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    • Ethics, Religion & The Meaning of Life
      • Ang, Calzado, Dauden, Eugenio, Gaerlan, Terrenal
    • krisha
    • The Existence of God and the Problem of Evil (Reg)
      • long and complex history
      • differing views
      • various arguments
      • Questions on the existence of God + Questions on the basis of ethics = Questions on the ‘problem of evil’
    • EUTHYPHRO (anika)
      • Characteristic socratic dialogue
      • takes its title from the name of a man who is supposedly an expert on religion whom Socrates beings to question
      • claims that he is an expert on what divine law does and does not require
    • Socrates’ Arguments:
      • Only what ALL gods agree on can be considered a guide to god conduct
      • Is something good because God approves of it or does he approve of something because it is good?
      • If God is perfect and lacks nothing, how can we serve him?
      • The concept of good or bad is dependent on the will of God (wholly arbitrary) or there is no room for any appeal to God (not wholly arbitrary)
      • We start to search for answers to ground the claims of morality.
      • Form of the problem: hypothesis (a loving god exists) and evidence (there is evil in the world.) Experience of suffering and evil make people look to a higher power. Therefore evidence brings about hypothesis.
      • The form of life religion recommends is distinctive.
    • The Myth of Sisyphus (sarah)
      • Philosophers have found it difficult to determine what is meant by the ‘meaning’ in the ‘meaning of life.’
      • “ Does life have a meaning?” is a question the meaningfulness of which may itself be doubted.
      • One useful way of exploring these issues involve lies in thinking about the story of Sisyphus
        • **Story of Sisyphus - a classical myth made famous by Albert Camus’ existentialist essay about the meaning of human life. “The Myth of Sisyphus”
      • Sisyphus’ life
      • According to Camus and Taylor
    • The Problem of Religious Knowledge (3sa)
      • “If God does exist, can we ever know for certain what his will for us is?
      • Boils down to the question: “Which religion?”
    • The Religious perspective
      • Camus, Taylor and Nagel do not believe that Religion can provide a perspective w/in which we might hope to combine both objective meaning & subjective value.
    • The Secret of Religious Enlightenment
      • Suppression of desire
      • A Systematic elimination of our attachments to the world
      • Moshka
        • Thinks of human beings as
        • Buddhist Ideal
        • Discounts subjective values
      • Western Minds: Religious faith as belief and hope that we will be saved from eternal death and live forever.
      • Eastern Religions: Other things being equal, we do live forever and it is from this dreadful fate that we must look to spiritually save us.
    • Judaism ,Christianity & Islam
      • Common roots
        • religion of the ancient israelites
        • essence of Judaism is found in the Hebrew scriptures
    • Before Creation
      • everything was ‘without form and void’
      • test of adequacy is whether God regards them as good from the point of view of his purposes
      • God creates good
    • “In the image of God”
      • Thus man is able to appreciate & use good things created
      • Creation is followed by the fall
        • unanimity between God and man
        • possibility of divergence between..
    • The 3 Difficulties Reconsidered
      • The ultimate aim of all human thoughts and activities
        • return
        • different light on the problem of evil
        • pain and death
        • calamitous events
        • overcoming the evil
      • Problem of religious knowledge = Euthyphro dilemma
      • Appeal to a religious perspective
      • Living the good life
      • “The Divine Economy”
    • Where true joys are to be found (Aimee)
      • Religion relieves tension between objective meaning and subjective value
      • divine purpose -> explanation
        • fulfillment of God’s purpose = cooperation/willingness of humans
          • divergence of freedom from God’s ordination
    • Satisfactory World
      • Obedience or to follow the divinely prescribed order
      • Find the greatest subjective value in the divine purpose
      • Service of God: Perfect freedom
    • Religious Subservience
      • “Submission”
      • ‘Muslim’ -> Follows the straight path
      • Christian Religious aspiration
    • Difficulties/Problems unresolved by religion
      • Religious thought and language
        • Religious insight/theorizing Metaphysical Theorizing
          • Obscurum per obscurius
        • Metaphysical Theorizing
          • Example: God-World Relationship
    • Religious belief: Intellectual inquiry and feeling/experience
      • Experience gives life to religious ideas
      • History of Religion (including Christianity) -> hostility to intellectual criticism
    • How are the egoistic demands of personal happiness and the altruistic demands of morality to be squared?
      • Is there a good life?
      • Good life: morally virtuous life or personally happy one?
      • Religious ideas after resolution
        • Abstruse & perplexed idea -> Illumination
      • Life with dichotomy
        • Attention to personal concerns with some attention to moral demands
        • Mode of existence: unsatisfactory
          • Philosophical POV - incoherence
      • Opt for one conception or the other
        • Kant: pure practical reason
        • Objection: not wholly satisfactory
      • Critical observation of philosophy