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Ayurvedic anatomy of  Gastero intestinal Tract
 

Ayurvedic anatomy of Gastero intestinal Tract

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trying to explain the Anatomy of GIT on the basis of Ayurveda

trying to explain the Anatomy of GIT on the basis of Ayurveda

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    Ayurvedic anatomy of  Gastero intestinal Tract Ayurvedic anatomy of Gastero intestinal Tract Presentation Transcript

    • AYURVEDIC ANATOMY OF GIT PRESENTER DR. THRIJIL KRISHNAN E M DEPT. OF SHAREERA RACHANA GUIDE DR. UMA B GOPAL ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR DEPT. OF SHAREERA RACHANA
    • Contents •Introduction •Definition of GIT •Development of GIT •Structures including under the heading GIT •Concept of Kostanga •Concept of Asaya •Conclusion •References
    • GIT • The human gastrointestinal tract is the stomach and intestine, sometimes including all the structures from the mouth to the anus. • The "digestive system" is a broader term that includes other structures, including the accessory organs of digestion • Synonym : Alimentary tract or Alimentary canal
    • The digestive system perform six basic functions 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Ingestion Secretion Mixing and propulsion Digestion Absorption Defecation 5
    • • In an adult male human, the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is 5 -7 metres long in a live subject • Up to 7-9 metres without the effect of muscle tone, and consists of the upper and lower GI tracts. 6
    • HUMAN GASTRO INTESTINAL TRACT 7
    • Upper GIT – Oral cavity – Pharynx – Oesophagus Lower GIT – Stomach – Small intestine – Large intestine Accessory digestive organs – – – – – – Teeth Tongue Salivary glands Liver Gall bladder Pancreas 8
    •  PRIMITIVE GUT – 14TH Day. *Differentiation of primitive gut into Foregut, Midgut Hind gut - 3RD Week  FOREGUT *Stomatodeum and oral membrane. *Rupture during 4th week to communicate with the exterior through the oral cavity *Pharynx, Esophagus, Stomach & A part of Duodenum 9
    • MID GUT *Opens into the yolk sac – 5th week *After 5th week, yolk sac constricts, detaches from midgut & midgut seals. *Remaining part of duodenum, jejunum, ileum, portion of large intestine. HIND GUT *Proctodaeum & Cloacal membrane– rupture & communicate with exterior through anus. *Remaining part of the large intestine 10
    • 11
    • • LAYERS OF THE GI TRACT 1.MUCOSA EPITHELIUM THE LAMINA PROPRIA MUSCULARIS MUCOSA 2.SUBMUCOSA 3.MUSCULAR 4.SEROSA 12
    • Introduction To Ayurvedic Anatomy • Su Su 3/17 • • Su. Sha. 5 /3 13
    • DESCRIPTIONS OF BODY PARTS BY BHAVAMISRA • • • • • • • • • Instead of Shadanga - Ashtanga 1.Shira 2.Greeva 3.Bahu Yugalam 4.Vaksha 5.Udaram 6. Parswadwayam 7.Prishtavamsam & Prishtam 8. 2 Sakthi 14
    • DEVELOPMENT OF ORGANS ACC. TO AYURVEDA Su Sha 4 /23 15
    • DEVELOPMENT ACC. TO AYURVEDA…… • • • • • Su Sha. 4/26-30 16
    • KOSHTA AND ASAYA 17
    • Importance of koshta • MüÉå¸ - MÑüwÉç AÉuÉUhÉå • mÉÑÇÍxÉ MüÉå¸ÉåÅliÉeÉïPûUÇ…| • MÑüwrÉiÉå | MÑüwÉÌlÉwMüwÉåï. AqÉUMüÉåwÉ-3/3/40 • Maha srothas • Shareera madhya • Mahanimna • Amasaya • Pakwasaya • Abhyantara rogamarga • cha.soo. 11/48 Acc to Susrutha • xjÉÉlÉÉÌlÉ AÉqÉÎalÉmÉYuÉÉlÉÉÇ qÉÔ§ÉxrÉ ÂÍkÉUxrÉ cÉ| WØûSÒhQÒûMüÈ TÑümmÉÑxÉ¶É MüÉå· CirÉÍpÉkÉÏrÉiÉå|| su.chi 2/9 18
    • STRUCTURES MENTIONED IN CLASSICS RELATED TO KOSTA Mandhyamanga 117 types of Asthi – Su Sha. 5 59 types of kostagatha asthi sandhi explainedSu sha 5 230 types of snayu explained by Susrutha • 66 type of mamsa pesi in kosta guda = 3 One among the vrana adhisthana is kosta 19
    • Kostangas according to different acharyas • mÉgcÉSvÉ MüÉå·ÉXçaÉÉÌlÉ; iɱiÉÉ-lÉÉÍpɶÉ, ¾ÕûSrÉÇ cÉ, YsÉÉåqÉ cÉ, rÉM×üccÉ, msÉÏWûÉ cÉ, uÉ×YMüÉæ cÉ, oÉÎxiɶÉç, mÉÑUÏwÉÉkÉÉU¶É, AÉqÉÉvÉrɶÉ, mÉYuÉÉvÉrÉ¶É E¨ÉUaÉÑSÇ cÉ, AkÉUaÉÑSÇ cÉ, ¤ÉÑSìÉl§ÉÇ cÉ, xjÉÔsÉÉl§ÉÇ cÉ, uÉmÉÉuÉWûlÉÇ cÉåÌiÉ || cÉ.vÉÉ.7/10 • MüÉå·XçaÉÉÌlÉ ÎxjÉiÉÉlrÉåwÉÑ WØûSrÉÇ YsÉÉåqÉ TÑümmÉÑxÉqÉç| rÉM×üimsÉÏWûÉåhQÒûMüÇ uÉÚMüÉæ 20
    • Kostangas according to different acharyas CHARAKA SUSRUTHA ASTANGA HRIDAYAM ASTANGA SANGRAHAM NABHI UTTARAGUDHA AMASAYA HRIDAYAM HRIDAYA HRIDAYA ADHARAGUDHA AGNI ASAYA KLOMA KLOMA KLOMA KUSHDRANTHRAM PAKWASAYA PHUPHUSA PHUPPUSA YAKRITH STOOLANDRAM MOOTRASAYA YAKRITH YAKRITH PLEEHA VAPAVAHANAM RUDHIRASAYA PLEEHA PLEEHA VRIKKA HRIDAYAM UNDUKAM UNDUKA VASTHI UNDUKAM VRIKKAs VRIKKA PUREESHADARA PHUPPUSAM NABHI ANTHRA AMASAYA DIMBHA PAKWASAYA ANTHRA PAYU 21
    • KOSTA BHINNA 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. MOORCHA HRIDPARSWA VEDANA JWARA DAHA TRID ADMANAM BHAKTHASYA ANABHUNANDANAM SWASA SWEDA AKSHIRAKTHATHA ASASYA LOHAGANDHATWAM GATRA VIGANTHADA Su. Chi 2/13-15 22
    • KOSHTA BHEDAM • 1. KLISHTANDRAM • 2. CHINNANTHRAM 23
    • Concept of Ashaya in Ayurveda • Adhistana • ………… 24
    • Asayas acc to different Acharyas Susrutha Astanga sangraha sarangadhara 1 Raktasaya Rakthasaya Jeevarakthasaya 2 Sleshmasaya Kaphasaya Sleshmasaya 3 Amasaya Amasaya Amasaya 4 Pittasaya Pittasaya Agniyasaya 5 Pakwasaya Pakwasaya Malasaya 6 Vatasaya Vatasaya Pavanasaya 7 Mootrasaya Mootrasaya mootrasaya 25
    • DESCRIPTION OF ORGANS RELATED TO GIT ACCORDING TO AYURVEDA 26
    • • Mukha: • oshta,ganda,dantha,danthamool, jihwa,talu ,gala & sarvasyam all together constitute the Mukha, which helps in annagrahana, charvana, kledana, swalpa pachana Ah. Utta. 21/65 • 2 Srikkani – charaka Susruth measurement • Mukha greevam – 24 anguli – • Mukhaayamam – 12 Anguli Su. Soo. 35 27
    • Ostha: • The pair of lips which the muscular organs partially covered with skin and partially by mucous layer helps in the articulation of the speech and also securing the food materials in the mouth during mastication by mutual fastening. 2 oshta explained by Acharya charaka- Angapratyanga vivarana 2 mamsa pesi present in oshta Ganda kapala type of Asthi is seen 2 ganda – charaka Angapratyanga vivarana 2 type Asthi present- susrutha Shareera 5 1 Asthi sandhi – Susrutha Shareera 5 2 mamsa pesi present 28
    • • • • • • Ulookhala type of Asthi sandhi – Su • Length of Dasana 2 Angula • 12 snayus in Uttara and adhara dantha mamsam 29
    • • • • • • • • • • Kapha stanam jihwa Shad rasam importance 1 sevani is present in Jihva 1 mamsa pesi present in Jihva – su 5 types of snayu – acc to AS 16 types of siras - AS . Sharee 6/8 30
    • TALU • Talu and cloma are the moolastana of udakavaha srothas • Manso stanam above the thalu according to Bhela • Kapala type of asthi seen • 1 talu – Charaka Angapratyanga vivarana • 2 asthi- charaka in the contest of Asthi sankhya • 2 mamsa pesi present GALA OR KANTA kanta one among the Dasapranayathana 4 types of Kanta nadi explained by susrutha 1 mamsa pesi present 31
    • Asthi Dhamani Mamsa peshi Asthi sandhi mukha Oshta 2 Ganda 2(Su) Danta 32 32 ( hanyo ulookhalani) Jihva Talu Gala 2 32 ( danta moola) 2 2 ( cha) 1 ( Su) 1 1 2 1 3 32
    • MAIN ANATOMICAL STRUCTURES FORMING GIT 33
    • AMASHAYA – Sushira type of snyau – End of pakwasaya, Amasaya and vasti Situated inbetween nabhi and sthana. ÌmɨÉxjÉÉlÉåvÉÑ AÉqÉÉvÉrÉ CÌiÉ AqÉÉvÉrÉÉã AkÉÉãpÉÉaÉÈ | vsÉãwqÉxjÉÉlÉåvÉÑ AÉqÉÉvÉrÉÈ AqÉÉvÉrÉÉãkuÉïpÉÉaÉÈ || cÉ¢üÈ, cÉ xÉÔ 20. 1.Urdhwa amashaya – kaphasthana – kledaka kapha. 2.Adhoamashaya – pittasthana- pachakapitta. 34
    • Urdhwa amashaya- kledaka kapha. Aharakledana. Annasanghata. Avastha pakam- madhuree bhutham Adhoamashaya 35
    • • Diseases in Amasaya – Jwara & chardhi – Atisara – Swasa – Kamala 36
    • Grahani • • Agi adistanam • Pitta dhara kala • Agni asayam 37
    • • 38
    • • • – 39
    • Summarize Grahani • • • • • • Above the nabhi Between pakwasaya and amasaya At the gate of pakwasaya Receptor of food Seat of Agni separates and digests the undigested food 40
    • Antra • Antra’s formed by Matruja bhava • Two types – Kshudrantram – Stoolandram • Su Sha 5/9 – 3.5 vyama - male – 3 vyama - female – Saragadhara openion antra is lined by Pureeshadharakala – Antra vridhi diseases explained.. – Anthra Pravesana Explain By Acharya – Rudrantram- ( BR) SHOCK- PARADA VASTHI 41
    • Unduka • • 42
    • • • • Pakwasayasta Raktam Sasoola Gauravam Nabhyo Adastaseetatwam Kheda: Raktasya Agama 43
    • • mÉYuÉÉqÉÉvÉrÉÉåqÉïkrÉå ÍxÉUÉ mÉëpÉuÉÉ, lÉÉÍpÉÈ, iɧÉÉÌmÉ xɱÉåqÉUhÉqÉç|| xÉÑ.vÉÉ.6/26 • lÉÉÍpÉ mÉëirÉXûaÉÉÈ A.xÉÇ.vÉÉ.5/1 • iÉxrÉÉliÉUåhÉ lÉprÉåxiÉÑ erÉÉåÌiÉÈ x lÉÇ kÉëÑuÉÇ xqÉ×iÉqÉç • lÉÉÍpÉÈ xÉuÉïÍxÉUÉhÉÉÇ xrÉÉSÉkÉÉUÈ | AÂhÉS¨É-A.WØû.vÉÉ 3/12 • lÉÉÍpÉxjÉÉ: mÉëÉÍhÉlÉÉqÉç mÉëÉhÉÉ: 44
    • Guda • • aÉÑSè Ì¢üQûÉrÉÉqÉç iÉ aÉÑ qÉsÉÉåixÉaÉåï || zÉoS MüsmÉSìÓqÉç aÉÑS + iÉ + aÉÑ - aÉÑS • The place for accommodation and elimination of the faeces. • According to Ayurveda Guda has been explained in many aspects like • • • • • • • • Pranayatana sadhya pranahara marma Kostanga mula sthana of purishavaha srothas martuja avayava bahirmukha srothas sthana of apana vata karmendriya 45
    • • 46
    • • 47
    • • According to sarangadhara • Total length of gudavali = 41/2 angula • • • • Pravahini – 1 ½ angula Visargini - 1 ½ angula Grahika - 1 angula Guda mukham – ½ angula 48
    • Charaka divided the Guda into two parts i,e Uttaraguda Adhara Guda According to Chakrapani Uttaraguda is the place where purisha is temporarily stored. Adharaguda is the place which helps in passing the purisha. 49
    • • According to Harita the situated apana vayu in its normal place does vishodhana of maladvara. This resided vayu creates opening in different directions, and the navadvaras are formed in the body and the guda is one among them. 50
    • Importance of guda marma • • • • Dasa pranayathana Mamsa marma / dhamani marma Sadyapranahara 4 angulam paramana Diseases Arsa Parikarthika Bhagandhara Guda Bramsam 51
    • ADDITIONAL ANATOMICAL STRUCTURES RELATED TO GIT 52
    • Concept of kala • MüsÉÉ ZÉsuÉÌmÉ xÉmiÉxÉÇpÉuÉÇÌiÉ kÉÉiuÉÉvÉrÉÉliÉUqÉrÉÉïSÉÈ | xÉÑ.vÉÉ. 4/4 • iuÉcÉÈ xÉmiÉÈ MüsÉÉÈ xÉmiÉWû……| xÉÑ.vÉÉ. 5/5 • rÉjÉÉ ÌWû xÉÉUÈ MüɸåwÉÑ ÍNû±qÉÉlÉåwÉÑ SØvrÉÇiÉå | iÉjÉÉ kÉÉiÉÑÌWûï qÉÉÇxÉåwÉÑ ÍNû±qÉÉlÉåwÉÑ SØvrÉÇiÉ || xÉÑ.vÉÉ. 4/5 • 53
    • FUNCTIONAL ENTITIES RELATED TO GIT 54
    • PACHAKA PITTA • 55
    • SAMANAVAYU • 56
    • KLEDAKA KAPHA • BODHAKA KAPHA 57
    • SROTHAS RELATED TO GIT – UDAKA VAHA SROTHAS – ANNAVAHA SROTHAS – PUREESHAVAHA SROTHAS 58
    • DISCUSSION ……. AYURVEDIC APPROCH MODERN APPROCH Kanthatdi Guda Taken As A Part Of GIT The human gastrointestinal tract is the stomach and intestine, sometimes including all the structures from the mouth to the anus With The help Of Bodhaka Kapha Digestion Starts Digestion of the food starting from the mouth itself with the help of salivary glands Annanadi reference is in Atreya Samhithaby Vaidyaka Kalpa Sindhu Oesophagus helps to move the food to the stomach region Amasaya is the place where food materials will be in the form of amavastha Stomach doing the function of receiving the food from oesophagus and passs in to the duodenal area Between the amasaya and pakwasaya Grahani is seen Connection between the stomach and small intestine is duodenum 59
    • Inside the Grahani seperation of digested All the chemical and mechanical phase of digestion are directed towards changing food and undigested food in to forms that can pass through the epithelial cells lining the mucosa into underlining blood and lymphatic vessels. From Grahani food is transferred to Pakwasaya From small intestine digested food materials passing to large intestine In Pakwasaya the Sthanaof Purishadhara Kala has a very close relation with other viscera like Antra The Mala Vibhajan process is carried out Large intestine starting from the iliocecal junction. Inside the large intestine water absorpttion and fecal formation starts Last part of stoolantra is connected with guda 1. Uttara guda 2. Adhara guda Fecal matter is temporarily stored in the Sigmoid colon defecation urge is due to the mass peristalsis and the stool is passed to the rectum Made of circular muscles Surrounds 3 cm of anal canal Thickness : 2-5 mm Ends at Hiltons line When exposed looks pearly white in colour Inside the guda three valis present ( mamsa pesi) 60
    • CONCLUSION • According to Ayurveda, the organs coming under the spectrum of GIT can be considered from mukha to guda . • Predominant structure in these parts are two nimna region ie, Amasaya and Pakwasaya. • GIT can be called as the mahasrothas. • GIT includes the structures which have close relationship with Pureeshavaha, Annavaha & Udakavaha srothas • It can be consider as the abhyantara rogamarga • Structurally demarcation can be well undestood in the context of Dosha and Vipaka • Anatomy of GIT will be better understood under the headings of Kosta & Asaya 61
    • PHYSIOLOGY 62
    • ARTICLE REVIEW • A critical review of ayurvedic concept of Agnimandhya by Singh Akilesh Kumar • Lectures-the anatomy of the intestinal canal and peritoneum in man. Frederick treves, • A Body Of Knowledge: TheWellcome Ayurvedic Anatomical Man And His Sanskrit Context by Dominik Wujastyk • Concepts of Human Physiology in Ayurveda by Kishor Patwardhan • Concept of Pitta by Surama Mishra • Concept of Grhani by Dr.KSR Prasad • Clinical importance of Pittadhara Kala Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad • Revalidation Of The Functions Of Ranjakapitta,Dr Sudha Gopal 63
    • REFERENCES • Acharya J T. Charaka Samhita Ayurveda Deepika commentary of ChakrapaniDatta. Reprint ed. Varanasi (India): Chaukhambha orientalia ; 2011 • Acharya Y T. Sushruta Samhita with Nibhandhasangraha commentary of Dalhanacharya and Nyayachandrika Panjika of Sri Gayadasacharya on Nidanasthana. Reprinted ed. Varanasi (India): Chaukambha Sankrit Sansthan; 2011 • Singh Inderbir ,Pal GP. Human Embryology, 8th ed.Reprint.Newdelhi: Macmillan Publishers India ltd;2010 • WilliamsMM, Sanskrit – English dictionary. Motilalbanarasi das publications delhi 1999 • Ayurvedalankar SreeSathyapala Bhishakacharya .Kasyapasamhitha Vridhajeevakeeyam ThandramMaharshiMarichaKasyapanirdhishtam .Reprinted ed. Varanasi: Choukambha Sanskrit Samsthan; 2009 • Paradakara HSS. Ashtanga Hrudayam with Sarvanga Sundaram of Arunadatta and Ayurveda Rasayana of Hemadri.9 th ed. Varanasi (india): Chaukumbha Sanskrit Orientalia;2005 64