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Tredppt Tredppt Presentation Transcript

  • Ethics, Religion & The Meaning of Life
    • Ang, Calzado, Dauden, Eugenio, Gaerlan, Terrenal
  • krisha
  • The Existence of God and the Problem of Evil (Reg)
    • long and complex history
    • differing views
    • various arguments
    • Questions on the existence of God + Questions on the basis of ethics = Questions on the ‘problem of evil’
  • EUTHYPHRO (anika)
    • Characteristic socratic dialogue
    • takes its title from the name of a man who is supposedly an expert on religion whom Socrates beings to question
    • claims that he is an expert on what divine law does and does not require
  • Socrates’ Arguments:
    • Only what ALL gods agree on can be considered a guide to god conduct
    • Is something good because God approves of it or does he approve of something because it is good?
    • If God is perfect and lacks nothing, how can we serve him?
    • The concept of good or bad is dependent on the will of God (wholly arbitrary) or there is no room for any appeal to God (not wholly arbitrary)
    • We start to search for answers to ground the claims of morality.
    • Form of the problem: hypothesis (a loving god exists) and evidence (there is evil in the world.) Experience of suffering and evil make people look to a higher power. Therefore evidence brings about hypothesis.
    • The form of life religion recommends is distinctive.
  • The Myth of Sisyphus (sarah)
    • Philosophers have found it difficult to determine what is meant by the ‘meaning’ in the ‘meaning of life.’
    • “ Does life have a meaning?” is a question the meaningfulness of which may itself be doubted.
    • One useful way of exploring these issues involve lies in thinking about the story of Sisyphus
      • **Story of Sisyphus - a classical myth made famous by Albert Camus’ existentialist essay about the meaning of human life. “The Myth of Sisyphus”
    • Sisyphus’ life
    • According to Camus and Taylor
  • The Problem of Religious Knowledge (3sa)
    • “If God does exist, can we ever know for certain what his will for us is?
    • Boils down to the question: “Which religion?”
  • The Religious perspective
    • Camus, Taylor and Nagel do not believe that Religion can provide a perspective w/in which we might hope to combine both objective meaning & subjective value.
  • The Secret of Religious Enlightenment
    • Suppression of desire
    • A Systematic elimination of our attachments to the world
    • Moshka
      • Thinks of human beings as
      • Buddhist Ideal
      • Discounts subjective values
    • Western Minds: Religious faith as belief and hope that we will be saved from eternal death and live forever.
    • Eastern Religions: Other things being equal, we do live forever and it is from this dreadful fate that we must look to spiritually save us.
  • Judaism ,Christianity & Islam
    • Common roots
      • religion of the ancient israelites
      • essence of Judaism is found in the Hebrew scriptures
  • Before Creation
    • everything was ‘without form and void’
    • test of adequacy is whether God regards them as good from the point of view of his purposes
    • God creates good
  • “In the image of God”
    • Thus man is able to appreciate & use good things created
    • Creation is followed by the fall
      • unanimity between God and man
      • possibility of divergence between..
  • The 3 Difficulties Reconsidered
    • The ultimate aim of all human thoughts and activities
      • return
      • different light on the problem of evil
      • pain and death
      • calamitous events
      • overcoming the evil
    • Problem of religious knowledge = Euthyphro dilemma
    • Appeal to a religious perspective
    • Living the good life
    • “The Divine Economy”
  • Where true joys are to be found (Aimee)
    • Religion relieves tension between objective meaning and subjective value
    • divine purpose -> explanation
      • fulfillment of God’s purpose = cooperation/willingness of humans
        • divergence of freedom from God’s ordination
  • Satisfactory World
    • Obedience or to follow the divinely prescribed order
    • Find the greatest subjective value in the divine purpose
    • Service of God: Perfect freedom
  • Religious Subservience
    • “Submission”
    • ‘Muslim’ -> Follows the straight path
    • Christian Religious aspiration
  • Difficulties/Problems unresolved by religion
    • Religious thought and language
      • Religious insight/theorizing Metaphysical Theorizing
        • Obscurum per obscurius
      • Metaphysical Theorizing
        • Example: God-World Relationship
  • Religious belief: Intellectual inquiry and feeling/experience
    • Experience gives life to religious ideas
    • History of Religion (including Christianity) -> hostility to intellectual criticism
  • How are the egoistic demands of personal happiness and the altruistic demands of morality to be squared?
    • Is there a good life?
    • Good life: morally virtuous life or personally happy one?
    • Religious ideas after resolution
      • Abstruse & perplexed idea -> Illumination
    • Life with dichotomy
      • Attention to personal concerns with some attention to moral demands
      • Mode of existence: unsatisfactory
        • Philosophical POV - incoherence
    • Opt for one conception or the other
      • Kant: pure practical reason
      • Objection: not wholly satisfactory
    • Critical observation of philosophy