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2009 Water Woman Festival

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A presentation titled Water & Energy delivered at the first annual Water Woman Festival held in Joshua Tree, CA.

A presentation titled Water & Energy delivered at the first annual Water Woman Festival held in Joshua Tree, CA.

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  • 1. w water & energy &e rising demand vs. diminishing supply Water Woman Festival October 4, 2009 Kevin Foster O’Donnell fundamentalist, thread collaborative
  • 2. Water Woman Festival Water & Energy thread collaborative
  • 3. Water Woman Festival Water & Energy thread collaborative
  • 4. Water Woman Festival Water & Energy thread collaborative
  • 5. Water Woman Festival Water & Energy thread collaborative
  • 6. Water Woman Festival Water & Energy thread collaborative
  • 7. Water Woman Festival Water & Energy thread collaborative Atlanta, GA | September 2009 source: MSNBC
  • 8. Water Woman Festival Water & Energy thread collaborative Switzerland | August 2005 source: AP Photo/Keystone, Allesandro della Valle
  • 9. Water Woman Festival Water & Energy thread collaborative Sumatra Indonesia | December 2005 source:
  • 10. Water Woman Festival Water & Energy thread collaborative New Orleans, LA | August 2005 source:
  • 11. Water Woman Festival Water & Energy thread collaborative Amazon River | October 2005 source: Daniel Beltra/Greenpeace
  • 12. Water Woman Festival Water & Energy thread collaborative Colorado River source:
  • 13. Water Woman Festival Water & Energy thread collaborative
  • 14. Water Woman Festival Water & Energy thread collaborative Ten Hottest Years on Record source: NASA/GISS 2005 2007 1998 2002 2003 2006 2004 2001 2008 1999
  • 15. Water Woman Festival Water & Energy thread collaborative Florida Florida
  • 16. Water Woman Festival Water & Energy thread collaborative World Water source: U.S. Geological Survey 75% 75%
  • 17. Water Woman Festival Water & Energy thread collaborative World Water source: U.S. Geological Survey 326,000,000,000,000,000,000 75% 75%
  • 18. Water Woman Festival Water & Energy thread collaborative World Water source: U.S. Geological Survey 3% 97%
  • 19. Water Woman Festival Water & Energy thread collaborative Distribution of Water | Earth source: U.S. Geological Survey fresh water - 3% 100% 75% 50% ocean - 97% 25% 0%
  • 20. Water Woman Festival Water & Energy thread collaborative Distribution of Water | Fresh source: U.S. Geological Survey surface - .3% 100% other - .9% 75% ground - 30.1% 50% 25% glaciers - 68.7% 0%
  • 21. Water Woman Festival Water & Energy thread collaborative Greenland West Antarctic Ice Sheet
  • 22. Water Woman Festival Water & Energy thread collaborative Portage Glacier source: NOAA Photo Collection and Gary Braasch 1914 2004
  • 23. Water Woman Festival Water & Energy thread collaborative Himalayan Glaciers source: cnn.com 40% of the world’s population depends on the Himalayan watershed for water Yellow River Indus River Yangtze River Salween River Mekong River Brahmaputra River Ganges River
  • 24. Water Woman Festival Water & Energy thread collaborative
  • 25. Water Woman Festival Water & Energy thread collaborative Distribution of Water | Surface source: U.S. Geological Survey rivers - 2% 100% 75% swamps - 11% 50% lakes - 87% 25% 0%
  • 26. Water Woman Festival Water & Energy thread collaborative
  • 27. Water Woman Festival Water & Energy thread collaborative
  • 28. Water Woman Festival Water & Energy thread collaborative
  • 29. Water Woman Festival Water & Energy thread collaborative Distribution of Water source: U.S. Geological Survey Less than 1% of Fresh all water is potable. Earth Surface
  • 30. Water Woman Festival Water & Energy thread collaborative Per Capita Water Use | Per Day source: United Nations Development Program - 2006 Human Development Report 160 151 gal./day 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 Water Poverty Threshold 0 US ia n co EU il UK a a a ric di in az pa l i ra ex In Ch Br Ja Af st M Au
  • 31. Water Woman Festival Water & Energy thread collaborative U.S. Per Capita Water Use | per Day source: 2000 USGS Water Use Report State Use (gal./day) Per Capita California 51,200,000,000 139 gal./day Texas 29,600,000,000 121 gal./day Florida 20,100,000,000 109 gal./day Idaho 19,500,000,000 1,272 gal./day Illinois 13,700,000,000 106 gal./day Colorado 12,600,000,000 255 gal./day Nebraska 12,300,000,000 689 gal./day New York 12,100,000,000 62 gal./day North Carolina 11,400,000,000 123 gal./day Ohio 11,100,000,000 96 gal./day
  • 32. Water Woman Festival Water & Energy thread collaborative U.S. Per Capita Water Use | per Day source: 2000 USGS Water Use Report State Use (gal./day) Per Capita California 51,200,000,000 139 gal./day Texas 29,600,000,000 121 gal./day Florida 20,100,000,000 109 gal./day Idaho 19,500,000,000 1,272 gal./day Illinois 13,700,000,000 106 gal./day Colorado 12,600,000,000 255 gal./day Nebraska 12,300,000,000 689 gal./day New York 12,100,000,000 62 gal./day North Carolina 11,400,000,000 123 gal./day Ohio 11,100,000,000 96 gal./day
  • 33. Water Woman Festival Water & Energy thread collaborative U.S. Per Capita Water Use | per Day source: 2000 USGS Water Use Report State Use (gal./day) Per Capita California 51,200,000,000 139 gal./day Texas 29,600,000,000 121 gal./day Florida 20,100,000,000 109 gal./day Los Angeles County Idaho 1,272 gal./day 168 gal./day 19,500,000,000 Illinois 13,700,000,000 106 gal./day Colorado 12,600,000,000 255 gal./day Nebraska 12,300,000,000 689 gal./day New York 12,100,000,000 62 gal./day North Carolina 11,400,000,000 123 gal./day Ohio 11,100,000,000 96 gal./day
  • 34. Water Woman Festival Water & Energy thread collaborative U.S. Per Capita Water Use | per Day source: 2000 USGS Water Use Report State Use (gal./day) Per Capita California 51,200,000,000 139 gal./day Texas 29,600,000,000 121 gal./day Florida 20,100,000,000 109 gal./day San Diego Idaho 1,272 gal./day 180 gal./day 19,500,000,000 Illinois 13,700,000,000 106 gal./day Colorado 12,600,000,000 255 gal./day Nebraska 12,300,000,000 689 gal./day New York 12,100,000,000 62 gal./day North Carolina 11,400,000,000 123 gal./day Ohio 11,100,000,000 96 gal./day
  • 35. Water Woman Festival Water & Energy thread collaborative U.S. Per Capita Water Use | per Day source: 2000 USGS Water Use Report State Use (gal./day) Per Capita California 51,200,000,000 139 gal./day Texas 29,600,000,000 121 gal./day Florida 20,100,000,000 109 gal./day Phoenix Idaho 1,272 gal./day 200 gal./day 19,500,000,000 Illinois 13,700,000,000 106 gal./day Colorado 12,600,000,000 255 gal./day Nebraska 12,300,000,000 689 gal./day New York 12,100,000,000 62 gal./day North Carolina 11,400,000,000 123 gal./day Ohio 11,100,000,000 96 gal./day
  • 36. Water Woman Festival Water & Energy thread collaborative U.S. Per Capita Water Use | per Day source: 2000 USGS Water Use Report State Use (gal./day) Per Capita California 51,200,000,000 139 gal./day Texas 29,600,000,000 121 gal./day Florida 20,100,000,000 109 gal./day Las Vegas Idaho 1,272 gal./day 255 gal./day 19,500,000,000 Illinois 13,700,000,000 106 gal./day Colorado 12,600,000,000 255 gal./day Nebraska 12,300,000,000 689 gal./day New York 12,100,000,000 62 gal./day North Carolina 11,400,000,000 123 gal./day Ohio 11,100,000,000 96 gal./day
  • 37. Water Woman Festival Water & Energy thread collaborative Water in the Sierras | Snow Levels: January 2009 source: California Department of Water Resources 49% 63% 68%
  • 38. Water Woman Festival Water & Energy thread collaborative Reservoir Levels | Current Conditions: Oct. 3, 2009 source: California Department of Water Resources Shasta Reservoir 55% | 72% Lake Oroville 48% | 62% Folsom Lake 71% | 91% Trinity Lake 49% | 58% Don Pedro Reservoir 83% | 107% New Melones Exchequer Reservoir 52% | 85% 60% | 86% Millerton Lake 93% | 132% San Luis Reservoir Pine Flat Reservoir 19% | 33% 44% | 75% Pyramid Lake Castaic Lake 97% | 103% 74% | 86%
  • 39. Water Woman Festival Water & Energy thread collaborative Lake Oroville, CA | February 2008 source: California Department of Water Resources
  • 40. Water Woman Festival Water & Energy thread collaborative Lake Oroville, CA | February 2009 source: California Department of Water Resources
  • 41. Water Woman Festival Water & Energy thread collaborative Folsom Lake, CA | November 2008 source: California Department of Water Resources
  • 42. Water Woman Festival Water & Energy thread collaborative Los Angeles, CA | September 2009 source:
  • 43. Water Woman Festival Water & Energy thread collaborative Types of Water Residential Agricultural
  • 44. Water Woman Festival Water & Energy thread collaborative Los Angeles Water | Use by Sector source: FY 2006-2007 Los Angeles Department of Water and Power residential - 68% commercial - 17% government - 7% non-revenue - 4% industrial - 4%
  • 45. Water Woman Festival Water & Energy thread collaborative Los Angeles Water | Supply Sources source: Los Angeles Department of Water and Power Mono Lake LA aqueduct Owens Lake Colorado River Aqueduct California Aqueduct Colorado River L.A. metro area
  • 46. Water Woman Festival Water & Energy thread collaborative Los Angeles Water | Supply Sources source: Los Angeles Department of Water and Power recycled - 1% L.A. aqueducts - 18% ground - 14% ground - 12% municipal water L.A. aqueducts - 48% municipal water district - 38% district - 69% 1997-2007 2007-2008
  • 47. Water Woman Festival Water & Energy thread collaborative Los Angeles Water | Residential Use source: American Water Works Association Research Foundation
  • 48. Water Woman Festival Water & Energy thread collaborative Los Angeles Water | Residential Use source: American Water Works Association Research Foundation toilet - 11% washer - 8% shower - 7% faucet - 6% dishwasher - 1% other - 2%
  • 49. Water Woman Festival Water & Energy thread collaborative Los Angeles Water | Residential Use source: American Water Works Association Research Foundation toilet - 11% washer - 8% misc. outdoor - 10% leaks - 6% shower - 7% faucet - 6% dishwasher - 1% other - 2% landscaping - 49%
  • 50. Water Woman Festival Water & Energy thread collaborative Regional Water | Sources source: Los Angeles Department of Water and Power Las Vegas Phoenix Los Angeles San Diego
  • 51. Water Woman Festival Water & Energy thread collaborative
  • 52. Water Woman Festival Water & Energy thread collaborative Embodied Water source: Professor Arjen Y. Hoekstra, Twente Water Centre, University of Twente, the Netherlands Food Unit Liters Food Unit Liters Apple or Pear 1 kg 700 Maize 1 kg 900 Banana 1 kg 800 Mango 1 kg 1,600 Beef 1 kg 15,500 Milk 250 ml cup 250 Beer (from barley) 250 ml glass 75 Olives 1 kg 4,400 Bread 1 kg 1,300 Orange 1 kg 460 Cabbage 1 kg 200 Peach 1 kg 1,200 Cheese 1 kg 5,000 Pork 1 kg 4,800 Chicken 1 kg 3,900 Potato 1 kg 250 Chocolate 1 kg 24,000 Rice 1 kg 3,400 Coffee 125 ml cup 140 Sugar (from sugar cane) 1 kg 1,500 Cucumber or Pumpkin 1 kg 240 Tea 250 ml cup 30 Groundnuts (in shell) 1 kg 3,100 Tomato 1 kg 180 Lettuce 1 kg 130 Wine 125 ml glass 120
  • 53. Water Woman Festival Water & Energy thread collaborative Embodied Water source: Professor Arjen Y. Hoekstra, Twente Water Centre, University of Twente, the Netherlands Food Unit Liters Food Unit Liters Apple or Pear 1 kg 700 Maize 1 kg 900 Banana 1 kg 800 Mango 1 kg 1,600 Beef 1 kg 15,500 Milk 250 ml cup 250 Beer (from barley) 250 ml glass 75 Olives 1 kg 4,400 Bread 1 kg 1,300 Orange 1 kg 460 Cabbage 1 kg 200 Peach 1 kg 1,200 Cheese 1 kg 5,000 Pork 1 kg 4,800 Chicken 1 kg 3,900 Potato 1 kg 250 Chocolate 1 kg 24,000 Rice 1 kg 3,400 Coffee 125 ml cup 140 Sugar (from sugar cane) 1 kg 1,500 Cucumber or Pumpkin 1 kg 240 Tea 250 ml cup 30 Groundnuts (in shell) 1 kg 3,100 Tomato 1 kg 180 Lettuce 1 kg 130 Wine 125 ml glass 120
  • 54. Water Woman Festival Water & Energy thread collaborative Embodied Water source: 2008-2009 California Agricultural Resource Directory field crops - 9% livestock & poultry - 29% floriculture - 11% fruits & nuts - 29% vegetables & melons - 22%
  • 55. Water Woman Festival Water & Energy thread collaborative Embodied Water source: Professor Arjen Y. Hoekstra, Twente Water Centre, University of Twente, the Netherlands Food Unit Liters Food Unit Liters Apple or Pear 1 kg 700 Maize 1 kg 900 Banana 1 kg 800 Mango 1 kg 1,600 Beef 1 kg 15,500 Milk 250 ml cup 250 Beer (from barley) 250 ml glass 75 Olives 1 kg 4,400 Bread 1 kg 1,300 Orange 1 kg 460 Cabbage 1 kg 200 Peach 1 kg 1,200 Cheese 1 kg 5,000 Pork 1 kg 4,800 Chicken 1 kg 3,900 Potato 1 kg 250 Chocolate 1 kg 24,000 Rice 1 kg 3,400 Coffee 125 ml cup 140 Sugar (from sugar cane) 1 kg 1,500 Cucumber or Pumpkin 1 kg 240 Tea 250 ml cup 30 Groundnuts (in shell) 1 kg 3,100 Tomato 1 kg 180 Lettuce 1 kg 130 Wine 125 ml glass 120
  • 56. Water Woman Festival Water & Energy thread collaborative
  • 57. Water Woman Festival Water & Energy thread collaborative
  • 58. Water Woman Festival Water & Energy thread collaborative
  • 59. Water Woman Festival Water & Energy thread collaborative The Delta Smelt source:
  • 60. Water Woman Festival Water & Energy thread collaborative Current Practices source:
  • 61. Water Woman Festival Water & Energy thread collaborative CA Central Valley Water source: California Department of Water Resources Sacramento River San Joaquin River S.F. metro area Tulare Lake L.A. metro area S.D. metro area
  • 62. Water Woman Festival Water & Energy thread collaborative
  • 63. Water Woman Festival Water & Energy thread collaborative U.S. Energy Production source: 2005 US Energy Information Administration 54% of American adults think electricity is produced by a combination of solar, nuclear and hydropower. (2006 Roper Report) oil - 2% hydro - 4% solar/wind - 1% gas - 18% coal - 55% nuclear - 20%
  • 64. Water Woman Festival Water & Energy thread collaborative U.S. Energy Production source: 2005 US Energy Information Administration 54% of American adults think electricity is produced by a combination of solar, nuclear and hydropower. (2006 Roper Report) oil - 2% hydro - 4% solar/wind - 1% gas - 18% 75% Fossil Fuels coal - 55% nuclear - 20%
  • 65. Water Woman Festival Water & Energy thread collaborative CA Energy Production source: 2005 US Energy Information Administration coal - 2% solar/wind - 10% oil - 3% nuclear - 20% hydro - 18% gas - 47%
  • 66. Water Woman Festival Water & Energy thread collaborative CA Energy Production source: 2005 US Energy Information Administration coal - 2% solar/wind - 10% oil - 3% nuclear - 20% hydro - 18% 52% gas - 47%
  • 67. Water Woman Festival Water & Energy thread collaborative CA Percentage of Fossil Fuel Use source: 2005 U.S. Energy Information Administration National Percentage Coal Gas Oil 1% 14% 2%
  • 68. Water Woman Festival Water & Energy thread collaborative CA Percentage of Renewables source: 2005 U.S. Energy Information Administration National Percentage Nuclear Hydro Solar/Wind 4% 13% 33%
  • 69. Water Woman Festival Water & Energy thread collaborative In 1979, the US energy producing landscape was dramatically altered.
  • 70. Water Woman Festival Water & Energy thread collaborative Growth in Fuel Use source: 2005 US Energy Information Administration oil renewables natrual gas nuclear coal 900 750 600 Growth (billion kWh) 450 300 150 0 -150 -300 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 97 97 98 99 00 01 02 03
  • 71. Water Woman Festival Water & Energy thread collaborative CO2 Emissions 8000 7000 6000 Million Metric Tons 5000 end of WWII - start of the Baby Boom ! 4000 3000 start of the 20th Century ! 2000 1500 1000 500 0 1750 1800 1850 1900 1950 2000
  • 72. Water Woman Festival Water & Energy thread collaborative CO2 Emissions source: 2006 US Energy Information Administration 800 700 Metric Tons of Carbon (millions) 600 500 400 300 18% 200 100 0 50 52 54 56 58 60 62 64 66 68 70 72 74 76 78 80 82 84 86 88 90 92 94 96 98 00 02
  • 73. Water Woman Festival Water & Energy thread collaborative CO2 Emissions source: 2006 US Energy Information Administration 800 700 Metric Tons of Carbon (millions) 600 34% 500 400 300 18% 200 100 0 50 52 54 56 58 60 62 64 66 68 70 72 74 76 78 80 82 84 86 88 90 92 94 96 98 00 02
  • 74. Water Woman Festival Water & Energy thread collaborative CO2 Emissions source: 2006 US Energy Information Administration 800 48% 700 Metric Tons of Carbon (millions) 600 34% 500 400 300 18% 200 100 0 50 52 54 56 58 60 62 64 66 68 70 72 74 76 78 80 82 84 86 88 90 92 94 96 98 00 02
  • 75. Water Woman Festival Water & Energy thread collaborative CO2 Emissions source: 2006 US Energy Information Administration Buildings - 48% Residential Commercial Other 20% 18% 10%
  • 76. Water Woman Festival Water & Energy thread collaborative Energy Consumption per SF source: 1995 US Energy Information Administration 60 50 53 40 36 30 27 20 Average for all commercial 19 buildings - 13.4 kWh/sf 15 10 12 8 7 5 4 0 s e re e g y n e t us n bl le ic fic us in io ca Ca io rv m Sa at dg Of o lig Va eh se Se uc th Lo d Re As ar o al Ed l& Fo He W ic i ta bl Re Pu
  • 77. Water Woman Festival Water & Energy thread collaborative Energy Consumption per SF source: 1995 US Energy Information Administration 60 40 kWh/sf greater 50 53 53 than the average 40 400% 36 30 27 20 Average for all commercial 19 buildings - 13.4 kWh/sf 15 10 12 8 7 5 4 0 s e re e g y n e t us n bl le ic fic us in io ca Ca io rv m Sa at dg Of o lig Va eh se Se uc th Lo d Re As ar o al Ed l& Fo He W ic i ta bl Re Pu
  • 78. Water Woman Festival Water & Energy thread collaborative U.S. Largest Retailers source: 2008 Corporate web sites & Hoovers Retailer Stores Total SF Area in Chain Wal-Mart 4,091 923,136,390 Home Depot 2,215 287,950,000 The Kroger Company 3,645 144,483,350 Costco Wholesale 513 68,229,000 Target Corporation 1,537 295,202,368 Sears Holdings 3,800 342,000,000 Walgreens Company 5,858 82,012,000 Lowe’s Companies 1,425 165,300,000 CVS Corporation 6,200 71,300,000 Safeway Incorporated 1,755 80,730,000 31,039 2,460,343,108
  • 79. Water Woman Festival Water & Energy thread collaborative 2,460,343,108 sf x 13.4 kWh insanity
  • 80. Water Woman Festival Water & Energy thread collaborative 32,968,597 mWh
  • 81. Water Woman Festival Water & Energy thread collaborative 32,968,597 mWh Nevada 32,500,630 mWh
  • 82. Water Woman Festival Water & Energy thread collaborative Alaska Delaware Hawaii Idaho Maine Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Mexico North Dakota Rhode Island South Dakota Utah Vermont West Virginia Wyoming
  • 83. Water Woman Festival Water & Energy thread collaborative
  • 84. Water Woman Festival Water & Energy thread collaborative
  • 85. Water Woman Festival Water & Energy thread collaborative Building Energy Consumption source: 2005 US Energy Information Administration How does a typical commercial building use energy? other - 8% equipment - 3% heating - 36% refrigeration - 6% cooking - 3% lighting - 21% cooling - 8% water heating - 8% ventilation - 7% source: 2003 Energy Information Administration
  • 86. Water Woman Festival Water & Energy thread collaborative Building Energy Consumption source: 2005 US Energy Information Administration How does a typical commercial building use energy? other - 8% equipment - 3% heating - 36% refrigeration - 6% cooking - 3% 72% lighting - 21% cooling - 8% water heating - 8% ventilation - 7% source: 2003 Energy Information Administration
  • 87. Water Woman Festival Water & Energy thread collaborative Building Energy Consumption source: 2005 US Energy Information Administration How does a typical residential building use energy? other - 13% heating - 25% wash & clean - 6% refrigeration - 7% cooking - 5% cooling - 13% lighting - 11% electronics & computers - 9% water heating - 12% source: U.S. DOE Building Energy Data Book 2008
  • 88. Water Woman Festival Water & Energy thread collaborative Building Energy Consumption source: 2005 US Energy Information Administration How does a typical residential building use energy? other - 13% heating - 25% wash & clean - 6% refrigeration - 7% 61% cooking - 5% cooling - 13% lighting - 11% electronics & computers - 9% water heating - 12% source: U.S. DOE Building Energy Data Book 2008
  • 89. Water Woman Festival Water & Energy thread collaborative World Energy of World Energy 24% used by U.S. 17% Buildings source: 2005 Energy Information Administration
  • 90. Water Woman Festival Water & Energy thread collaborative World Hydro Production source: 2008 IEA 2% 4% 6% 11% 10% 3% 14% 4% 3% 11%
  • 91. Water Woman Festival Water & Energy thread collaborative World Hydro Production source: 2008 IEA 43% 98% 17% 58% 4% 8% 14% 15% 72% 83% World Average = 16%
  • 92. Water Woman Festival Water & Energy thread collaborative Three Gorges Dam 22,500 megawatts
  • 93. Water Woman Festival Water & Energy thread collaborative Hoover Dam 2,080 megawatts
  • 94. Water Woman Festival Water & Energy thread collaborative Ecologic Impact source: Dale M Kleimola
  • 95. Water Woman Festival Water & Energy thread collaborative Developed Hydro Potential source: 2008 IEA 75% 22% 69% 7% 33% 49%
  • 96. Water Woman Festival Water & Energy thread collaborative U.S. Hydro Production source: 2005 U.S. Energy Information Administration 65k 8.2k 28k 8.5k 22k 30k 5.4k 6.3k 4k 5k
  • 97. The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have bee Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red xWaterappears, you may have& Energy the image and then inse still Woman Festival Water to delete thread collaborative Kentucky River at Shakertown source: David Brown Kinloch
  • 98. Water Woman Festival Water & Energy thread collaborative Wind
  • 99. Water Woman Festival Water & Energy thread collaborative Installed and Planned Capacity source: 2008 American Wind Energy Association 1.4k 1.7k 1.3k 1.3k 2.8k 1.1k 1k 1k 2.8k 8.7k
  • 100. Water Woman Festival Water & Energy thread collaborative Solar Potential
  • 101. Water Woman Festival Water & Energy thread collaborative Solar Potential source: Solar Energy Industry Association
  • 102. Water Woman Festival Water & Energy thread collaborative Geothermal
  • 103. Water Woman Festival Water & Energy thread collaborative Wave 12,400 miles of coastline
  • 104. Water Woman Festival Water & Energy thread collaborative Competing Interconnected Forces Landscaping Economy Agriculture US Food Supply Farm Jobs
  • 105. Water Woman Festival Water & Energy thread collaborative
  • 106. Water Woman Festival Water & Energy thread collaborative
  • 107. ! ! kevin@threadcollaborative.com questions? thank you