, Endocrine </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Placenta proper: </li></ul><ul><li>Chorion frondosum + Decidua basalis </li></ul>
  11. 12. Anatomy of the Placenta <ul><li>Fetal – Chorion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chorion Frondosum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chorion Laeva </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Maternal – Decidua </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Decidua Basalis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decidua Capsularis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decidua Parietalis </li></ul></ul>
  12. 13. Anatomy of the Placenta <ul><li>Chorionic plate </li></ul><ul><li>Decidual plate </li></ul><ul><li>Anchoring villi </li></ul><ul><li>Decidual septa  15-20 Cotelydons </li></ul><ul><li>At birth 500 g </li></ul><ul><li>10-20 min “after birth” Diameter </li></ul><ul><li>3 cm thick </li></ul>
  13. 14. Placental-Fetal Circulation <ul><li>Fetus: </li></ul><ul><li>umbilical A  cap. Of chorion  umbilical V </li></ul><ul><li>Mother: </li></ul><ul><li>spiral A  chorion space  uterine V </li></ul>
  14. 15. Placental Barrier -- the structure between fetal and maternal blood --components: 1)endothelium of chorion capillary and its basal lamina 2) CT in the core of the villus 3) trophoblast epithelium and its basal lamina
  15. 16. Placental Function <ul><li>1.Exchange of Metabolites: nutrients antibody, waste </li></ul><ul><li>2.Defense barrier </li></ul><ul><li>3.hormone production </li></ul><ul><li>human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) </li></ul><ul><li>Begin: end of 2 nd week </li></ul><ul><li>Highest: 2 nd month </li></ul><ul><li>Estrogen and progesterone </li></ul><ul><li>Placental lactogen </li></ul>
  16. 17. Anne Geddes
  17. 18. Twinning <ul><li>Abnormal for Humans </li></ul><ul><li>Two types – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One zygote (monzygotic) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two (or more) zygotes (dizygotic) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Most common (70%) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2 (or more) oocytes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2 (or more) sperm </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Non Identical </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 19. Twinning - Monozygotic <ul><li>Zygote split </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2-4 cell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2 amn, 2 chorion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blastocyst </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2 amn, 1 chorion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Germ disc </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1 amn, 1 chorion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Later </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Conjoined twins </li></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 20. Twins
  20. 21. Twinning - Monozygotic <ul><li>Zygote split </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2-4 cell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2 amn, 2 chorion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blastocyst </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2 amn, 1 chorion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Germ disc </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1 amn, 1 chorion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Later </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Conjoined twins </li></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 22. Conjoined Twins

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