Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart baptismal name Johannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus
Theophilus Mozart (27 January 1756 – 5 December 1791), was a prolific and influential
composer of the Classical era.
Mozart showed prodigious ability from his earliest childhood. Already competent
on keyboard and violin,
he composed from the age of five and performed before European royalty. At 17,
he was engaged as a court musician in Salzburg
but grew restless and travelled in search of a better position, always composing
abundantly. While visiting Vienna in 1781,
he was dismissed from his Salzburg position. He chose to stay in the capital,
where he achieved fame but little financial security.
During his final years in Vienna, he composed many of his best-known
symphonies, concertos, and operas, and portions of the Requiem
which was largely unfinished at the time of his death. The circumstances of his
early death have been much mythologized.
He was survived by his wife Constanze and two sons.
Mozart learned voraciously from others, and developed a brilliance and maturity
of style that encompassed the light and graceful
along with the dark and passionate. He composed over 600 works, many
acknowledged as pinnacles of symphonic, concertante, chamber,
operatic, and choral music. He is among the most enduringly popular of classical
composers, and his influence on subsequent Western
art music is profound; Beethoven composed his own early works in the shadow of
Mozart, and Joseph Haydn wrote that "posterity will not
see such a talent again in 100 years."
All of the movements are in the key of A major or
A minor; therefore, the work is homotonal. A typical
performance of this entire sonata takes about 20
The last movement, "Alla Turca", popularly known as
the "Turkish Rondo", is often heard on its own and is one
of Mozart's best-known piano pieces; it was Mozart
himself who titled the rondo "Alla Turca".It imitates the
sound of Turkish Janissary bands, the music of which was
much in vogue at that time. Various other works of the
time imitate this Turkish style, including Mozart's own
opera Die Entführung aus dem Serail. In Mozart's time,
the last movement was sometimes performed on pianos
built with a "Turkish stop", allowing it to be embellished
with extra percussion effects. The third movement is
related to the first one, because its beginning can be
seen as an additional variation of the theme of the first
movement, varied in the Janissary style.
Ludwig Van Beethoven baptized 17 December 1770[
– 26 March 1827)
was a German composer and pianist. A crucial figure in the transition
between the Classical and Romantic eras in Western art music
he remains one of the most famous and influential of all composers. His
best known compositions include 9 symphonies, 5 concertos for piano,
32 piano sonatas, and 16 string quartets. He also composed other chamber
music, choral works (including the celebrated Missa Solemnis), and songs.
Born in Bonn, then the capital of the Electorate of Cologne and part of
the Holy Roman Empire,
Beethoven displayed his musical talents at an early age and was taught
by his father Johann van Beethoven and Christian Gottlob Neefe. During his
first 22 years in Bonn, Beethoven intended to study with
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and befriended Joseph Haydn.
Beethoven moved to Vienna in 1792 and began studying with Haydn,
quickly gaining a reputation as a virtuoso pianist.
He lived in Vienna until his death. During the late 18th century, his hearing
began to deteriorate significantly, yet he continued to compose,
conduct, and perform after becoming completely deaf.
Symphony 9. th (Beethoven)
The Symphony No. 9 in D
minor, Op. 125, is the final
complete symphony of
Ludwig van Beethoven
(1770–1827). Completed in 1824,
the symphony is one of the best-
known works of the Western
Among critics, it is almost
universally considered to be
among Beethoven's greatest
and is considered by some to be
the greatest piece of music ever
The symphony was the first
example of a major composer
using voices in a symphony(thus
it a choral symphony). The words
are sung during the final
movement by four vocal soloists
and a chorus.
They were taken from the "
Ode to Joy", a poem written by
Friedrich Schiller in 1785 and
revised in 1803,
with additions made by the
composer. Today, it stands as
one of the most played
A page from Beethoven's
manuscript of the 9th Symphony
PYOTR ILYICH TCHAIKOVSKY
Pyotr Ilyich Chaykovsky (7 May 1840 – 6 November 1893)
anglicised as Peter
Ilyich Tchaikovsky , was a Russian composer whose works included symphonies,
concertos, operas, ballets,chamber music, and a choral setting of The Russian
Orthodox Divine Liturgy.
Some of these are among the most popular concert and theatrical music in the
He was the first Russian composer whose music made a lasting impression
internationally,which he bolstered with appearances as a guest conductor later in
his career in Europe and the United States. One of these appearances was at the
inaugural concert of Carnegie Hall in New York City in 1891. Tchaikovsky was
honored in 1884 by Emperor Alexander III, and awarded a lifetime pension in the late
1880s. Although musically precocious, Tchaikovsky was educated for a career as a
There was scant opportunity for a musical career in Russia at that time, and no
system of public music education.
When an opportunity for such an education arose, he entered the nascent
Saint Petersburg Conservatory, from where he graduated in 1865. The formal
Western-oriented teaching he received there set him apartfrom composers of the
contemporary nationalist movement embodied by the Russian composers of The Five
, with whom his professional relationship was mixed.
Tchaikovsky's training set him on a path to reconcile what he had learned with
the native musical practices to which he had been exposed from childhood. From
this reconciliation,he forged a personal, independent but unmistakably Russian style
a task that did not prove easy.self-confidence.
Swan Lake ballet, Op. 20, by
Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky,
was composed in 1875–1876. The
scenario, initially in four acts,
was fashioned from Russian folk
tales and tells the story of Odette, a
princess turned into a swan by an
evil sorcerer's curse.
The choreographer of the original
production was Julius Reisinger.
The ballet was premiered by the
Bolshoi Ballet on 4 March 20
February] 1877at the
Bolshoi Theatre in Moscow,billed as
The Lake of the Swans.
Although it is presented in many
ballet companies base their stagings
and musically on the 1895 revival of
Marius Petipa and Lev Ivanov,
first staged for the Imperial Ballet
on 15 January 1895, at the
Mariinsky Theatre in St. Petersburg.
For this revival, Tchaikovsky's score
was revised by the St.
Petersburg Imperial Theatre's chief
conductor and composer Riccardo
Drigo. Swan Lake
Lithuanian artist and composer Mikalojus Konstantinas iurlionisČ
(1875-1911), a unique figure in the history of European arts,has left a
profound imprint on Lithuanian culture.
Judging by the breath of his artistic activities and diverse interests,
iurlionis can be seen as a truly Renaissance individual. Over a short,Č
mere decade-long career,he composed nearly four hundred musical
compositions, including two large-scale symphonic poems, an
overture, two piano sonatas,
a string quartet,and a cantata for chorus and orchestra.
During those same brief years he also created approximately four
hundred paintings and etchings, as well as several literary works and
poems,while still finding time to experiment with art photography.
Notes from his study years at the Warsaw Institute of Music show his
interest ingeology and history,chemistry and geometry, physics and
astronomy,astrology and ancient mythology, dead and modern
languages, philosophical ideas of antiquity and modernity,eastern and
On the other hand, his active involvement in the Lithuanian national
movement and his idealist self-sacrifice for the sake ofartistic ideals
show him as a typical artist of the Romantic mold. During his short
life, iurlionis managed to be at the heart of the creation of theČ
Lithuanian Artists Union and actively organized andparticipated in the
first three exhibitions of Lithuanian artists, organized and directed
Lithuanian Choruses in Warsaw, Vilnius, and St. Petersburg,and was
the first Lithuanian professional composer not only to take interest in
Lithuanian folk songs, but to collect and publish them
His passionate approach to life is perhaps best
summarized by his refusal to accept an offered safe
teaching position at the Warsaw Institute of Music, and
his declaration in a letter to his brother that he intends “to
dedicate to Lithuania” all of his “past and future works.”
In addition, in following the German Symbolists in his
paintings, exploring synaesthetic ideas, fashionable at the
time, and exploring chromatic and harmonic possibilities
of the tonal major-minor system in his music
compositions Čiurlionis stands as typicalartist of the late
Nineteenth-early Twentieth century Europe.
Finally, his latest mature paintings, based on intricate
musical compositional technique , and piano
compositions in which tonal writing is blended with proto-
serial techniques and constructive use of short rhythmic,
melodic and harmonic complexes, stand as examples of
totally unprecedented plastic-aural experiences unique in
the history of European art.
fa diyez major prelud
do minör string quartet
la major prelud
Journey of the Princess: a fairy tale
forest (in the forest) tone poem
jura (sea) tone poem
His musical works