Fetal Membranes, Placenta and Twinning
OBJECTIVES <ul><li>The components of fetal membrane and their functions. </li></ul><ul><li>Structure and function of place...
Fetal membrane — overview  <ul><li>Originate from blastocyst, don’t participate in the formation of embryo </li></ul><ul><...
 
Chorion <ul><li>Formed by </li></ul><ul><li>trophoblast +extraembryonic mesoderm </li></ul>
Chorion <ul><li>Primary villi :  cytotrophoblast+syncytiotrophoblast </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary villi :  extraembryonic m...
Chorion frondosum -embryonic pole Chorion laeve -abembryonic pole
Function of Chorion <ul><li>Exchange of metabolite: </li></ul><ul><li>portion of placenta (Chorion frondosum) </li></ul><u...
 
Amnion <ul><li>Amniotic membrane :  amniotic epi.+ extraembryonic mesoderm </li></ul><ul><li>Amniotic fluid : </li></ul><u...
Amnion - Fluid <ul><li>Functions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mechanically cushion  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protect from fetus...
 
Yolk sac and Allantois <ul><li>Yolk sac </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Primitive Gut </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3 rd  week, Germ Ce...
Umbilical Cord <ul><li>Folding – a purse string closure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Amnion membrane covered </li></ul></ul><ul><...
 
Placenta - Overview <ul><li>Functions as: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lungs, GI tract, Liver, Kidneys, Endocrine </li></ul></ul>...
Anatomy of the Placenta <ul><li>Fetal – Chorion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chorion Frondosum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chorion...
Anatomy of the Placenta <ul><li>At birth 500 g </li></ul><ul><li>15-25 cm Diameter </li></ul><ul><li>3 cm thick </li></ul>...
Placental-Fetal Circulation <ul><li>Fetus: </li></ul><ul><li>umbilical A   carries O 2 /nutrient depleted blood to cap. o...
Placental Barrier -- the structure between fetal and maternal blood --components:  1)endothelium of chorion capillary  2) ...
Placental Function <ul><li>1.Exchange of Metabolites: nutrients antibody, waste  </li></ul><ul><li>2.Defense barrier </li>...
Twins  <ul><li>Two types:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One zygote (monozygotic) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two (or more) zygotes...
Twins  - Monozygotic <ul><li>Zygote split </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2-4 cell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2 amn, 2 chorion <...
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3[1].palcenta fetal membrane

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3[1].palcenta fetal membrane

  1. 1. Fetal Membranes, Placenta and Twinning
  2. 2. OBJECTIVES <ul><li>The components of fetal membrane and their functions. </li></ul><ul><li>Structure and function of placenta </li></ul><ul><li>Composition of Placenta barrier </li></ul>
  3. 3. Fetal membrane — overview <ul><li>Originate from blastocyst, don’t participate in the formation of embryo </li></ul><ul><li>Including: </li></ul><ul><li>1) Chorion </li></ul><ul><li>2) Amnion </li></ul><ul><li>3) Yolk sac </li></ul><ul><li>4) Allantois </li></ul><ul><li>5)Umbilical cord </li></ul>
  4. 5. Chorion <ul><li>Formed by </li></ul><ul><li>trophoblast +extraembryonic mesoderm </li></ul>
  5. 6. Chorion <ul><li>Primary villi : cytotrophoblast+syncytiotrophoblast </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary villi : extraembryonic mesoderm enter the </li></ul><ul><li>primary villi </li></ul><ul><li>Tertiary villi : extraembryonic mesoderm =>CT+BV </li></ul>
  6. 7. Chorion frondosum -embryonic pole Chorion laeve -abembryonic pole
  7. 8. Function of Chorion <ul><li>Exchange of metabolite: </li></ul><ul><li>portion of placenta (Chorion frondosum) </li></ul><ul><li>2) Hormone production: </li></ul><ul><li>human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) </li></ul>
  8. 10. Amnion <ul><li>Amniotic membrane : amniotic epi.+ extraembryonic mesoderm </li></ul><ul><li>Amniotic fluid : </li></ul><ul><li>Produce:1)amniotic cells </li></ul><ul><li>2) infusion of fluid from maternal blood </li></ul><ul><li>3) urine output from the fetus </li></ul><ul><li>4) pulmonary secretions </li></ul><ul><li>Output: 1) absorbed by amniotic cells </li></ul><ul><li>2) fetus swallow </li></ul><ul><li>1 liter – circulate </li></ul>
  9. 11. Amnion - Fluid <ul><li>Functions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mechanically cushion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protect from fetus adhesion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Movement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintain Temp </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Abnormalities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1) too much (polyhydramnios) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>>2000 ml </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Abnormal digestive system or CNS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- esophageal atresia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- anencephaly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2) too little (oligohydramnios) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li><500 ml </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Abnormal urinary system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- poor development of kidney </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- urethra atresia </li></ul></ul>
  10. 13. Yolk sac and Allantois <ul><li>Yolk sac </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Primitive Gut </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3 rd week, Germ Cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3 rd to 6 th week, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blood island </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Allantois </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Caudal extension of hindgut </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allantoic A pairs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allantoic V pairs </li></ul></ul>Umbilical vessels 2A+1V
  11. 14. Umbilical Cord <ul><li>Folding – a purse string closure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Amnion membrane covered </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cord: mucous CT, 3 vessels,yolk sac ,allantois </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>50-60 cm, 2cm diameter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Long – knots </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Short – abruption </li></ul></ul>
  12. 16. Placenta - Overview <ul><li>Functions as: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lungs, GI tract, Liver, Kidneys, Endocrine </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Placenta proper: </li></ul><ul><li>Chorion frondosum + Decidua basalis </li></ul>
  13. 17. Anatomy of the Placenta <ul><li>Fetal – Chorion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chorion Frondosum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chorion Laeva </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Maternal – Decidua </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Decidua Basalis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decidua Capsularis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decidua Parietalis </li></ul></ul>
  14. 18. Anatomy of the Placenta <ul><li>At birth 500 g </li></ul><ul><li>15-25 cm Diameter </li></ul><ul><li>3 cm thick </li></ul><ul><li>Anchoring villi </li></ul><ul><li>Decidual septa  15-20 Cotelydons </li></ul>
  15. 19. Placental-Fetal Circulation <ul><li>Fetus: </li></ul><ul><li>umbilical A  carries O 2 /nutrient depleted blood to cap. of chorion , exchange with maternal blood of the intervillous space  umbilical V </li></ul><ul><li>Mother: </li></ul><ul><li>spiral A  intervillous space  uterine V </li></ul>
  16. 20. Placental Barrier -- the structure between fetal and maternal blood --components: 1)endothelium of chorion capillary 2) CT in the core of the villus 3) trophoblast epithelium
  17. 21. Placental Function <ul><li>1.Exchange of Metabolites: nutrients antibody, waste </li></ul><ul><li>2.Defense barrier </li></ul><ul><li>3.hormone production </li></ul><ul><li>human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) </li></ul><ul><li>Begin: end of 2 nd week </li></ul><ul><li>Highest: 2 nd month </li></ul><ul><li>Estrogen and progesterone </li></ul><ul><li>Placental lactogen </li></ul>
  18. 22. Twins <ul><li>Two types: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One zygote (monozygotic) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two (or more) zygotes (dizygotic) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2 (or more) oocytes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Non Identical </li></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 23. Twins - Monozygotic <ul><li>Zygote split </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2-4 cell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2 amn, 2 chorion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blastocyst </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2 amn, 1 chorion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bilaminar germ disc </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1 amn, 1 chorion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Incomplete splitting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Conjoined twins </li></ul></ul></ul>
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