Hughes, photographed by Carl Van Vechten in 1936
Born February 1, 1902
Died May 22, 1967 (aged 65)
New York City, New York,
Occupation poet, columnist, dramatist, essayist, lyricist, novelist
Ethnicity African American, White American and Native American
Ancestry and childhood
Both of Hughes' paternal and maternal great-grandmothers were African-American, his
maternal great-grandfather was white and of Scottish descent. A paternal greatgrandfather was of European Jewish descent. Hughes's maternal grandmother Mary
Patterson was of African-American, French, English and Native American descent. One
of the first women to attend Oberlin College, she first married Lewis Sheridan Leary,
also of mixed race. Lewis Sheridan Leary subsequently joined John Brown's Raid on
Harper's Ferry in 1859 and died from his wounds.
In 1869 the widow Mary Patterson Leary married again, into the elite, politically active
Langston family. Her second husband was Charles Henry Langston, of African
American, Native American, and Euro-American ancestry. He and his younger brother
John Mercer Langston worked for the abolitionist cause and helped lead the Ohio AntiSlavery Society in 1858. Charles Langston later moved to Kansas, where he was active
as an educator and activist for voting and rights for African Americans Charles and
Mary's daughter Caroline was the mother of Langston Hughes.
Langston Hughes was born in Joplin, Missouri, the second child of school teacher
Carrie (Caroline) Mercer Langston and James Nathaniel Hughes (1871–1934).
Langston Hughes grew up in a series of Midwestern small towns.
Hughes's father left his family and later divorced Carrie, going to Cuba, and then Mexico,
seeking to escape the enduring racism in the United States. After the separation of his
parents, while his mother travelled seeking employment, young Langston Hughes was
raised mainly by his maternal grandmother, Mary Patterson Langston, in Lawrence,
Kansas. Through the black American oral tradition and drawing from the activist
experiences of her generation, Mary Langston instilled in the young Langston Hughes a
lasting sense of racial pride. He spent most of his childhood in Lawrence, Kansas. After
the death of his grandmother, he went to live with family friends, James and Mary Reed,
for two years. Because of the unstable early life, his childhood was not an entirely
happy one, but it strongly influenced the poet he would become. Later, Hughes lived
again with his mother Carrie in Lincoln, Illinois. She had remarried when he was still an
adolescent, and eventually they lived in Cleveland, Ohio, where he attended high school.
The Hughes' home in Cleveland was sold in foreclosure in 1918; the 2.5-story, woodframe house on the city's east side was sold at a sheriff's auction in February for
While in grammar school in Lincoln, Hughes was elected class poet. Hughes stated that
in retrospect he thought it was because of the stereotype that African Americans have
rhythm. "I was a victim of a stereotype. There were only two of us Negro kids in the
whole class and our English teacher was always stressing the importance of rhythm in
poetry. Well, everyone knows, except us, that all Negroes have rhythm, so they elected
me as class poet." During high school in Cleveland, Ohio, he wrote for the school
newspaper, edited the yearbook, and began to write his first short stories, poetry, and
dramatic plays. His first piece of jazz poetry, "When Sue Wears Red", was written while
he was in high school. It was during this time that he discovered his love of books.
Relationship with father
Hughes had a very poor relationship with his father. He lived with his father in Mexico
for a brief period in 1919. Upon graduating from high school in June 1920, Hughes
returned to Mexico to live with his father, hoping to convince him to support Langston's
plan to attend Columbia University. Hughes later said that, prior to arriving in Mexico: "I
had been thinking about my father and his strange dislike of his own people. I didn't
understand it, because I was a Negro, and I liked Negroes very much." Initially, his
father had hoped for Hughes to attend a university abroad, and to study for a career in
engineering. On these grounds, he was willing to provide financial assistance to his son
but did not support his desire to be a writer. Eventually, Hughes and his father came to
a compromise: Hughes would study engineering, so long as he could attend Columbia.
His tuition provided; Hughes left his father after more than a year. While at Columbia in
1921, Hughes managed to maintain a B+ grade average. He left in 1922 because of
racial prejudice, and his interests revolved more around the neighbourhood of Harlem
than his studies, though he continued writing poetry.
Hughes worked various odd jobs, before serving a brief tenure as a crewman aboard
the S.S. Malone in 1923, spending six months traveling to West Africa and Europe. In
Europe, Hughes left the S.S. Malone for a temporary stay in Paris.
During his time in England in the early 1920s, Hughes became part of the black
expatriate community. In November 1924, Hughes returned to the U. S. to live with his
mother in Washington, D.C. Hughes worked at various odd jobs before gaining a whitecollar job in 1925 as a personal assistant to the historian Carter G. Woodson at the
Association for the Study of African American Life and History. As the work demands
limited his time for writing, Hughes quit the position to work as a busboy at the
Wardman Park Hotel. There he encountered the poet Vachel Lindsay, with whom he
shared some poems. Impressed with the poems, Lindsay publicized his discovery of a
new black poet. By this time, Hughes's earlier work had been published in magazines
and was about to be collected into his first book of poetry.
The following year, Hughes enrolled in Lincoln University, a historically black university
in Chester County, Pennsylvania. He joined the Omega Psi Phi fraternity. Thurgood
Marshall, who later became an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United
States, was an alumnus and classmate of Langston Hughes during his undergraduate
studies at Lincoln University.
After Hughes earned a B.A. degree from Lincoln University in 1929, he returned to New
York. Except for travels to the Soviet Union and parts of the Caribbean, Hughes lived in
Harlem as his primary home for the remainder of his life. During the 1930s, Hughes
became a resident of Westfield, New Jersey.
Some academics and biographers today believe that Hughes was homosexual and
included homosexual codes in many of his poems, similar in manner to Walt Whitman.
Hughes has cited him as an influence on his poetry. Hughes's story "Blessed
Assurance" deals with a father's anger over his son's effeminacy and "queerness".To
retain the respect and support of black churches and organizations and avoid
exacerbating his precarious financial situation, Hughes remained closeted.
Arnold Rampersad, the primary biographer of Hughes, determined that Hughes
exhibited a preference for other African-American men in his work and life. However,
Rampersad denies Hughes's homosexuality in his biography. Rampersad concludes
that Hughes was probably asexual and passive in his sexual relationships. He did,
however show a respect and love for his fellow black man (and woman). Other scholars
argue for Hughes's homosexuality: his love of black men is evidenced in a number of
reported unpublished poems to an alleged black male lover
On May 22, 1967, Hughes died from complications after abdominal surgery, related to
prostate cancer, at the age of 65. His ashes are interred beneath a floor medallion in the
middle of the foyer in the Arthur Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture in
Harlem. It is the entrance to an auditorium named for him. The design on the floor
covering his ashes is an African cosmogram titled Rivers. The title is taken from his
poem, "The Negro Speaks of Rivers". Within the center of the cosmogram, above his
ashes, is the line: "My soul has grown deep like the rivers".
First published in The Crisis in 1921, "The Negro Speaks of Rivers", which became
Hughes's signature poem, was collected in his first book of poetry The Weary Blues
(1926). Hughes's life and work were enormously influential during the Harlem
Renaissance of the 1920s, alongside those of his contemporaries, Zora Neale Hurston,
Wallace Thurman, Claude McKay, Countee Cullen, Richard Bruce Nugent, and Aaron
Douglas. Except for McKay, they worked together also to create the short-lived
magazine Fire!! Devoted to Younger Negro Artists.
Hughes and his contemporaries had different goals and aspirations than the black
middle class. They criticized men who were known as the midwives of the Harlem
Renaissance: W. E. B. Du Bois, Jessie Redmon Fauset, and Alain LeRoy Locke, as
being overly accommodating and assimilating eurocentric values and culture for social
equality. Hughes and his fellows tried to depict the "low-life" in their art, that is, the real
lives of blacks in the lower social-economic strata. They criticized the divisions and
prejudices based on skin color within the black community. Hughes wrote what would
be considered the manifesto published in The Nation in 1926,
"The Negro Artist and the Racial Mountain"
The younger Negro artists who create now intend to express
our individual dark-skinned selves without fear or shame.
If white people are pleased we are glad. If they are not,
it doesn't matter. We know we are beautiful. And ugly, too.
The tom-tom cries, and the tom-tom laughs. If colored people
are pleased we are glad. If they are not, their displeasure
doesn't matter either. We build our temples for tomorrow,
strong as we know how, and we stand on top of the mountain
free within ourselves.
Hughes was unashamedly black at a time when blackness was démodé. He stressed
the theme of "black is beautiful" as he explored the black human condition in a variety of
depths.His main concern was the uplift of his people, whose strengths, resiliency,
courage, and humor he wanted to record as part of the general American experience.
His poetry and fiction portrayed the lives of the working class blacks in America, lives he
portrayed as full of struggle, joy, laughter, and music. Permeating his work is pride in
the African-American identity and its diverse culture. "My seeking has been to explain
and illuminate the Negro condition in America and obliquely that of all human kind,"
Hughes is quoted as saying. He confronted racial stereotypes, protested social
conditions, and expanded African America’s image of itself; a ―people’s poet‖ who
sought to reeducate both audience and artist by lifting the theory of the black aesthetic
into reality. An expression of this is the poem "My People":
The night is beautiful,
So the faces of my people.
The stars are beautiful,
So the eyes of my people
Beautiful, also, is the sun.
Beautiful, also, are the souls of my people.
The Ways of White Folks by Langston Hughes, 1934
Hughes stressed a racial consciousness and cultural nationalism devoid of self-hate
that united people of African descent and Africa across the globe and encouraged pride
in their diverse black folk culture and black aesthetic. Hughes was one of the few black
writers of any consequence to champion racial consciousness as a source of inspiration
for black artists. His African-American race consciousness and cultural nationalism
would influence many foreign black writers, such as Jacques Roumain, Nicolás Guillén,
Léopold Sédar Senghor, and Aimé Césaire. Along with the works of Senghor, Césaire,
and other French-speaking writers of Africa and of African descent from the Caribbean,
such as René Maran from Martinique and Léon Damas from French Guiana in South
America, the works of Hughes helped to inspire the Négritude movement in France. A
radical black self-examination was emphasized in the face of European colonialism. In
addition to his example in social attitudes, Hughes had an important technical influence
by his emphasis on folk and jazz rhythms as the basis of his poetry of racial pride.
In 1930, his first novel, Not Without Laughter, won the Harmon Gold Medal for literature.
The protagonist of the story is a boy named Sandy, whose family must deal with a
variety of struggles due to their race and class, in addition to relating to one another.
Maxim Lieber became his literary agent, 1933–1945 and 1949-1950. Hughes's first
collection of short stories was published in 1934 with The Ways of White Folks. These
stories are a series of vignettes revealing the humorous and tragic interactions between
whites and blacks. Overall, they are marked by a general pessimism about race
relations, as well as a sardonic realism. He received a Guggenheim Fellowship in 1935.
The same year that Hughes established his theater troupe in Los Angeles, he realized
an ambition related to films by co-writing the screenplay for Way Down South. Hughes
believed his failure to gain more work in the lucrative movie trade was due to racial
discrimination within the industry.
In 1943, Hughes began publishing stories about a character he called Jesse B. Semple,
often referred to and spelled "Simple", the everyday black man in Harlem who offered
musings on topical issues of the day. Hughes seldom responded to requests to teach at
colleges. In 1947, Hughes taught at Atlanta University. Hughes, in 1949, spent three
months at University of Chicago Laboratory Schools as a visiting lecturer. He wrote
novels, short stories, plays, poetry, operas, essays, works for children, and, with the
encouragement of his best friend and writer, Arna Bontemps, and patron and friend,
Carl Van Vechten, two autobiographies, The Big Sea and I Wonder as I Wander, as well
as translating several works of literature into English.
During the mid−1950s and −1960s, Hughes' popularity among the younger generation
of black writers varied as his reputation increased worldwide. With the gradual
advancement toward racial integration, many black writers considered his writings of
black pride and its corresponding subject matter out of date. They considered him a
racial chauvinist. He found such writers, for instance, James Baldwin, lacking in such
pride, overintellectual in their work, and occasionally vulgar.
Hughes wanted young black writers to be objective about their race, but not to scorn it
or flee it. He understood the main points of the Black Power movement of the 1960s,
but believed that some of the younger black writers who supported it were too angry in
their work. Hughes's work Panther and the Lash, posthumously published in 1967, was
intended to show solidarity with these writers, but with more skill and devoid of the most
virulent anger and terse racial chauvinism some showed toward whites. Hughes
continued to have admirers among the larger younger generation of black writers, whom
he often helped by offering advice and introducing them to other influential persons in
the literature and publishing communities. This latter group, including Alice Walker,
whom Hughes discovered, looked upon Hughes as a hero and an example to be
emulated in degrees and tones within their own work. One of these young black writers
observed of Hughes, "Langston set a tone, a standard of brotherhood and friendship
and cooperation, for all of us to follow. You never got from him, 'I am the Negro writer,'
but only 'I am a Negro writer.' He never stopped thinking about the rest of us."
Hughes, like many black writers and artists of his time, was drawn to the promise of
Communism as an alternative to a segregated America. Many of his lesser-known
political writings have been collected in two volumes published by the University of
Missouri Press and reflect his attraction to Communism. An example is the poem "A
In 1932, Hughes became part of a group of black people who went to the Soviet Union
to make a film depicting the plight of African Americans in the United States. The film
was never made, but Hughes was given the opportunity to travel extensively through
the Soviet Union and to the Soviet-controlled regions in Central Asia, the latter parts
usually closed to Westerners. While there, he met African-American Robert Robinson,
living in Moscow and unable to leave. In Turkmenistan, Hughes met and befriended the
Hungarian polymath Arthur Koestler. Hughes also managed to travel to China and
Japan before returning to the States.
Hughes's poetry was frequently published in the CPUSA newspaper and he was
involved in initiatives supported by Communist organizations, such as the drive to free
the Scottsboro Boys. Partly as a show of support for the Republican faction during the
Spanish Civil War, in 1937 Hughes traveled to Spain as a correspondent for the
Baltimore Afro-American and other various African-American newspapers. Hughes was
also involved in other Communist-led organizations like the John Reed Clubs and the
League of Struggle for Negro Rights. He was more of a sympathizer than an active
participant. He signed a statement in 1938 supporting Joseph Stalin's purges and joined
the American Peace Mobilization in 1940 working to keep the U.S. from participating in
World War II.
Hughes initially did not favor black American involvement in the war because of the
persistence of discriminatory U.S. Jim Crow laws existing while blacks were encouraged
to fight against Fascism and the Axis powers. He came to support the war effort and
black American involvement in it after deciding that blacks would also be contributing to
their struggle for civil rights at home.
Hughes was accused of being a Communist by many on the political right, but he
always denied it. When asked why he never joined the Communist Party, he wrote "it
was based on strict discipline and the acceptance of directives that I, as a writer, did not
wish to accept." In 1953, he was called before the Senate Permanent Subcommittee on
Investigations led by Senator Joseph McCarthy. Following his appearance, he
distanced himself from Communism and was subsequently rebuked by some who had
previously supported him on the Radical Left. Over time, Hughes would distance himself
from his most radical poems. In 1959 his collection of Selected Poems was published.
He excluded his most controversial work from this group of poems.
Stage and film depictions
Hughes's life has been depicted in many stage and film productions. Hannibal of the
Alps by Michael Dinwiddie and Paper Armor by Eisa Davis are plays by AfricanAmerican playwrights which deal with Hughes's sexuality. In the 1989 film, Looking for
Langston, British filmmaker Isaac Julien claimed Hughes as a black gay icon — Julien
thought that Hughes' sexuality had historically been ignored or downplayed. In the film
Get on the Bus, directed by Spike Lee, a black gay character, played by Isaiah
Washington, invokes the name of Hughes and punches a homophobic character while
commenting, "This is for James Baldwin and Langston Hughes." Film portrayals of
Hughes include Gary LeRoi Gray's role as a teenage Hughes in the 2003 short subject
film Salvation (based on a portion of his autobiography The Big Sea) and Daniel Sunjata
as Hughes in the 2004 film Brother to Brother. Hughes' Dream Harlem, a documentary
by Jamal Joseph, examines Hughes' works and environment.
The Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library at Yale University holds the Langston
Hughes papers (1862–1980) and the Langston Hughes collection (1924–1969)
containing letters, manuscripts, personal items, photographs, clippings, artworks, and
objects that document the life of Hughes. The Langston Hughes Memorial Library on
the campus of Lincoln University, as well as at the James Weldon Johnson Collection
within the Yale University also hold archives of Hughes' work.
Honors and awards
1943, Lincoln University awarded Hughes an honorary Litt.D.
1960, the NAACP awarded Hughes the Spingarn Medal for distinguished
achievements by an African American.
1961 National Institute of Arts and Letters
1963 Howard University awarded Hughes an honorary doctorate.
1973, the first Langston Hughes Medal was awarded by the City College of New
1979, Langston Hughes Middle School was created in Reston, Virginia.
1981, New York City Landmark status was given to the Harlem home of
73°56′25.54″W / 40.8073111°N 73.9404278°W) by the New York City Landmarks
Preservation Commission and 127th St. was renamed Langston Hughes Place.
The Langston Hughes House was listed on the National Register of Historic
Places in 1982.
2002 The United States Postal Service added the image of Langston Hughes to
its Black Heritage series of postage stamps.
2002, scholar Molefi Kete Asante listed Langston Hughes on his list of 100
Greatest African Americans.
The Weary Blues, Knopf, 1926
Fine Clothes to the Jew, Knopf, 1927
The Negro Mother and Other Dramatic Recitations, 1931
Dear Lovely Death, 1931
The Dream Keeper and Other Poems, Knopf, 1932
Scottsboro Limited: Four Poems and a Play, Golden Stair Press, N.Y., 1932
Let America Be America Again, 1938
Shakespeare in Harlem, Knopf, 1942
Freedom's Plow, 1943
Fields of Wonder, Knopf, 1947
One-Way Ticket, 1949
Montage of a Dream Deferred, Holt, 1951
Selected Poems of Langston Hughes, 1958
Ask Your Mama: 12 Moods for Jazz, Hill & Wang, 1961
The Panther and the Lash: Poems of Our Times, 1967
The Collected Poems of Langston Hughes, Knopf, 1994
Novels and short story collections
Not Without Laughter. Knopf, 1930
The Ways of White Folks. Knopf, 1934
Simple Speaks His Mind. 1950
Laughing to Keep from Crying, Holt, 1952
Simple Takes a Wife. 1953
Sweet Flypaper of Life, photographs by Roy DeCarava. 1955
Tambourines to Glory 1958
The Best of Simple. 1961
Simple's Uncle Sam. 1965
Something in Common and Other Stories. Hill & Wang, 1963
Short Stories of Langston Hughes. Hill & Wang, 1996
The Big Sea. New York: Knopf, 1940
Famous American Negroes. 1954
I Wonder as I Wander. New York: Rinehart & Co., 1956
A Pictorial History of the Negro in America, with Milton Meltzer. 1956
Famous Negro Heroes of America. 1958
Fight for Freedom: The Story of the NAACP. 1962
Major plays by Hughes
Mule Bone, with Zora Neale Hurston. 1931
Mulatto. 1935 (renamed The Barrier, an opera, in 1950)
Troubled Island, with William Grant Still. 1936
Little Ham. 1936
Emperor of Haiti. 1936
Don't You Want to be Free? 1938
Street Scene, contributed lyrics. 1947
Tambourines to glory. 1956
Simply Heavenly. 1957
Black Nativity. 1961
Five Plays by Langston Hughes. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1963.
Jericho-Jim Crow. 1964
Works for children
Popo and Fifina, with Arna Bontemps. 1932
The First Book of the Negroes. 1952
The First Book of Jazz. 1954
Marian Anderson: Famous Concert Singer. with Steven C. Tracy 1954
The First Book of Rhythms. 1954
The First Book of the West Indies. 1956
First Book of Africa. 1964
The Langston Hughes Reader. New York: Braziller, 1958.
Good Morning Revolution: Uncollected Social Protest Writings by Langston
Hughes. Lawrence Hill, 1973.
The Collected Works of Langston Hughes. Missouri: University of Missouri Press,
"My Adventures as a Social Poet" by Langston Hughes. Essay. Phylon 3rd
"The Negro Artist and The Racial Mountain" by Langston Hughes
Langston Hughes (1902-1967) 1967)
African-American poet, novelist, and playwright, who became one of the foremost
interpreters of racial relationships in the United States. Influenced by the Bible, W. E. B.
Du Bois, and Walt Whitman, Hughes depicted realistically the ordinary lives of black
people. Many of his poems, written in rhythmical language, have been set to music.
Hughes's poems were meant 'to be read aloud, crooned, shouted and sung'.
"Rest at pale evening...
A tall slim tree...
Night coming tendrerly
Black like me.
(from Dream Variations, 1926)
James Langston Hughes was born in Joplin, Missouri. His mother was a school teacher,
she also wrote poetry. His father, James Nathaniel Hughes, was a storekeeper. He had
wanted to become a lawyer, but he had been denied to take the bar exam. Hughes's
parents separated and his mother moved from city to city in search of work. In his
rootless childhood, Hughes lived in Mexico, Topeka, Kansas, Colorado, Indiana and
Buffalo. Part of his childhood Hughes lived with his grandmother. At the age of 13 he
moved back with his mother and her second husband. Later the family moved to
Cleveland, Ohio, where Hughes's stepfather worked in the steel mills. During this period
Hughes found the poems of Carl Sandburg, whose unrhymed free verse influenced him
deeply. After graduating from a high school in Cleveland, Hughes spent a year in
Mexico with his light-skinned father, who had found there a release as a successful
cattle rancher from racism of the North. On the train, when he returned to the north,
Hughes wrote one of his most famous poems, 'The Negro Speaks of Rivers'. It
appeared in the African-American journal Crisis (1921). As an adolescent in Cleveland
he participated in the activity of Karamu Players, and published in 1921 his first play,
THE GOLDEN PIECE in 1921.
Supported by his father, Hughes entered in the early 1920s the Columbia University,
New York. For the permanent disappointment of his father, Hughes soon abandoned his
studies, and participated in more entertaining jazz and blues activities in nearby Harlem.
Disgusted with life at the university and to see the world, he enlisted as a steward on a
freighter bound to West Africa. He traveled to Paris, worked as a doorman and a
bouncer of a night club, and continued to Italy.
After his return to the United States, Hughes worked in menial jobs and wrote poems,
which earned him scholarship to Lincoln University in Pennsylvania. According an
anecdote, Hughes was "discovered" by the poet Vachel Lindsay in Washington. Lindsay
was dining at the Wardman Park Hotel, where Hughes worked as a busboy, and
dropped his poems beside the Lindsay's dinner plate. Lindsay included several of them
in his poetry reading. It prompted interviews of the "busboy poet". Hughes quit his job
and moved to New York City.
In 1929 Hughes received his bachelor's degree. He was celebrated as a young
promising poet of the generation, publishing his poetry in Crisis (1923-24) and in Alain
Locke's anthology The New Negro (1925). His first book of verse, THE WEARY BLUES,
supported by Carl Van Vechten, appeared in 1926. "My news is this: that I handed The
Weary Blues to Knopf yesterday with the proper incantations. I do not feel particularly
dubious about the outcome: your poems are too beautiful to escape appreciation. I find
they have a subtle haunting quality which lingers in the memory and an extraordinary
sensitivity to all that is kind and lovely." (from Van Vechten's letter to Hughes in
Remember me to Harlem, ed. by Emily Bernard, 2001) Hughes valued Van Vechten's
criticism and dedicated him his second collection of poetry, FINE CLOTHES TO THE
JEW (1927). Their correspondence, which lasted until Van Vechten's death in 1964,
was published in 2001. The Weary Blues assimilated techniques associated with the
secular music with verse, while its content reflected the lives of African-Americans.
"Drowning a drowsy syncopated tune, / Rocking back and forth to a mellow croon, / I
heard a Negro play. / By the pale dull pallor of an old gas light / He did a lazy sway... /
He did a lazy sway..." (from 'The Weary Blues,' the title poem of the collection)
Hughes was considered one of the leading voices in the Harlem Renaissance of the
1920s His first novel, NOT WITHOUT LAUGHTER (1930), Hughes wrote with the
financial support of Charlotte Mason, a wealthy white woman. The book had a cordial
reception and Hughes bought a Ford. He toured the colleges of southern America as a
teacher and poet.
Hughes was one of the first black authors, who could support himself by his writings. In
the 1930s Hughes traveled in the Soviet Union, Haiti, and Japan. During his visit in the
Soviet Union, to write the English dialogue for a film about black American workers, he
had also an affair with an Oriental ballerina. Hughes's poem 'Goodbye, Christ', written
during the journey, was attacked by a right-wing religious group in the 1940s. Although
Hughes decided to repudiate the poem publicly, he also embraced radical politics,
publishing a collection of satiric short stories, THE WAY OF WHITE FOLKS (1943), and
returned to satire and racial prejudices later in LAUGHING TO KEEP FROM CRYING
(1952) and SOMETHING IN COMMON (1963). Hughes emphasized the importance of
African culture and shared Du Bois's belief that renewal could only come from an
understanding of African roots.
"My old man died in a fine big house.
My ma died in a shack.
I wonder where I'm gonna die,
Being neither white nor black?"
Hughes's play THE MULATTO (1935), revised without his knowledge, opened on
Broadway in 1935. The producer inserted a rape in it. Alterations displeased Hughes,
but in the same year he won a Guggenheim Fellowship. He founded in the 1930s and
1940s black theatre groups in Harlem, Chicago, and Los Angeles. In the Spanish Civil
War (1937) he served as a newspaper correspondent for the Baltimore Afro-American.
During this time he became a friend of Ernest Hemingway, with whom he attended
bullfights. In 1942 he made Harlem his permanent home, although he began lecturing at
universities around the country. Hughes wrote children's stories, non-fiction, and
numerous works for the stage, including lyrics for Kurt Weill's and Elmer Rice's opera
Street Scene, screenplay for the Hollywood film Way Down South with the actor
Clarence Muse, and translated the poetry of Federico García Lorca and Gabriela Mistral.
Hughes's Christmas play, Black Nativity, has been produced every year by major black
Hughes's inaccurate reputation for being a Communist dates from his poems in the
1930s. In 1953, during the era of McCarthyism, Hughes tested to the Senate committee
that he was not, and never had been, a Communist. He named no names, well aware of
blacklisting and its effects on such radicals as Paul Robeson. In several of his poems,
Hughes had expressed with ardent voice sociopolitical protests. He portrayed people,
whose lives were impacted by racism and sexual conflicts, he wrote about southern
violence, Harlem street life, poverty, prejudice, hunger, hopelessness. But basically he
was a conscientious artist, kept his middle-of-the road stance and worked hard to
chronicle the black American experience, contrasting the beauty of the soul with the
Like a banner
For the proud Not like a shroud."
(from Color, 1943)
In the 1950s Hughes published among others MONTAGE OF A DREAM DEFERRED
(1951), which included his famous poem 'Harlem', PICTORIAL HISTORY OF NEGRO
IN AMERICA (1956), and edited THE BOOK OF NEGRO FOLKLORE (1958) with Arna
Bontemps. Hughes's autobiographicals books include THE BIG SEA (1940) and I
WONDER AS I WANDER (1956). For juveniles he did a series of 'Famous' biographies,
beginning with FAMOUS AMERICAN NEGROES (1954). His popular comic character
Jesse B. Semple, or "Simple," appeared in columns for the Chicago Defender and the
New York Post. Hughes had met the prototype of the character in a bar. The ironic
comments of the street-wise Harlem dweller were first collected into SIMPLE SPEAKS
HIS MIND (1950). In the last Simple collection, SIMPLE'S UNCLE SAM (1965), Hughes
wrote: "My mama should have named me Job instead of Jesse B. Semple. I have been
underfed, underpaid, undernourished, and everything but undertaken - yet I am still here.
The only thing I am afraid of now - is that I will die before my time."
In his later years Hughes held posts at the Universities of Chicago and Atlanta. The
poet also witnessed that doctoral dissertations already begun to be written about him the earliest book on his work appeared already in the 1930s. Hughes never married and
there has been unrelevant speculations about his sexuality. Several of his friends were
homosexual, among them Carl Van Vechten, who wrote the controversial novel Nigger
Heaven (1926) - Hughes had recommended the choice of the title - but several were not.
Hughes died in Polyclinic Hospital in New York, on May 22, 1967, of complications after
surgery. His collection of political poems, THE PANTHER AND THE LASH (1967),
reflected the anger and militancy of the 1960s. The book had been rejected first by
Knopf in 1964 as too risky. Hughes's own history of NAACP appeared in 1962; he had
received a few year's earlier the NAACP'S Spingarn Medal.
Hughes published more than 35 books, he was a versatile writer, but he hated "long
novels, narrative poems", as he once said. Although the Harlem Renaissance faded
away during the Great Depression, its influence is seen in the writings of later authors,
such as James Baldwin, who, however, criticized Hughes's poetic achievement. From
the late 1940's through the 1950's Hughes revised under pressure his poems- may of
them became less tough.
For further reading: To Make a Black Poet by S. Redding (1939); Langston Hughes by
J. Emanuel (1967); Black Genius: A Critical Evaluation, ed. by T. O'Daniel (1971); A
Biobibliography of Langston Hughes 1902-1967 by D.C. Dickinson (1972); Langston
Hughes: The Poet and His Critics by R.K. Barksdale (1977); The Life of Langston
Hughes: 1902-1941: I, Too, Sing America by Arnold Rampersad (1986); The Life of
Langston Hughes, 1941-1967: I Dream a World by Arnold Rampersad (1988); The Art
and Imagination of Langston Hughes by R. Baxter Miller (1990); Langston Hughes:
Critical Perspectives Past and Present, ed. by Henry Louis Gates (1993); Langston
Hughes: A Study of the Short Fiction by Hans Ostrom (1993); Coming Home: From the
Life of Langston Hughes by Floyd Cooper (1994 - note: for ages 4-8); Free to Dream by
Audrey Osofsky (1996 - note: for ages 9-12); Langston Hughes by Joseph McLaren et
al (1997); Langston Hughes: Poet of the Harlem Renaissance by Christine M. Hill
(1997); Langston Hughes: Comprehensive Reserach and Study Guide, ed. by Harold
Bloom (1999); Remember me to Harlem: The Letters of Langston Hughes and Carl Van
Vechten, 1925-1964, edited by Emily Bernard (2001) - Harlem Renaissance: Countee
Cullen - Harlem literature: (novels) Jean Toomer's experimental Cane (1923), Claude
McKay's Home to Harlem (1928); Countee Cullen's One Way to Heaven (1932), Anna
Bontemps's Black Thunder (1936); (poems and plays) Abraham Hill's On Striver's Row
(1933), Langston Hughes's Shakespeare in Harlem (1942) - Harlem Renaissance, see
This Was Harlem by Jervase Anderson (1981), Modernism and the Harlem
Renaissance by Houston A. Baker Jr (1987) - Note: Hughes's 'The Negro Speaks of
Rivers,' written on a train taking him to Mexico, has been among the most quoted of all
poems by black poets.
THE NEGRO SPEAKS OF RIVERS, 1921 ( poem published in the journal Crisis)
THE GOLD PIECE, 1921
THE WEARY BLUES, 1926 (incl. poem Dream Variation)
FINE CLOTHES TO THE JEW, 1927
NOT WITHOUT LAUGHTER, 1930
THE NEGRO MOTHER AND OTHER DRAMATIC RECITATIONS, 1931
MULE BONE, 1931 (with Zora Neale Hurston)
DEAR LOVELY DEATH, 1931
THE DREAM KEEPER, 1932
SCOTTSBORO LIMITED, 1932
POPO AND FIFINA, 1932 (with Arna Bontemps)
THE WAYS OF THE WHITE FOLKS, 1934
LITTLE HAM, 1935 (play)
THE MULATTO, 1935 (play)
EMPEROR OF HASITI, 1936 (play)
TROUBLED ISLAND, 1936 (play)
WHEN THE JACK HOLLERS, 1936 (play)
FRONT PORCH, 1937 (play)
JOY TO MY SOUL, 1937 (play)
SOUL GONE HOME, 1937 (play)
DON'T YOU WANT TO BE FREE?, 1938 (play)
A NEW SONG, 1938
THE EM-FUEHRER JONES, 1938 (play)
LIMITATIONS OF LIFE, 1938 (play)
LITTLE EVA'S END, 1938 (play)
THE ORGANIZER, 1939 (play)
THE BIG SEA, 1940
SHAKESPEARE IN HARLEM, 1941
THE SUN DO MOVE, 1942 (play)
WAY DOWN SOUTH, 1942 (screenplay)
FOR THIS WE FIGHT, 1943 (play)
FREEDOM'S PLOW, 1943
JIM CROW'S LAST STAND, 1943
LAMENTS FOR DARK PEOPLES, 1944
FIELDS OF WONDER, 1947
translation: Jacques Roumain's Masters of Dew, 1947 (with M. Cook)
translation: Nicholas Guillen's Cuba Libre, 1948 (with F. Carruthers)
ONE-WAY TICKET, 1949
THE POETRY OF THE NEGRO, 1949 (ed.)
SIMPLE SPEAKS HIS MIND, 1950
THE BARRIES, 1950 (play)
MONTAGE OF A DREAM DEFERRED, 1951 (incl. poem Harlem)
LAUGHING TO KEEP FROM CRYING, 1952
THE FIRST BOOK OF NEGROES, 1952
SIMPLE TAKES A WIFE, 1953
FAMOUS AMERICAN NEGROES, 1954
THE FIRST BOOK OF RHYTHMS, 1954
FAMOUS NEGRO MUSIC MAKERS, 1955
THE FIRST BOOK OF JAZZ, 1955
THE SWEET FLY-PAPER OF LIFE, 1955
I WONDER AS I WANDER, 1956
THE FIST BOOK OF WEST INDIES, 1956
A PICTORIAL HISTORY OF NEGRO IN AMERICA, 1956 (with Milton Meltzer)
translation: Selected Poems of Gabriel Mistral, 1957
SIMPLE STAKES A CLAIM, 1957
SIMPLY HEAVEN, 1957 (play)
TAMBOURINES GO TO GLORY, 1958
FAMOUS NEGRO HEROES OF AMERICA, 1958
THE BOOK OF NEGRO FOLKLORE, 1958 (ed. with Arna Bontemps)
THE FIRST BOOK OF AFRICA, 1960
THE BEST OF SIMPLE, 1961
ASK YOUR MAMA, 1961
BLACK NATIVITY, 1961 (play)
GOSPEL GLORY, 1962
FIGHT FOR FREEDOM: THE STORY OF THE NAACP, 1962
FIVE PLAYS BY LANGSTON HUGHES, 1963 (plays)
JERICO JIM CROW, 1963
SOMETHING IN COMMON, 1963
SIMPLE'S UNCLE SAM, 1965
THE PRODIGAL, 1965 (play)
SOUL YESTERDAY AND TODAY, 1965 (play)
ANGELO HERDNON-JONES, 1966 (play)
MOTHER AND CHILD, 1966 (play)
OUTSHINES THE SUN, 1966 (play)
TROUBLE WITH ANGELS, 1966 (play)
THE PANTHER AND THE LASH, 1967
BLACK MAGIC, 1967 (with Milton Meltzer)
BLACK MISERY, 1969
GOOD MORNING REVOLUTION, 1973
THE COLLECTED POEMS OF LANGSTON HUGHES, 1994
THE PASTEBOARD BANDIT, 1997 ( illustrated by Peggy Turley)
COLLECTED WORKS OF LANGSTON HUGHES, 2001-2002 (18 vols.)