If the feedback is not constructive don’t give it as it will damage the relationship and cause distress
Relationships, relationships, relationships
Bottom line; Status quo is not an option; change is not negotiable; continuous improvement is the goal; the best interests os students is at the centre
Well plannedGiven at the right timeIn a calm manner
Agreed values at this school
Model can apply to us as we learn to give and receive constructive feedback and also to those to whom we are giving feedback to
Work in pairs 8 mins Group share the way the feedback was given
Groups of 3 or 4 10 mins
These are general guidelines
These are general guidelines
5 steps to follow in this order
Other starters contributions from the group
Do’s identify common goal make it short and simple use positive languageAvoid blaming being vague beating around the bushAsk yourself ‘what is my positive intent?’ What positive outcome am I looking for? Let’s take a look at... I have some thoughts about.... Can we discuss... We need to work on... INTENT vs IMPACT
Do’s have situation and behaviour in mind use your own observations use data and facts bitesize chunksAvoid generalizations second hand accounts judging ‘in my opinion’
Do’s link action and consequence state undesirable consequencesAvoid exaggerating making it a catastrophe threats judgemental language
Open ended questions What is your view of the situation? Tell me what are your thoughts. How do you see things? If constructive feedback is going to pay off it cannot be one-way process. You need the other person’s involvement and ideas.
Questions What will work for you? What ideas do you have? What could we try? Next time will you----? We could move this along quickly if you.... What can I do differently?
Action 1 covey your positive intentAction 2 describe observations
Lets try a couple of small things just to help us get started Lets experiment with this for a week and see what happensWhat can I do to help?I’d like to talk on Friday to see how things are going
Receiving constructive feedback can often cause discomfort and distressTry to use it to your advantage to improve your professional performance and interpersonal skillsSee it as part of your learning journey
BANYULE NETWORK Workshop with Joe Corbett 22 July 2011 GIVING FEEDBACKRequesting and receiving feedback
Moral Purpose To improve the outcomes for every student achievement levels well-being and engagement transitions and pathways
Ethical Leadership If we know something works better than current practice then we are obligated to do it If we know something is not working then we are obligated to change it We must be determined to make powerful learning a reality for every student Change needs to be evidence based
Making Decisions What impact will this decision have on; student achievement student well-being/engagement student transitions and pathways what’s happening in classrooms teacher capacity the learning environment safety and order within the school teacher motivation and well-being
Feedback Acknowledgement and recognition; for a job well done, for going beyond the call of duty, for extra effort Positive feedback; so a person is aware of desired behaviours/practices, so they keep doing it and do more of it Negative feedback; needs to be reframed as constructive feedback Constructive feedback
Constructive Feedback To encourage a person to do something differently To modify some behaviours To stop some behaviours To encourage a person to try new behaviours/strategies To support on going learning
Constructive Feedback Constructive feedback is information that calls attention to a challenge, an opportunity, a problem or a potential problem. Constructive feedback opens a door to learning, problem solving or other follow up action. The key to giving and receiving constructive feedback is maintaining a spirit of mutual respect and learning. It is all about supporting and promoting change
Why some people resist change? They may have a different set of values and beliefs Their education and training has given them a different understanding of the issues involved The organisational hierarchy may prevent them from saying or doing anything that indicates resistance to change, so they become ‘silent saboteurs’ They may have experienced failure or problems in the past, therefore they may adopt a negative attitude, anticipating further problems
They may have become ‘change weary’ They have already seen new ideas come and go, with limited success, and they have lost their belief in the power of change Implementation has been sub-standard, leaving people unsure of what is happening, or feeling excluded They aren’t given the opportunity to learn the skills needed to adapt, nor is there adequate mentoring and support
Some people find it hard to change old habits The change is too big a leap for them They may fear they do not have the capabilities to execute the change They have not grasped/understood what is expected Some people are scared to ‘take a risk’ and fear doing things in new ways
A Harvard University study of 2005 found that; 25% of people were against change 25% of people were in favour of change 50% of people were in favour of change provided two conditions were met; 1. They received timely and accurate information 2. The process was, and was perceived to be, fair and transparent From; How to make good people great leaders, Nowak 2007
Responding to resistance Collaboration on vision, goals/targets and strategies Clear and timely communication Clear rationale for change, evidence based Implementation plan with incremental steps Professional learning Mentoring and coaching Clear expectations Accountability mechanisms Positive and constructive feedback
Purpose of giving constructive feedback Two key purposes; To improve teaching practice and build teacher capacity To build high performing teams and positive working relationships
Activity 1 In groups of 3 brainstorm what you think are the characteristics of constructive feedback. Agree on the 3 most important of these. Share them with the whole group.
Constructive Feedback Is done in a way which is respectful and builds positive relationships Is timely and put in context Is private and confidential , unless agreed otherwise Is clear and focussed/explicit Is solution oriented/provides a way forward Is balanced with positive feedback Is incremental in its expectations
Beliefs People have a need to believe that they are O.K. People have the capacity to learn from their experiences Most people want to contribute and to be acknowledged Most people want to get better and better at what they do People benefit from a values driven workplace People thrive in an environment of high but achievable standards and expectations
Stages of skill development Unconsciously unskilled____ unaware of lack of skill or knowledge Consciously unskilled _____ aware of need for learning of skill Consciously skilled ______ practice, feedback, learning phase Unconsciously skilled ______ mastery, part of skill repertoire
Activity 2Memories of getting feedback Think about a time when you received positive or constructive feedback that increased your self-esteem and motivation and consider the following; Describe what it was about the way the feedback was given that created the positive effect. What impact did this feedback have on your feelings and subsequent behaviour?
Constructive feedback can help us learn something about ourselves and help us to improve our work performance and interpersonal skills Thoughtless criticism often damages working and interpersonal relationships
Activity 3 At your table consider what you think ‘gets in the way’ of giving and receiving constructive feedback. Agree on the three most common things. Share these with the whole group.
Guidelines for giving constructive feedback Prepare for the feedback discussion Focus the feedback on the performance/behaviour of the person not on personality Base the feedback on actual observations/experiences not on assumptions or inferences Use description rather than evaluation Be specific and concrete rather than general and abstract
Focus feedback on the present or recent not the past Share information rather than give advice Try to provide alternatives/options rather than one best path Stay focussed and specific ; don’t try to provide feedback on everything Ensure suggestions are within the capabilities of the other person ;incremental changes, not huge leaps Get the person to summarise the main points of what you have said Listen openly to what the other person has to say Discuss possible solutions and next steps
Classroom observations Be clear on the purpose/positive intent What’s the focus; teacher behaviours student behaviours best practice/preferred practice particular techniques/strategies communication exchanges other
What’s the context of the observations; one-off/ a series related to specific professional learning invited/contractual peer to peer/triads/instructional rounds knowledge/skill base of observers
What’s the nature of the feedback? behavioural observations objective/subjective evaluative positive feedback constructive feedback
The use of pro-formas; involve teachers in the development of these and relate them to the purpose, focus, context and nature of the observations hasten slowly discuss and review often
Feedback for building effective teams and building positive working relationships Common characteristics of effective teams handout discussion
Key actions for giving constructive feedback Convey your positive intent Describe specifically what you have observed/experienced State the impact of the behaviour or action on you and/or the team Ask the other person to respond Focus the discussions on solutions
Conversation starters Let’s talk about what just happened. How are you doing with ....? I would like to make a time to talk to you about .... I know we are both interested in ..... so can I talk to you about ....? You seem to have a lot on your mind. Is there something bothering you? Is there something you would like to talk about? Let’s take time to clarify .... Let’s take time to review ....
Key action 1Convey your positive intent Guidelines Mentally prepare to give feedback Choose a time when the other person is likely to be receptive to what you have to say Briefly state what you would like to cover Point to a common goal Avoid placing blame
Key action 2Describe specifically what you have observed Guidelines Be brief and to the point Focus on behaviours and actions not on the person Limit your feedback to one issue at a time Avoid using ‘you’ as much as possible
Key action 3State the impact of the behaviour or action Guidelines Link the behaviour or action to important goals like meeting deadlines, teamwork, modelling our values, improved student outcomes If appropriate, state the impact on you and others State only one or two of the most significant consequences Maintain an objective tone
Key action 4Ask the other person to respond Guidelines Pause to encourage the other person to speak Ask open ended questions Listen objectively to what the other person has to say Summarize the other person’s key points to show your interest and confirm your understanding
Key action 5Focus the discussion on solutions Guidelines Ask questions to explore possible solutions Ask directly for changes or help you want If you are making suggestions avoid coming across as an expert Be willing to change you own behaviour to contribute to a solution Manage your own expectations about what it will take for a solution to work
What if? What if the other person doesn’t think there is a problem? Restate positive intentions, observations and impact to establish the need for a change Agree to talk after the person has had time to think about the situation Use neutral, objective language Remain calm and focussed
What if? What if the other person becomes defensive? Listen calmly Acknowledge the other persons concerns Agree with what you can Allow time for the other person to calm down Be open to new information Stay focussed on solutions
What if? What if the other person says he or she can’t do anything differently right now? Focus on small next steps Try to get agreement on a trial solution Offer coaching, training, support Agree on a time to revisit the issue in the near future
Requesting feedback People in leadership positions rarely receive explicit, timely, constructive feedback Issues of authority/status often inhibit a two-way flow of constructive feedback Leaders need to invite/request feedback from trusted and valued colleagues Leaders need to make explicit the areas they would like feedback on Establish clear parameters /a framework
Possible areas for feedback Verbal communication skills in different contexts Written communication skills Decision making skills Strategic thinking and planning skills Problem solving and conflict resolution skills Public image/presentation style Organisation skills Behavioural style under stress or pressure Maintaining focus on the main game
Techniques for receiving constructive feedback Focus on the content, not on the person. Listen calmly and attentively. Clarify the feedback. Acknowledge the other person’s views or concerns Avoid defending or over explaining. Welcome suggestions.
After receiving constructive feedback: Ask for feedback regularly. If in doubt about the merit of the feedback, check with others. Evaluate feedback you receive and decide what changes you can make. Let people know when you implement changes that stem from the feedback they gave you.
Concluding comments Giving and receiving constructive feedback can be a powerful and positive learning experience if it is done well and with the right intentions. If you can’t be positive or constructive then it is better to say nothing. Practice and reflection will help you to do it more effectively and in a way which causes you and others less discomfort and distress.