Missouri Compromise 1820<br />1819 Missouri applied to join the Union as a slave state.<br />This gave the South a majority in the Senate.<br />Henry Clay proposed admitting Maine as a Free state to maintain the balance in Congress.<br />Future states from the LouisianaPurchase would be Free above the 3630’ N. Latitude and states below that line would be Slave.<br />
Slavery in the West<br />David Wilmot, Congressman from PA, submitted a bill, the WilmotProviso that would ban slavery in any of the territories gained from Mexico.<br />The bill passed in the House, but NOT in the Senate, leaving the question of slavery in the west unresolved.<br />
Opposing Views <br />Believed in extending the Missouri Compromise line or Popular Sovereignty<br />Believed slavery should not be restricted and slaves should be returned to their owners<br />Wanted to ban slavery throughout the entire country<br />Abolitionists<br />Southerners<br />Moderates<br />
Opposing Views<br />Wanted to ban slavery in all parts of the country<br />Abolitionists<br />Believed in extending the Missouri Compromise or Popular Sovereignty<br />Moderates<br />Believed that slavery should be allowed everywhere and runaways should be returned to their owners<br />Southerners<br />
Free-Soil Party 1848<br /><ul><li>Main goal was to keep slavery from spreading to the western territories.
They did not look to ban slavery where it already existed.
This was the first election where slavery was an important issue.</li></li></ul><li>
Compromise of 1850<br />Chapter 16 Section 2<br />
Slavery Debate Erupts Again<br />California applies for statehood as a Free state in 1850.<br />Southerners feared that they would be out voted in the Senate and it was suggested that they should secede from the Union.<br />Like many northerners, Webster viewed slavery as evil. The breakup of the United States, however, he believed was worse. To save the Union, Webster was willing to compromise. He would support southern demands that northerners be forced to return fugitive slaves.<br />
John C. Calhoun refused to compromise insisting that fugitive slaves be returned to their owners.<br />Henry Clay feared that if a compromise was not reached the country would break apart.<br />
Compromise of 1850<br />Calhoun died and Clay became ill as Congress still debated the slavery issue.<br />Stephen Douglas of IL took up Clay’s fight for compromise to pass legislation to satisfy both North and South.<br />The compromise consisted of 5 separate components.<br />
Compromise of 1850<br />California is admitted as a free state.<br />Territories of New Mexico and Utah would uphold popular sovereignty.<br />Bans slave trade in Washington, D.C.<br />Settled the dispute over the Texas/New Mexico Border.<br />Passed the Fugitive Slave Act. <br />What does this mean for the Missouri Compromise?<br />
Fugitive Slave Act<br />Required all citizens to return fugitive, runaway, slaves to their owners.<br />Anyone who helped or allowed fugitives to escape would be fined $1,000 (equal to $25,480 today)<br />African Americans suspected to be a runaway was not allowed a trial by jury.<br />Judges were paid $10.00 ($250.00) for charging blacks as runaways and returned to the south. $5.00 ($125.00) for deciding they were free. <br />
Uncle Tom’s Cabin<br />A book written by Harriet Beecher Stowe in 1852.<br />Harriet Beecher Stowe lived along the Ohio River where many slaves crossed to get to freedom.<br />Book was fictitious, but based on the stories she heard from escaped slaves.<br />Gave people in the North a better understanding of what it meant to be a slave and saw slavery as a moral problem<br />
The Crisis Deepens<br />Chapter 16 Section 3<br />
Kansas Nebraska Act 1854<br />Compromise of 1850 nullified the Missouri Compromise, but only clarified how the slavery issue would be handled in the Mexican Cession.<br />So what about the Kansas and Nebraska territories?<br />Stephen Douglas proposed that both territories’ settlers decide whether slavery would be allowed in those territories upon applying for statehood. This is called…<br />Popular Sovereignty<br />
Predictions<br />What was the reaction to the Kansas Nebraska Act in the North?<br />“Opponents of slavery called the act a ‘criminal betrayal of precious rights.’ Slavery could now spread to areas that had been free for more than 30 years. Some northerners protested by openly challenging the Fugitive Slave Act.”<br />Do you think popular sovereignty will solve the issue of slavery?<br />
Crisis Turns Violent…<br />Initial settlers in the Kansas territory were from the neighboring states for the purpose of acquiring cheap land.<br />Few of these settlers owned slaves.<br />Under the Kansas Nebraska Act was the territory of Kansas going to enter the Union as a Free state or a Slave state?<br />It would be decided using Popular Sovereignty<br />
Crisis Turns Violent <br />To increase the number of slave owners in the Kansas territory Border Ruffians, proslavery settlers from Missouri rode across the border into Kansas to increase the number of slave owners in the territory.<br />These slave owners voted in the government elections and illegally voted in a proslavery government.<br />The original non-slave owners who initially settled the territory refused to obey the proslavery government and elected their own legislature.<br />
Bleeding Kansas<br />A proslavery band of men decided to attack a antislavery town of Lawrence, KS destroying homes and a Free-Soil Newspaper.<br />In retaliation, John Brown, an abolitionist, with his four sons, attacked the proslavery town Pottawatomie(paht uh waht uh mee) Creek.<br />In the middle of the night he dragged five proslavery settlers from their beds and murdered them.<br />This created both sides to use hit-and-run tactics, guerilla warfare, on the other, killing over 200 people.<br />
Violence in the Senate<br />Senator, Charles Sumner of MA, criticized the proslavery government of Kansas and verbally attacked proslavery southerners, specifically Andrew Butler.<br />Due to his age, his nephew, Congressmen Preston Brooks felt he couldn’t defend himself, so he marched on the Senate floor and beat Sumner over the head with a cane till he was bleeding and unconscious.<br />
Dred Scott v. Sanford <br />1857 antislavery lawyers submitted a lawsuit, alegalcase to settle a dispute, on behalf of a slave Dred Scott who’s owner had died.<br />His lawyers argued that, because his lawyer moved him to reside in IL and WI, both free states, he should be set free.<br />
Dred Scott Decision 1857<br />The Supreme Court decided: <br />1) that DredScott was property, therefore not a citizen he was incapable to filing a lawsuit to begin with. <br />2) According to the constitution, no citizen can be deprived of property thus, Congress did not have the power to outlaw slavery in any territory.<br />
“That the history of the nation during the last four years has fully established the propriety and necessity of the organization and perpetuation of the Republican Party and that the causes which called it into existence are permanent in their nature and now, more than ever before, demand its peaceful and constitutional triumph.”<br />The Republican Party Emerges<br />Chapter 16 Section 4<br />
Republican Party<br />Neither of the major political parties, Whigs or Democrats, would take a stand on the issue of slavery.<br />In 1854, Free Soilers, Northern Democrats, antislavery Whigs formed the Republican Party.<br />Their major goal was to keep the spread of slavery in the West. <br />
Abraham Lincoln, Republican<br />Lincoln entered the national political scene during his debates with Stephen Douglas in 1858 for the Illinois Senate.<br />During the series of debates Douglas supported popular sovereignty, Lincoln argued that slavery should not be allowed in the territories because the “House divided against itself could not stand.”<br />
John Brown Raid<br /><ul><li>Brown led a group of men to a federal arsenal, gun warehouse, at Harper’s Ferry, VA. He believed that once weapons were available slaves would join him and revolt against their owners.
No revolt took place and he was arrested by troops commanded by Robert E. Lee.</li></li></ul><li>Hero or Villain?<br />Brown was found guilty of murder and treason, actions against one’s country.<br />Because he acted with such dignity through out his trial and his head held high many northerners considered him a martyr, someone who is willing to give their life for a cause.<br />Many southerners became convinced that the North wanted to destroy slavery. <br />Why?<br />
The Nation Divides<br />Chapter 16 Section 5<br />
Election of 1860<br />Setting the Scene: <br />Republican Convention Chicago, IL<br />“Fire the salute,” ordered the delegate. “Old Abe is nominated!” Amid the celebration, though, a delegate from Kentucky struck a somber note. “Gentlemen, we are on the brink of a great civil war.”<br />
Election of 1860<br />Abraham Lincoln – Republican<br />Prevent the spread of slavery in the western territories<br />Stephen Douglas – Northern Democrat<br />Refused to support slavery<br />John Breckinridge – Southern Democrat<br />Supported spread of slavery<br />John Bell – Constitutional Union <br />Moderate Southerner who wanted to keep the Union together<br />
Lincoln was able to gain a majority vote without even being listed on 10 of the Southern ballots.<br />
Southern Reaction<br />South believed that when Lincoln took office he would abolish slavery.<br />The South no longer had a voice in the federal government and congress, as well as the President, was against their interests – slavery.<br />Governor of SC, Francis W. Pickens, wrote to other southern states that it was their duty to secede from the Union.<br />SC seceded from the Union December 20, 1860.<br />
Confederate States of America<br />By February 1861 the following states made up the Confederacy:<br />South Carolina (first to secede)<br />Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Texas .<br />At a convention held in Montgomery, AL, Jefferson Davis was appointed their president.<br />Davis served in Mexican War, as senator from MS, supporter of state’s rights, Secretary of War under President Pierce.<br />
The Right to Secede?<br />Most southerners believed that they had every right to secede. After all, the Declaration of Independence said that “it is the right of the people to alter or to abolish” a government that denies the rights of its citizens. <br />Lincoln, they believed, would deny white southerners the right to own slaves.<br />
Civil War Begins<br />Lincoln took the oath of office on March 4, 1861.<br />Lincoln’s First Inaugural Address.<br />April 1861, Fort Sumter <br />Federal fort off the coast of South Carolina is in need of food and supplies.<br />Lincoln informs the governor that he is shipping food and not weapons or ammunition<br />As part of the Confederacy, SC could not allow the Union to have control within its borders.<br />Confederate soldiers bombarded the fort with shells forcing the Union to surrender on April 13, 1861.<br />
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