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CAMBRIDGE, UK, 11 DEC 2008

                     Redux exp: An
                                 Open-source Justification-
...
What are
                explanations?




Samstag, 18. Juli 2009
What are
                explanations?




Samstag, 18. Juli 2009
What are
                explanations?
                Explanations
                are answers to
                questio...
Explanations are a kind
                   of information.



Samstag, 18. Juli 2009
Concepts connected with the
                   notion of information


                THE COACH TO STANSTED
             ...
Concepts connected with the
                   notion of information

                                         • Truth

  ...
Concepts connected with the
                   notion of information

                                         • Truth
   ...
Concepts connected with the
                   notion of information

                                         • Truth
   ...
Concepts connected with the
                   notion of information

                                         • Truth
   ...
Concepts connected with the
                   notion of information

                                         • Truth
   ...
Concepts connected with the
                   notion of information

                                         • Truth
   ...
Basic explanation scenario
Samstag, 18. Juli 2009
Knowledge sources
Samstag, 18. Juli 2009
Problem solving
                                           knowledge


                         Knowledge sources
Samstag,...
Explanation
                                           knowledge




                                      Problem solving...
Explanation
                                           knowledge




                                      Problem solving...
Example:
                   course assignment
              • Professors Descartes and Kant
              • Descartes more...
Example:
                   course assignment

              • Decisions:                              René Descartes
    ...
Justification-based Truth
                   Maintenance Systems

                         • Network of nodes and justificat...
REDUX




Samstag, 18. Juli 2009
REDUX
                           G1




Samstag, 18. Juli 2009
REDUX
                           G1



                                O1

                                O2

           ...
REDUX
                           G1
                                     Conflict
                                       se...
REDUX
                                    G1
                                              Conflict
                       ...
REDUX
                                               G1
                                                         Conflict
 ...
REDUX
                                               G1
                                                                Co...
REDUX : Goal reduction
                                               G1
                                                 ...
Redux exp   Architecture

                                      • Provenance
                                        •   w...
Example:
                   course assignment




Samstag, 18. Juli 2009
Example:
                   course assignment




Samstag, 18. Juli 2009
Example:
                   course assignment




Samstag, 18. Juli 2009
Example:
                   course assignment




Samstag, 18. Juli 2009
Example:
                   course assignment
              • Kant enquires about his assignment:




Samstag, 18. Juli 20...
Example:
                   course assignment
              • Kant enquires about his assignment:
                     FOR...
Example:
                   course assignment
              • Kant: “Why didn’t I get to teach PHL305?”
                  ...
Example:
                   course assignment
              • Kant: “Why didn’t I get to teach PHL305?”
                  ...
Example:
                   course assignment
              • Kant: “Why didn’t I get to teach PHL305?”
                  ...
Example:
                   course assignment
              • Output:
                    Assignments: "Descartes teaches ...
Example:
                   course assignment
              • Output:
                    Assignments: "Descartes teaches ...
Example:
                   course assignment
              • Output:
                    Assignments: "Descartes teaches ...
Take home messages




Samstag, 18. Juli 2009
Take home messages
              • Explanations are important for
                   increasing the trustworthiness of
   ...
Take home messages
              • Explanations are important for                Explainer
                   increasing t...
Take home messages
              • Explanations are important for                  Explainer
                   increasing...
Take home messages
              • Explanations are important for                  Explainer
                   increasing...
Thank you!

                     CAMBRIDGE, UK, 11 DEC 2008

                     Redux exp: An
                          ...
Invitation to participate

              •     ExaCt mailing list:
                    http://groups.yahoo.com/group/expla...
Publications of ExaCt
                    research group
              2008                                               ...
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Reduxexp: An Open-source Justification-based Explanation Support Server

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Trust in any decision depends on many factors. One way of improving trust is by explaining why a certain decision has been made and how certain actions in the context of a decision have been performed. In order to provide such explanations information systems need a mechanism for recording decisions and actions. The open-source server Reduxexp is such a system. This paper describes the architecture of Reduxexp and first experiences with the system.

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Transcript of "Reduxexp: An Open-source Justification-based Explanation Support Server"

  1. 1. CAMBRIDGE, UK, 11 DEC 2008 Redux exp: An Open-source Justification- based Explanation Support Server Thomas Roth-Berghofer & Florian Mittag Senior researcher, trb@dfki.de German Research Centre for Artificial Intelligence DFKI GmbH Samstag, 18. Juli 2009
  2. 2. What are explanations? Samstag, 18. Juli 2009
  3. 3. What are explanations? Samstag, 18. Juli 2009
  4. 4. What are explanations? Explanations are answers to questions. Samstag, 18. Juli 2009
  5. 5. Explanations are a kind of information. Samstag, 18. Juli 2009
  6. 6. Concepts connected with the notion of information THE COACH TO STANSTED AIRPORT LEAVES CAMBRIDGE AT 17:30 H. Samstag, 18. Juli 2009
  7. 7. Concepts connected with the notion of information • Truth THE COACH TO STANSTED AIRPORT LEAVES CAMBRIDGE AT 17:30 H. Samstag, 18. Juli 2009
  8. 8. Concepts connected with the notion of information • Truth • Understanding THE COACH TO STANSTED AIRPORT LEAVES CAMBRIDGE AT 17:30 H. Samstag, 18. Juli 2009
  9. 9. Concepts connected with the notion of information • Truth • Understanding THE COACH TO STANSTED AIRPORT LEAVES • Utility CAMBRIDGE AT 17:30 H. Samstag, 18. Juli 2009
  10. 10. Concepts connected with the notion of information • Truth • Understanding THE COACH TO STANSTED AIRPORT LEAVES • Utility CAMBRIDGE AT 17:30 H. • Storage and retrieval Samstag, 18. Juli 2009
  11. 11. Concepts connected with the notion of information • Truth • Understanding THE COACH TO STANSTED AIRPORT LEAVES • Utility CAMBRIDGE AT 17:30 H. • Storage and retrieval • Information generation Samstag, 18. Juli 2009
  12. 12. Concepts connected with the notion of information • Truth • Understanding THE COACH TO STANSTED AIRPORT LEAVES • Utility CAMBRIDGE AT 17:30 H. • Storage and retrieval • Information generation Samstag, 18. Juli 2009
  13. 13. Basic explanation scenario Samstag, 18. Juli 2009
  14. 14. Knowledge sources Samstag, 18. Juli 2009
  15. 15. Problem solving knowledge Knowledge sources Samstag, 18. Juli 2009
  16. 16. Explanation knowledge Problem solving knowledge Knowledge sources Samstag, 18. Juli 2009
  17. 17. Explanation knowledge Problem solving knowledge Knowledge sources Samstag, 18. Juli 2009
  18. 18. Example: course assignment • Professors Descartes and Kant • Descartes more senior than Kant René Descartes • Heuristics: 1596–1650 • Try to assign a course to the professor who wants to teach that course. • Assign courses to senior professors first. • Preferences: • Descartes wants to teach course PHL305. • Kant also wants to teach course PHL305. Immanuel Kant • Kant would also teach course PHL380. 1724–1804 Samstag, 18. Juli 2009
  19. 19. Example: course assignment • Decisions: René Descartes 1596–1650 • Descartes will teach PHL305. • Kant will teach PHL380. • What happens if Descartes could not teach PHL305? Immanuel Kant 1724–1804 Samstag, 18. Juli 2009
  20. 20. Justification-based Truth Maintenance Systems • Network of nodes and justifications, which are labelled IN or OUT: • Node is labelled IN <=> at least one of its supporting justifications is labelled IN • Justification is labelled IN <=> each element in its IN-list is labelled IN and each element in its OUT-list i labelled OUT Samstag, 18. Juli 2009
  21. 21. REDUX Samstag, 18. Juli 2009
  22. 22. REDUX G1 Samstag, 18. Juli 2009
  23. 23. REDUX G1 O1 O2 … Samstag, 18. Juli 2009
  24. 24. REDUX G1 Conflict set O1 O2 … Samstag, 18. Juli 2009
  25. 25. REDUX G1 Conflict set O1 Decision O2 … Samstag, 18. Juli 2009
  26. 26. REDUX G1 Conflict set O1 Decision O2 … Reduction … G2 Gn Samstag, 18. Juli 2009
  27. 27. REDUX G1 Conflict set O1 Decision O2 … Reduction … G2 Gn A1, A2, … Samstag, 18. Juli 2009
  28. 28. REDUX : Goal reduction G1 Conflict set O1 Decision O2 … Reduction … G2 Gn A1, A2, … Samstag, 18. Juli 2009
  29. 29. Redux exp Architecture • Provenance • who decided • and when • Persistence • serialisation of network into RDF/XML Samstag, 18. Juli 2009
  30. 30. Example: course assignment Samstag, 18. Juli 2009
  31. 31. Example: course assignment Samstag, 18. Juli 2009
  32. 32. Example: course assignment Samstag, 18. Juli 2009
  33. 33. Example: course assignment Samstag, 18. Juli 2009
  34. 34. Example: course assignment • Kant enquires about his assignment: Samstag, 18. Juli 2009
  35. 35. Example: course assignment • Kant enquires about his assignment: FOR EACH assignment IN redux.getAllAssignments() { IF assignment.getName() == "Kant teaches PHL305" RETURN assignment; } IF assignment != null PRINT assignment.isValid(); Samstag, 18. Juli 2009
  36. 36. Example: course assignment • Kant: “Why didn’t I get to teach PHL305?” decisions[] = redux.getDecisionsForAssignment(assignment); Samstag, 18. Juli 2009
  37. 37. Example: course assignment • Kant: “Why didn’t I get to teach PHL305?” decisions[] = redux.getDecisionsForAssignment(assignment); rejections[] = decisions[0].getRejectionReasons(); Samstag, 18. Juli 2009
  38. 38. Example: course assignment • Kant: “Why didn’t I get to teach PHL305?” decisions[] = redux.getDecisionsForAssignment(assignment); rejections[] = decisions[0].getRejectionReasons(); ReduxReason rejection = rejections[0]; PRINT "Assignments: "; FOR EACH a IN rejection.getConditionAssignments { PRINT a.getName() + " by " + a.getCreator(); } PRINT "Facts: "; FOR EACH f IN rejection.getConditionFacts { PRINT f.getName() + " by " + f.getCreator(); } PRINT "Rejected decisions: "; FOR EACH d IN rejection.getConditionDecisions { PRINT d.getName() + " by " + d.getCreator(); } Samstag, 18. Juli 2009
  39. 39. Example: course assignment • Output: Assignments: "Descartes teaches PHL305" by ’Administrator’ Facts: "At most one teacher per course" by ’Administrator’ Rejected decisions: none Samstag, 18. Juli 2009
  40. 40. Example: course assignment • Output: Assignments: "Descartes teaches PHL305" by ’Administrator’ Facts: "At most one teacher per course" by ’Administrator’ Rejected decisions: none Note: • Reduxexp does not generate explanations, it supports the process by providing the necessary information Samstag, 18. Juli 2009
  41. 41. Example: course assignment • Output: Assignments: "Descartes teaches PHL305" by ’Administrator’ Facts: "At most one teacher per course" by ’Administrator’ Rejected decisions: none Note: • Reduxexp does not generate explanations, it supports the process by providing the necessary information • Client application supplies semantics. Samstag, 18. Juli 2009
  42. 42. Take home messages Samstag, 18. Juli 2009
  43. 43. Take home messages • Explanations are important for increasing the trustworthiness of decision support systems. Samstag, 18. Juli 2009
  44. 44. Take home messages • Explanations are important for Explainer increasing the trustworthiness of User decision support systems. Originator • Explanations are part of communication scenario. Samstag, 18. Juli 2009
  45. 45. Take home messages • Explanations are important for Explainer increasing the trustworthiness of User decision support systems. Originator • Explanations are part of communication scenario. • Explanation provision is only possible if the respective information is available. Samstag, 18. Juli 2009
  46. 46. Take home messages • Explanations are important for Explainer increasing the trustworthiness of User decision support systems. Originator • Explanations are part of communication scenario. • Explanation provision is only possible if the respective information is available. • Reduxexp is a server for logging / recording decisions. MORE INFORMATION AND DOWNLOAD: HTTP://REDUXEXP.OPENDFKI.DE Samstag, 18. Juli 2009
  47. 47. Thank you! CAMBRIDGE, UK, 11 DEC 2008 Redux exp: An Open-source Justification- based Explanation Support Server Thomas Roth-Berghofer & Florian Mittag Senior researcher, trb@dfki.de German Research Centre for Artificial Intelligence DFKI GmbH Samstag, 18. Juli 2009
  48. 48. Invitation to participate • ExaCt mailing list: http://groups.yahoo.com/group/explanation-research/ • ExaCt 2009 @ IJCAI 2009 http://exact2009.workshop.hm Samstag, 18. Juli 2009
  49. 49. Publications of ExaCt research group 2008 2007 (contd.) [Bahls, 2008] Bahls, D. (2008). Explanation support for the case-based [Roth-Berghofer et al., 2007] Roth-Berghofer, T. R., Schulz, S., and Leake, reasoning tool myCBR. Project thesis, University of Kaiserslautern. D. B., editors (2007). Proceedings of the AAAI-07 workshop on [Forcher et al., 2008] Forcher, B., Adrian, B., and Roth-Berghofer, T. (2008). Explanation-aware Computing ExaCt2007. AAAI Press. Technical Report Explanations in the information extraction system iDocument. Künstliche WS-07-06. Intelligenz, 22(2). 2006 [Mittag, 2008] Mittag, F. (2008). ReduxExp: A justification-based [Richter et al., 2006] Richter, M. M., Roth-Berghofer, T., and Schulz, S., explanation-support server. Project thesis, University of Kaiserslautern. editors (2006). Explanation-aware Computing, volume 25. SAP - Slovak [Roth-Berghofer and Bahls, 2008] Roth-Berghofer, T. R. and Bahls, D. Academic Press Ltd., Bratislava. (2008). Code tagging and retrieval with myCBR. In Petridis, M., Coenen, F., 2005 and Bramer, M., editors, Research and Development in Intelligent Systems [Roth-Berghofer et al., 2005a] Roth-Berghofer, T., Cassens, J., and Sørmo, XXV, London, UK. Springer Verlag. F. (2005a). Goals and kinds of explanations in case-based reasoning. In [Roth-Berghofer and Mittag, 2008] Roth-Berghofer, T. R. and Mittag, F. Althoff, K.-D., Dengel, A., Bergmann, R., Nick, M., and Roth-Berghofer, T., (2008). ReduxExp: A justification-based explanation-support server. editors, WM 2005: Professional Knowledge Management, pages 264–268, Proceedings of AI-2008. the twenty-eighth SGAI international conference Kaiserslautern, Germany. DFKI GmbH. on artificial intelligence. In Petridis, M., Coenen, F., and Bramer, M., editors, [Roth-Berghofer and Cassens, 2005] Roth-Berghofer, T. R. and Cassens, J. Research and Development in Intelligent Systems XXV, London, UK. (2005). Mapping goals and kinds of explanations to the knowledge Springer Verlag. containers of case-based reasoning systems. In Muñoz-Avila, H. and Ricci, [Roth-Berghofer and Richter, 2008a] Roth-Berghofer, T. R. and Richter, M. F., editors, Case-Based Reasoning Research and Developmen, pages 451– M., editors (2008a). Künstliche Intelligenz—Topic: Explanation, volume 22, 464, Heidelberg. Springer Verlag. Bremen. BöttcherIT Verlag. [Roth-Berghofer et al., 2005b] Roth-Berghofer, T. R., Schulz, S., and [Roth-Berghofer and Richter, 2008b] Roth-Berghofer, T. R. and Richter, M. Woody, A., editors (2005b). Proceedings of the AAAI Fal l Symposium on M. (2008b). On explanation. Künstliche Intelligenz, 22(2):5–7. Explanation-aware Computing ExaCt2005. AAAI Press. Technical Report 2007 FS-05-04. [Bahls and Roth-Berghofer, 2007] Bahls, D. and Roth-Berghofer, T. (2007). 2004 Explanation support for the case-based reasoning tool myCBR. In [Roth-Berghofer, 2004] Roth-Berghofer, T. R. (2004). Explanations and Proceedings of the Twenty-Second AAAI Conference on Artificial Case-Based Reasoning: Foundational issues. In Funk, P. and González- Intelligence. July 22–26, 2007, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada., Calero, P. A., editors, Advances in Case-Based Reasoning, pages 389–403. pages 1844–1845. The AAAI Press, Menlo Park, California. Springer-Verlag. [Eppert, 2007] Eppert, M. (2007). Generating provenance explanations for the gnowsis rebirth machine - a first pass. Pro ject thesis, University of Kaiserslautern. Samstag, 18. Juli 2009
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