EARTHQUAKEENGINEERING 1.1. Introduction1.1.1. Definitions1.1.2. Earthquake Hazards1.1.3. Course Layout
1.1.1. DEFINITIONS■ Earthquake Engineering •   can be defined as the branch of engineering devoted to mitigating     earth...
1.1.1. DEFINITIONS■ An Earthquake •       is the motion or vibration, sometimes violent, of the earth’s surface that follo...
1.1.2. EARTHQUAKE HAZARDS                ■ Failure of Slopes
1.1.2. EARTHQUAKE HAZARDS               ■ Occurrence of Fire
1.1.2. EARTHQUAKE HAZARDS                  ■ Building Collapse
1.1.2. EARTHQUAKE HAZARDS                  ■ Building Collapse
1.1.2. EARTHQUAKE HAZARDS                  ■ Building Collapse
1.1.2. EARTHQUAKE HAZARDS                   ■ Bridge Collapse
1.1.2. EARTHQUAKE HAZARDS                       ■ Land Slide
1.1.2. EARTHQUAKE HAZARDS                    ■ Disturbance
1.1.2. EARTHQUAKE HAZARDS                                                      ■ Specific Failures •                      ...
1.1.2. EARTHQUAKE HAZARDSMay 2008 China Earthquake  y                 q Date                     : May 12, 2008, 14:28 Mag...
1.1.2. EARTHQUAKE HAZARDS                                    4.5M homes destroyed                                    4 5M ...
1.1.2. EARTHQUAKE HAZARDS  Thousands of tents are needed    Food and water are needed    Medical supplies are neededProf.D...
1.1.3. COURSE LAYOUT1 ■ Introduction2 ■ Seismicity : Nature, Measures and Characteristics of    Earthquakes3■ Methods of E...
EARTHQUAKEENGINEERING    1.2. N         Nature of                 f         Earthquakes 1.2.1. Causes of Earthquakes 1.2.2...
1.2.1. Causes of EarthquakesTectonic Earthquakesare caused by the sudden dislocation of large rock masses alonggeological ...
1.2.1. Causes of EarthquakesVolcanic Earthquakes  Earthquakes that can be reasonably associated with volcanoes are relativ...
1.2.1. Causes of EarthquakesExplosions Earthquakes may be produced      q          y    pby      the        undergrounddet...
1.2.1. Causes of EarthquakesCollapse Earthquakes Collapse earthquakes are small earthquakes occur in regions of undergroun...
1.2.1. Causes of EarthquakesLarge Reservoir-induced Earthquakes      Reservoir-  The idea that earthquakes might be trigge...
1.2.1. Causes of EarthquakesTsunamiUnderwater earthquakes,volcanoes, or landslidescan produce a tsunami ortidal wave. This...
1.2.2. FaultsDefinition A fault is a fracture within some particular rocky mass within the earths crust. Th d h and     h ...
1.2.2. FaultsActive FaultsProf.Dr. Osman Shaalan                   Dr. Tharwat Sakr
1.2.2. FaultsTectonic Plates  Dr. Osman Shalan                   Dr. Tharwat Sakr
1.2.2. Faults Types of Faults      a) Normal faults     These occur in response to pulling     or tension: the overlying b...
1.2.2. Faults Earthquake Generation (Theory of Elastic Rebound                                          Rebound)          ...
1.2.2. Faults Earthquake Focus   The point on the fault where   rupture initiates is referred to   as the f       h focus ...
1.2.3. Earthquake Effects How do Earthquakes affect Structures?             q   1‐ By inertial forces   generated b severe...
1.2.3. Earthquake Effects How do Earthquakes affect Structures?             q  2.    By earthquake‐       induced fires:  ...
1.2.3. Earthquake Effects How do Earthquakes affect Structures?             q    3.   By changing the physical properties ...
1.2.3. Earthquake Effects How do Earthquakes affect Structures?             q     4. By direct fault displacement at the s...
1.2.3. Earthquake Effects How do Earthquakes affect Structures?             q     5.   By landslides, or other movement:Pr...
1.2.3. Earthquake Effects How do Earthquakes affect Structures?             q     6.   By seismic sea waves (tsunamis) or ...
1.2. Nature of EarthquakesQuestions     (refer to Project Group Pageِ Assignment (1))                                     ...
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Earthquake Engineering 2011 lec-01

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First Lecture of Sunday 12-03-2011
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Earthquake Engineering 2011 lec-01

  1. 1. EARTHQUAKEENGINEERING 1.1. Introduction1.1.1. Definitions1.1.2. Earthquake Hazards1.1.3. Course Layout
  2. 2. 1.1.1. DEFINITIONS■ Earthquake Engineering • can be defined as the branch of engineering devoted to mitigating earthquake hazards. In this broad sense, earthquake engineering covers the i h investigation and solution of the problems created b i i d l i f h bl d by damaging earthquakes, and consequently the work involved in the practical application of these solutions, i.e. in planning, designing, constructing and managing earthquake resistant structures and earthquake‐resistant facilities.■ Scope • Seismicity ,Nature, Measures and Recording of earthquakes. • Planning for Seismic Risk Assessment & Mitigation • Analysis, Design and Construction of Earthquake Resistant Structures • Evaluation of Buildings for Earthquake Resistance • Retrofitting f Earthquake d R t fitti of E th k damaged St t d Structures • Earthquake Management and Security
  3. 3. 1.1.1. DEFINITIONS■ An Earthquake • is the motion or vibration, sometimes violent, of the earth’s surface that follows  a  release  of  energy in  the  earth’s  crust.  This  energy  can  be  generated  by  a  sudden dislocation of segments of the crust, by a volcanic eruption, or even by  sudden dislocation of segments of the crust by a volcanic eruption or even by manmade explosions.■ Sources of Ground Movements • Tectonic Earthquakes • Volcanoes l • Explosions • Collapse of Mines & Large Reservoirs • Tsunami
  4. 4. 1.1.2. EARTHQUAKE HAZARDS ■ Failure of Slopes
  5. 5. 1.1.2. EARTHQUAKE HAZARDS ■ Occurrence of Fire
  6. 6. 1.1.2. EARTHQUAKE HAZARDS ■ Building Collapse
  7. 7. 1.1.2. EARTHQUAKE HAZARDS ■ Building Collapse
  8. 8. 1.1.2. EARTHQUAKE HAZARDS ■ Building Collapse
  9. 9. 1.1.2. EARTHQUAKE HAZARDS ■ Bridge Collapse
  10. 10. 1.1.2. EARTHQUAKE HAZARDS ■ Land Slide
  11. 11. 1.1.2. EARTHQUAKE HAZARDS ■ Disturbance
  12. 12. 1.1.2. EARTHQUAKE HAZARDS ■ Specific Failures • Collapse of the first storey and damage due to pounding between adjacentCollapse of a high-rise building because of buildings during the Kocaelifailure of the columns at the first storey earthquake, Turkey, August 17, 1999,during the Chi-Chid i th Chi Chi earthquake, T i th k Taiwan, Magnitude 7 4 7.4September 20, 1999, Magnitude 7.6
  13. 13. 1.1.2. EARTHQUAKE HAZARDSMay 2008 China Earthquake y q Date : May 12, 2008, 14:28 Magnitude : 8 0 Richter Scale Earthquake 8.0 Location : Sichuan, China Death : 69,016 Missing :18,627 Injured : 373,573 Displaced :15,006,341 :15 006 341 School Destroyed : 6,898 Rescue workers : 130,000 Prof.Dr. Osman Shaalan Earthquake Engineering Dr. Tharwat Sakr
  14. 14. 1.1.2. EARTHQUAKE HAZARDS 4.5M homes destroyed 4 5M h d d Some counties completely wiped off the map More than 11M people Displaced At this momentProf.Dr. Osman Shaalan Earthquake Engineering Dr. Tharwat Sakr
  15. 15. 1.1.2. EARTHQUAKE HAZARDS Thousands of tents are needed Food and water are needed Medical supplies are neededProf.Dr. Osman Shaalan Earthquake Engineering Dr. Tharwat Sakr
  16. 16. 1.1.3. COURSE LAYOUT1 ■ Introduction2 ■ Seismicity : Nature, Measures and Characteristics of Earthquakes3■ Methods of Earthquake Analysis of Structures y Time History Response Spectrum Equivalent Static Loads According to the Egyptian Code – UBC - IBC4■ Earthquake Design of Structures5■ P ti l and A hit t l C Practical d Architectural Considerations id ti
  17. 17. EARTHQUAKEENGINEERING 1.2. N Nature of f Earthquakes 1.2.1. Causes of Earthquakes 1.2.2. Faults 1.2.3. Earthquake Effects
  18. 18. 1.2.1. Causes of EarthquakesTectonic Earthquakesare caused by the sudden dislocation of large rock masses alonggeological faults within the earths crust. The Earth is formed ofseveral l l layers that h h have very diffdifferent physical and chemical h i l d h i lproperties. The outer layer, which averages about 70 kilometersin thickness, consists of about a dozen large, irregularly shapedplates that slide over under and past each other on top of the over,partly molten inner layer .Most earthquakes occur at theboundaries where the plates meet . Plate Tectonic Interactions Flash movieDr. Osman Shalan Dr. Tharwat Sakr
  19. 19. 1.2.1. Causes of EarthquakesVolcanic Earthquakes Earthquakes that can be reasonably associated with volcanoes are relatively rare and fall into three categories: (i) volcanic explosions, (ii) shallow earthquakes from magma movements, and (iii) sympathetic tectonic earthquakes Dr. Osman Shalan Dr. Tharwat Sakr
  20. 20. 1.2.1. Causes of EarthquakesExplosions Earthquakes may be produced q y pby the undergrounddetonation of chemical ornuclear devices When a devices.nuclear device is detonated ina borehole underground,enormous nuclear energy isreleased .Dr. Osman Shalan Dr. Tharwat Sakr
  21. 21. 1.2.1. Causes of EarthquakesCollapse Earthquakes Collapse earthquakes are small earthquakes occur in regions of underground caverns and mines. The immediate cause of ground shaking is the sudden collapse of the roof g g p of the mine or cavern. Dr. Osman Shalan Dr. Tharwat Sakr
  22. 22. 1.2.1. Causes of EarthquakesLarge Reservoir-induced Earthquakes Reservoir- The idea that earthquakes might be triggered by impounding q g gg y p g surface water is not new. The first detailed evidence of such an effect came with the filling of Lake Mead behind Hoover Dam (height 221 m. After impounding began , reports of local shaking became prevalent. b l t Dr. Osman Shalan Dr. Tharwat Sakr
  23. 23. 1.2.1. Causes of EarthquakesTsunamiUnderwater earthquakes,volcanoes, or landslidescan produce a tsunami ortidal wave. This wave cantravel very rapidlythousands of miles acrossthe ocean. In deep waterthe tsunami may only raisethe ocean level by a fewcentimeters,centimeters hardly enoughto notice. But as itapproaches land, theshallower water causes thewave to build in height toas much as 10-20 metersor more and suddenlyflood coastal areas Dr. Osman Shalan Dr. Tharwat Sakr
  24. 24. 1.2.2. FaultsDefinition A fault is a fracture within some particular rocky mass within the earths crust. Th d h and h The depth d length of faults vary greatly. Faults may range in length from few meters to many kilometers and are drawn on a geological map as continuous or broken lines. Earthquakes are caused by q y active faults, that is, faults along faults which the two sides of the fracture move with respect to each other. S an earthquake i h th So, th k is caused by the sudden movement of the two sides of a fault with respect to another . Dr. Osman Shalan Dr. Tharwat Sakr
  25. 25. 1.2.2. FaultsActive FaultsProf.Dr. Osman Shaalan Dr. Tharwat Sakr
  26. 26. 1.2.2. FaultsTectonic Plates Dr. Osman Shalan Dr. Tharwat Sakr
  27. 27. 1.2.2. Faults Types of Faults a) Normal faults These occur in response to pulling or tension: the overlying bl k i h l i block moves down the dip of the fault plane. movie b) Thrust (reverse) faults These occur in response to squeezing or compression: the overlying block moves up the dip y g p p of the fault plane. movie c) Strike‐slip (lateral) faults Strike‐ These occur in response to either type of stress: th bl k move t f t the blocks horizontally past one another . movieProf.Dr. Osman Shaalan Earthquake Engineering Dr. Tharwat Sakr
  28. 28. 1.2.2. Faults Earthquake Generation (Theory of Elastic Rebound Rebound) Elastic Rebound Model of Earthquake Elastic Rebound Model of Earthquake movie Prof.Dr. Osman Shaalan Earthquake Engineering Dr. Tharwat Sakr
  29. 29. 1.2.2. Faults Earthquake Focus The point on the fault where rupture initiates is referred to as the f h focus or h hypocentert of an earthquake. The hypocenter of an earthquake is described by q y its depth in kilometers, its map location in latitude and The term epicenter is the longitude, its date and time point on the earth’s surface earth s of occurrence, and i f d its directly above the magnitude hypocenterProf. Dr. Osman Shaalan Earthquake Engineering Dr. Tharwat Sak
  30. 30. 1.2.3. Earthquake Effects How do Earthquakes affect Structures? q 1‐ By inertial forces generated b severe d by ground shaking Overturning collapse of a high-rise building Chi Chi Chi-Chi earthquake, Taiwan, September 20, 1999, Magnitude 7.6Prof.Dr. Osman Shaalan Earthquake Engineering Dr. Tharwat Sakr
  31. 31. 1.2.3. Earthquake Effects How do Earthquakes affect Structures? q 2. By earthquake‐ induced fires:  i d d fi Damage caused by the earthquake induced fires Hanshin (Kobe) earthquake, January 17, 1995, Japan, Magnitude 6.9Prof.Dr. Osman Shaalan Earthquake Engineering Dr. Tharwat Sakr
  32. 32. 1.2.3. Earthquake Effects How do Earthquakes affect Structures? q 3. By changing the physical properties of the foundation soils such as Liquefaction: Overturning due to liquefaction g q Damage due to liquefaction Kocaeli earthquake, Turkey, 1999, Magnitude 7.4 1964 Niigata, Japan, earthquake.Prof.Dr. Osman Shaalan Earthquake Engineering Dr. Tharwat Sakr
  33. 33. 1.2.3. Earthquake Effects How do Earthquakes affect Structures? q 4. By direct fault displacement at the site of a structure:Prof.Dr. Osman Shaalan Earthquake Engineering Dr. Tharwat Sakr
  34. 34. 1.2.3. Earthquake Effects How do Earthquakes affect Structures? q 5. By landslides, or other movement:Prof.Dr. Osman Shaalan Earthquake Engineering Dr. Tharwat Sakr
  35. 35. 1.2.3. Earthquake Effects How do Earthquakes affect Structures? q 6. By seismic sea waves (tsunamis) or fluid motions in reservoirs and lakes (seiches):Prof.Dr. Osman Shaalan Earthquake Engineering Dr. Tharwat Sakr
  36. 36. 1.2. Nature of EarthquakesQuestions (refer to Project Group Pageِ Assignment (1)) Pageِ (1Prof. Dr. Osman Shaalan Earthquake Engineering Dr. Tharwat Sakr
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