Explanation-aware Computing:                                         A new software paradigm?                             ...
Thomas Roth-Berghofer                                               industry                                              ...
Thomas Roth-Berghofer               Software engineer, Consultant,               Manager Quality and Support              ...
Thomas Roth-Berghofer               Software engineer, Consultant,               Manager Quality and Support              ...
Thomas Roth-Berghofer               Software engineer, Consultant,               Manager Quality and Support              ...
Thomas Roth-Berghofer               Software engineer, Consultant,               Manager Quality and Support              ...
Explanation-aware Computing:                                         A new software paradigm?                             ...
Characteristics of ,good‘ software         AG Erklärungsfähige Softwaresysteme   Universität Kassel — 2011-06-30   Folie 4...
Characteristics of ,good‘ software                                         use                                         Wit...
Characteristics of ,good‘ software                                         use                                         Wit...
Characteristics of ,good‘ software                                         use                                            ...
Overview         Motivating analogy:         Car wash tunnel         Explanation basics         Example 1: Semantic search...
Car Wash                                                                                                                  ...
Car wash              options                                                                                             ...
Car wash              options     EXTERIOR WASH     SEALER WAX                                                            ...
Car wash                                      Our exterior wash process uses only the                                     ...
Car wash              options     EXTERIOR WASH     SEALER WAX                                                   Seals in ...
Car wash              options     EXTERIOR WASH     SEALER WAX                                                            ...
Car wash              options     EXTERIOR WASH     SEALER WAX                                                            ...
Concept explanations                                                                                 Concept explanations ...
Process example:          Car wash tunnel         AG Erklärungsfähige Softwaresysteme   Universität Kassel — 2011-06-30   ...
Process example:          Car wash tunnel                                                                                 ...
Process example:          Car wash tunnel                                                                                 ...
Process example:          Car wash tunnel                                                                                 ...
Process example:          Car wash tunnel                                                                                 ...
Process example:          Car wash tunnel                                                                                 ...
Process example:          Car wash tunnel                                                                                 ...
Process example:          Car wash tunnel                                                                                 ...
Process example:          Car wash tunnel                                                                                 ...
Action explanations         Action explanations explain the activities of the system.                        • Action expl...
Communication scenario                                  of explanation                                                    ...
Questions: What, how and why?         For successfully using a car         wash, we need to learn:             Concepts, t...
Some explanation basics         AG Erklärungsfähige Softwaresysteme   Universität Kassel — 2011-06-30   Folie 14   Stiftun...
What are explanations?         AG Erklärungsfähige Softwaresysteme   Universität Kassel — 2011-06-30   Folie 15   Stiftung...
What are explanations?                                          Explanations are                                        an...
When are questions being                                    asked?         AG Erklärungsfähige Softwaresysteme   Universit...
When are questions being                                    asked?                                     Whenever expectatio...
Mining and Analysis Continuum of Explaining                 MACE               Martin Atzmüller and Thomas Roth-Berghofer,...
Mining and Analysis Continuum of Explaining                                                                         Privac...
Example 1: Semantic search               Roth-Berghofer, Th. and Forcher, B. Improving the understandability of semantic s...
Semantic search process                                                                      21         AG Erklärungsfähig...
Semantic search process                                                                      21         AG Erklärungsfähig...
Semantic search process                                                                      21         AG Erklärungsfähig...
Medico project:              Annotate and Search with RadSem         Goal: Support medical doctors (esp. radiologists) in ...
Medico project:              Annotate and Search with RadSem         Goal: Support medical doctors (esp. radiologists) in ...
Medico project:              Annotate and Search with RadSem         Goal: Support medical doctors (esp. radiologists) in ...
Medico project:              Annotate and Search with RadSem         Goal: Support medical doctors (esp. radiologists) in ...
Medico ontology hierarchy         AG Erklärungsfähige Softwaresysteme   Universität Kassel — 2011-06-30   Folie 23   Stift...
Medico ontology hierarchy         AG Erklärungsfähige Softwaresysteme   Universität Kassel — 2011-06-30   Folie 23   Stift...
Foundational Model                                            of Anatomy (FMA)         Developed and maintained by        ...
International Classification of                               Diseases ICD-10         Established standard of WHO, but only...
AG Erklärungsfähige Softwaresysteme   Universität Kassel — 2011-06-30   Folie 26   Stiftung Universität HildesheimFreitag,...
„Region of                                                                                 Interest“         AG Erklärungs...
„Region of                                                                                 Interest“         AG Erklärungs...
„Region of                                                                                 Interest“         AG Erklärungs...
„Region of                                                                                 Interest“         AG Erklärungs...
Example search         AG Erklärungsfähige Softwaresysteme     Universität Kassel — 2011-06-30   Folie 27   Stiftung Unive...
Example search         AG Erklärungsfähige Softwaresysteme     Universität Kassel — 2011-06-30   Folie 27   Stiftung Unive...
Example search         AG Erklärungsfähige Softwaresysteme     Universität Kassel — 2011-06-30   Folie 27   Stiftung Unive...
Communication scenario                                   for RadSem                                                       ...
Communication scenario                                   for RadSem                             Dijkstra                  ...
Reconstructive explanation                                               Explainer                                        ...
Reconstructive explanation                                               Explainer                                        ...
Reconstructive explanation                                               Explainer                                        ...
Reconstructive explanation                                               Explainer                                        ...
Reconstructive explanation                                               Explainer                                        ...
Reconstructive explanation                                               Explainer                                        ...
„Bridge concepts“                                                                                                         ...
Predict understandability of term         Hypothesis: The degree of medical knowledge correlates         with frequency cl...
Users of RadSem         AG Erklärungsfähige Softwaresysteme      Universität Kassel — 2011-06-30   Folie 32   Stiftung Uni...
Users of RadSem                                                                                    Medical IT specialists ...
When do RadSem users                                   need explanations?         AG Erklärungsfähige Softwaresysteme   Un...
When do RadSem users                                   need explanations?                                               Te...
When do RadSem users                                   need explanations?                                               Te...
Even doctors have the need for                        explanations from time to time!                                     ...
Example 2: myCBR         AG Erklärungsfähige Softwaresysteme       Universität Kassel — 2011-06-30   Folie 35   Stiftung U...
Open-source case-based reasoning tool         Main features (Version 3.x):             Easy import of raw data (csv-files) ...
Case-Based Reasoning (CBR) is a                    problem solving approach.             In short: New problems are       ...
How do you compare cars?         AG Erklärungsfähige Softwaresysteme   Universität Kassel — 2011-06-30   Folie 38   Stiftu...
How do you compare cars?                                                       Body                                       ...
AG Erklärungsfähige Softwaresysteme   Universität Kassel — 2011-06-30   Folie 39   Stiftung Universität HildesheimFreitag,...
AG Erklärungsfähige Softwaresysteme   Universität Kassel — 2011-06-30   Folie 39   Stiftung Universität HildesheimFreitag,...
AG Erklärungsfähige Softwaresysteme   Universität Kassel — 2011-06-30   Folie 39   Stiftung Universität HildesheimFreitag,...
Local similarity measure         AG Erklärungsfähige Softwaresysteme   Universität Kassel — 2011-06-30   Folie 40   Stiftu...
Global similarity measure                                                                                 Feature match: l...
Global similarity measure                                                                                 Feature match: l...
Important attributes         AG Erklärungsfähige Softwaresysteme   Universität Kassel — 2011-06-30   Folie 42   Stiftung U...
Searching for a car         AG Erklärungsfähige Softwaresysteme       Universität Kassel — 2011-06-30   Folie 43   Stiftun...
Searching for a car         AG Erklärungsfähige Softwaresysteme       Universität Kassel — 2011-06-30   Folie 43   Stiftun...
Searching for a car         AG Erklärungsfähige Softwaresysteme       Universität Kassel — 2011-06-30   Folie 43   Stiftun...
Searching for a car         AG Erklärungsfähige Softwaresysteme       Universität Kassel — 2011-06-30   Folie 43   Stiftun...
Searching for a car         AG Erklärungsfähige Softwaresysteme       Universität Kassel — 2011-06-30   Folie 43   Stiftun...
Concept explanations         AG Erklärungsfähige Softwaresysteme   Universität Kassel — 2011-06-30   Folie 44   Stiftung U...
AG Erklärungsfähige Softwaresysteme   Universität Kassel — 2011-06-30   Folie 45   Stiftung Universität HildesheimFreitag,...
AG Erklärungsfähige Softwaresysteme   Universität Kassel — 2011-06-30   Folie 45   Stiftung Universität HildesheimFreitag,...
➡ Concept explanations provide links                                                                                   to ...
➡ Concept explanations provide links                                                                                   to ...
➡ Concept explanations provide links                                                                                   to ...
➡ Concept explanations provide links                                                                                   to ...
➡ Concept explanations provide links                                                                                   to ...
Mining and Analysis Continuum of Explaining                 MACE               Martin Atzmüller and Thomas Roth-Berghofer,...
Mining and Analysis Continuum of Explaining                 Explanation Goals               Conceptualisation             ...
Mining and Analysis Continuum of Explaining                 Explanation Goals             Kinds of explanation            ...
Mining and Analysis Continuum of Explaining                 Explanation Goals             Kinds of explanation            ...
Mining and Analysis Continuum of Explaining                 Explanation Goals             Kinds of explanation            ...
Mining and Analysis Continuum of Explaining                 Explanation Goals             Kinds of explanation            ...
Mining and Analysis Continuum of Explaining                 Explanation Goals             Kinds of explanation            ...
Mining and Analysis Continuum of Explaining                                                                         Privac...
Take home message         AG Erklärungsfähige Softwaresysteme   Universität Kassel — 2011-06-30   Folie 47   Stiftung Univ...
Take home message         Explanation-aware Computing is a         user-centred way of looking at         software design ...
Take home message         Explanation-aware Computing is a         user-centred way of looking at                         ...
Take home message         Explanation-aware Computing is a         user-centred way of looking at                         ...
Take home message         Explanation-aware Computing is a         user-centred way of looking at                         ...
Explanation-aware                                        Computing: A new                                      software pa...
Workshop series              „Explanation-aware Computing“         ICJAI-11 workshop, Barcelona, Spain,         July 2011,...
http://on-explanation.net         AG Erklärungsfähige Softwaresysteme   Universität Kassel — 2011-06-30   Folie 50   Stift...
http://on-explanation.net         AG Erklärungsfähige Softwaresysteme   Universität Kassel — 2011-06-30   Folie 50   Stift...
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Explanation-aware computing - A new software paradigm?

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Explanation, trust, transparency. These topics are tightly coupled. One trusts a software system more if it can tell what it did and if it can justify its decisions. This way the system "proofs" its trustworthiness to its user. This talk presents important concepts for analysing and developing software systems with explanation capabilities using two examples: the semantic search engine RadSem and the open-source case-based reasoning tool myCBR.

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Explanation-aware computing - A new software paradigm?

  1. 1. Explanation-aware Computing: A new software paradigm? Dr. Thomas Roth-Berghofer University of Hildesheim, Germany Erklärungsfähige Softwaresysteme Kassel, Germany, 30 June 2011Freitag, 1. Juli 2011
  2. 2. Thomas Roth-Berghofer industry academia research AG Erklärungsfähige Softwaresysteme Universität Kassel — 2011-06-30 Folie 2 Stiftung Universität HildesheimFreitag, 1. Juli 2011
  3. 3. Thomas Roth-Berghofer Software engineer, Consultant, Manager Quality and Support empolis GmbH (now: Attensity Europe) industry academia research AG Erklärungsfähige Softwaresysteme Universität Kassel — 2011-06-30 Folie 2 Stiftung Universität HildesheimFreitag, 1. Juli 2011
  4. 4. Thomas Roth-Berghofer Software engineer, Consultant, Manager Quality and Support empolis GmbH (now: Attensity Europe) industry academia research Senior researcher German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence (DFKI) GmbH AG Erklärungsfähige Softwaresysteme Universität Kassel — 2011-06-30 Folie 2 Stiftung Universität HildesheimFreitag, 1. Juli 2011
  5. 5. Thomas Roth-Berghofer Software engineer, Consultant, Manager Quality and Support empolis GmbH (now: Attensity Europe) industry Visiting Professor University of Hildesheim academia Lecturer at University of Kaiserslautern research Senior researcher German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence (DFKI) GmbH AG Erklärungsfähige Softwaresysteme Universität Kassel — 2011-06-30 Folie 2 Stiftung Universität HildesheimFreitag, 1. Juli 2011
  6. 6. Thomas Roth-Berghofer Software engineer, Consultant, Manager Quality and Support empolis GmbH (now: Attensity Europe) industry Visiting Professor Starting in September 2011: University of Hildesheim academia Lecturer at University of Kaiserslautern research Senior researcher German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence (DFKI) GmbH AG Erklärungsfähige Softwaresysteme Universität Kassel — 2011-06-30 Folie 2 Stiftung Universität HildesheimFreitag, 1. Juli 2011
  7. 7. Explanation-aware Computing: A new software paradigm? Dr. Thomas Roth-Berghofer University of Hildesheim, Germany Erklärungsfähige Softwaresysteme Kassel, Germany, 30 June 2011Freitag, 1. Juli 2011
  8. 8. Characteristics of ,good‘ software AG Erklärungsfähige Softwaresysteme Universität Kassel — 2011-06-30 Folie 4 Stiftung Universität HildesheimFreitag, 1. Juli 2011
  9. 9. Characteristics of ,good‘ software use Wit to hnice Easy use r inte rfac e in ing Hel pla pful ex S elf AG Erklärungsfähige Softwaresysteme Universität Kassel — 2011-06-30 Folie 4 Stiftung Universität HildesheimFreitag, 1. Juli 2011
  10. 10. Characteristics of ,good‘ software use Wit to hnice Easy use r inte rfac e in ing Hel pla User centred pful ex S elf AG Erklärungsfähige Softwaresysteme Universität Kassel — 2011-06-30 Folie 4 Stiftung Universität HildesheimFreitag, 1. Juli 2011
  11. 11. Characteristics of ,good‘ software use Wit to hnice Easy use r inte rfac e in ing Hel pla User centred pful ex S elf All in all: Great user experience expected AG Erklärungsfähige Softwaresysteme Universität Kassel — 2011-06-30 Folie 4 Stiftung Universität HildesheimFreitag, 1. Juli 2011
  12. 12. Overview Motivating analogy: Car wash tunnel Explanation basics Example 1: Semantic search engine RadSem Example 2: Open source case- based reasoning tool myCBR Wrap-up AG Erklärungsfähige Softwaresysteme Universität Kassel — 2011-06-30 Folie 5 Stiftung Universität HildesheimFreitag, 1. Juli 2011
  13. 13. Car Wash http://www.feuerverzinken.com/uploads/media/Belob-Waschstrasse_01.jpg AG Erklärungsfähige Softwaresysteme Universität Kassel — 2011-06-30 Folie 6 Stiftung Universität HildesheimFreitag, 1. Juli 2011
  14. 14. Car wash options http://www.feuerverzinken.com/uploads/media/Belob-Waschstrasse2_01.jpg AG Erklärungsfähige Softwaresysteme Universität Kassel — 2011-06-30 Folie 7 Stiftung Universität HildesheimFreitag, 1. Juli 2011
  15. 15. Car wash options EXTERIOR WASH SEALER WAX http://www.feuerverzinken.com/uploads/media/Belob-Waschstrasse2_01.jpg TRIPLE FOAM POLISH WHEEL BRITE UNDERCARRIAGE WASH DOUBLE BOND (With Teflon) TIRE SHINE AG Erklärungsfähige Softwaresysteme Universität Kassel — 2011-06-30 Folie 7 Stiftung Universität HildesheimFreitag, 1. Juli 2011
  16. 16. Car wash Our exterior wash process uses only the finest quality materials formulated especially options for todays automotive finishes. Our wash water is filtered with a filtration system that assures us of the cleanest and safest water to clean automobiles. Our rinse water, is water at its purest-fresh water filtered EXTERIOR WASH through a series of media tanks that removes any remaining minerals from the SEALER WAX water and produces a spot free rinse. http://www.feuerverzinken.com/uploads/media/Belob-Waschstrasse2_01.jpg TRIPLE FOAM POLISH WHEEL BRITE UNDERCARRIAGE WASH DOUBLE BOND (With Teflon) TIRE SHINE AG Erklärungsfähige Softwaresysteme Universität Kassel — 2011-06-30 Folie 7 Stiftung Universität HildesheimFreitag, 1. Juli 2011
  17. 17. Car wash options EXTERIOR WASH SEALER WAX Seals in the Shine: A polymer-fortified http://www.feuerverzinken.com/uploads/media/Belob-Waschstrasse2_01.jpg TRIPLE FOAM POLISH sealer wax (liquid form) designed by Simoniz for automatic car washes. This WHEEL BRITE product is lightly scented and is applied in UNDERCARRIAGE WASH the final rinse/waxing area of the wash process. Its an added protection (against; DOUBLE BOND (With Teflon) acid, rain, bird droppings, tree sap, etc.) suitable for all automobile finishes, and it TIRE SHINE will leave a high luster on your vehicles finish and will not smear windshields. AG Erklärungsfähige Softwaresysteme Universität Kassel — 2011-06-30 Folie 7 Stiftung Universität HildesheimFreitag, 1. Juli 2011
  18. 18. Car wash options EXTERIOR WASH SEALER WAX http://www.feuerverzinken.com/uploads/media/Belob-Waschstrasse2_01.jpg TRIPLE FOAM POLISH WHEEL BRITE UNDERCARRIAGE WASH Three foam polish (Cleaner, Sealer, and DOUBLE BOND (With Teflon) Protector) This process is actually an TIRE SHINE application of three different products manufactured by Simoniz. This application is applied after the first wash cycle. It consists of an application of three different colors applied in conjunction with each other, to create an exceptional Clear Coat finish rejuvenator. This cleans, polishes, and prepares the surface. Best results will come when used in conjunction with Sealer Wax or AG Erklärungsfähige Softwaresysteme Universität Kassel — 2011-06-30 Teflon Double Bond. 7 Folie Stiftung Universität HildesheimFreitag, 1. Juli 2011
  19. 19. Car wash options EXTERIOR WASH SEALER WAX http://www.feuerverzinken.com/uploads/media/Belob-Waschstrasse2_01.jpg TRIPLE FOAM POLISH WHEEL BRITE UNDERCARRIAGE WASH DOUBLE BOND (With Teflon) TIRE SHINE AG Erklärungsfähige Softwaresysteme Universität Kassel — 2011-06-30 Folie 7 Stiftung Universität HildesheimFreitag, 1. Juli 2011
  20. 20. Concept explanations Concept explanations enhance the knowledge of communication participants. The goal of concept explanations is to build links between unknown and known concepts. Variations: Definition: “What is a bicycle?” – “A bicycle is a land vehicle with two wheels in line. Bicycles are a form of human powered vehicle.” Theoretical proposition: “What is force?” – “Force is Mass times Acceleration.” Prototypical usage of individual things or actions: “What is a bicycle?” – “The thing, that man over there just crashed with.” Functional mapping: “What is a bicycle?” – “A bicycle serves as a means of transport.” AG Erklärungsfähige Softwaresysteme Universität Kassel — 2011-06-30 Folie Stiftung Universität Hildesheim 8Freitag, 1. Juli 2011
  21. 21. Process example: Car wash tunnel AG Erklärungsfähige Softwaresysteme Universität Kassel — 2011-06-30 Folie 9 Stiftung Universität HildesheimFreitag, 1. Juli 2011
  22. 22. Process example: Car wash tunnel Drying Care Wash Wheel Wash Prewash Configure options / Pay AG Erklärungsfähige Softwaresysteme Universität Kassel — 2011-06-30 Folie 9 Stiftung Universität HildesheimFreitag, 1. Juli 2011
  23. 23. Process example: Car wash tunnel Drying Care Wash Wheel Wash Prewash AG Erklärungsfähige Softwaresysteme Universität Kassel — 2011-06-30 Folie 10 Stiftung Universität HildesheimFreitag, 1. Juli 2011
  24. 24. Process example: Car wash tunnel Drying Care Wash Wheel Wash Prewash Paid: Basic fare 1. Prewash 2. Wash 3. Drying AG Erklärungsfähige Softwaresysteme Universität Kassel — 2011-06-30 Folie 10 Stiftung Universität HildesheimFreitag, 1. Juli 2011
  25. 25. Process example: Car wash tunnel Drying Care Wash Wheel Wash Prewash Paid: Basic fare 1. Prewash 2. Wash 3. Drying AG Erklärungsfähige Softwaresysteme Universität Kassel — 2011-06-30 Folie 10 Stiftung Universität HildesheimFreitag, 1. Juli 2011
  26. 26. Process example: Car wash tunnel Drying Care Wash Wheel Wash Wheel Wash Prewash Paid: Basic fare 1. Prewash 2. Wash 3. Drying AG Erklärungsfähige Softwaresysteme Universität Kassel — 2011-06-30 Folie 10 Stiftung Universität HildesheimFreitag, 1. Juli 2011
  27. 27. Process example: Car wash tunnel Drying Care Wash Wheel Wash Wheel Wash Prewash Paid: Basic fare 1. Prewash 2. Wash 3. Drying AG Erklärungsfähige Softwaresysteme Universität Kassel — 2011-06-30 Folie 10 Stiftung Universität HildesheimFreitag, 1. Juli 2011
  28. 28. Process example: Car wash tunnel Drying Care Wash Wheel Wash Wheel Wash Prewash Paid: Basic fare 1. Prewash 2. Wash 3. Drying AG Erklärungsfähige Softwaresysteme Universität Kassel — 2011-06-30 Folie 10 Stiftung Universität HildesheimFreitag, 1. Juli 2011
  29. 29. Process example: Car wash tunnel Drying Care Wash Wheel Wash Wheel Wash Prewash Paid: Basic fare 1. Prewash 2. Wash 3. Drying AG Erklärungsfähige Softwaresysteme Universität Kassel — 2011-06-30 Folie 10 Stiftung Universität HildesheimFreitag, 1. Juli 2011
  30. 30. Action explanations Action explanations explain the activities of the system. • Action explanations: • Negative action “Why was this seat post explanations: “Why was no selected?” – “For the given carrier chosen?” – “A carrier price, only one other seat is only available for touring post was available. But this bikes. The user did not was too short.” choose a touring bike.” AG Erklärungsfähige Softwaresysteme Universität Kassel — 2011-06-30 Folie Stiftung Universität Hildesheim 11Freitag, 1. Juli 2011
  31. 31. Communication scenario of explanation Explanation Explainer knowledge U I Originator Reasoning knowledge AG Erklärungsfähige Softwaresysteme Universität Kassel — 2011-06-30 Folie 12 Stiftung Universität HildesheimFreitag, 1. Juli 2011
  32. 32. Questions: What, how and why? For successfully using a car wash, we need to learn: Concepts, terms, definitions - the ,what‘ Processes, process steps - the ,how‘ Dependencies - the ,why‘ From: Parents, friends, car wash personnel, experience, … AG Erklärungsfähige Softwaresysteme Universität Kassel — 2011-06-30 Folie 13 Stiftung Universität HildesheimFreitag, 1. Juli 2011
  33. 33. Some explanation basics AG Erklärungsfähige Softwaresysteme Universität Kassel — 2011-06-30 Folie 14 Stiftung Universität HildesheimFreitag, 1. Juli 2011
  34. 34. What are explanations? AG Erklärungsfähige Softwaresysteme Universität Kassel — 2011-06-30 Folie 15 Stiftung Universität HildesheimFreitag, 1. Juli 2011
  35. 35. What are explanations? Explanations are answers to questions. AG Erklärungsfähige Softwaresysteme Universität Kassel — 2011-06-30 Folie 16 Stiftung Universität HildesheimFreitag, 1. Juli 2011
  36. 36. When are questions being asked? AG Erklärungsfähige Softwaresysteme Universität Kassel — 2011-06-30 Folie 17 Stiftung Universität HildesheimFreitag, 1. Juli 2011
  37. 37. When are questions being asked? Whenever expectations are not met. AG Erklärungsfähige Softwaresysteme Universität Kassel — 2011-06-30 Folie 18 Stiftung Universität HildesheimFreitag, 1. Juli 2011
  38. 38. Mining and Analysis Continuum of Explaining MACE Martin Atzmüller and Thomas Roth-Berghofer, Ready for the MACE? The Mining and Analysis Continuum of Explaining uncovered, Research Report RR-10-02, Deutsches Forschungszentrum für Künstliche Intelligenz DFKI GmbH, 2010, ISSN 0946-008X. AG Erklärungsfähige Softwaresysteme Universität Kassel — 2011-06-30 Folie 19 Stiftung Universität HildesheimFreitag, 1. Juli 2011
  39. 39. Mining and Analysis Continuum of Explaining Privacy Explanation Goals Kinds of explanation Level of Details Presentation styles Conceptualisation Concept explanation MACE Transparency Why explanation Justification How explanation Relevance Purpose explanation Learning Action explanation Ontological knowledge Instance knowledge Pattern knowledge Context knowledge (Vocabulary) Knowledge containers Martin Atzmüller and Thomas Roth-Berghofer, Ready for the MACE? The Mining and Analysis Continuum of Explaining uncovered, Research Report RR-10-02, Deutsches Forschungszentrum für Künstliche Intelligenz DFKI GmbH, 2010, ISSN 0946-008X. AG Erklärungsfähige Softwaresysteme Universität Kassel — 2011-06-30 Folie 19 Stiftung Universität HildesheimFreitag, 1. Juli 2011
  40. 40. Example 1: Semantic search Roth-Berghofer, Th. and Forcher, B. Improving the understandability of semantic search explanations. Int. J. Knowledge Engineering and Data Mining, 1(3):216–234, 2011. AG Erklärungsfähige Softwaresysteme Universität Kassel — 2011-06-30 Folie 20 Stiftung Universität HildesheimFreitag, 1. Juli 2011
  41. 41. Semantic search process 21 AG Erklärungsfähige Softwaresysteme Universität Kassel — 2011-06-30 Folie Stiftung Universität HildesheimFreitag, 1. Juli 2011
  42. 42. Semantic search process 21 AG Erklärungsfähige Softwaresysteme Universität Kassel — 2011-06-30 Folie Stiftung Universität HildesheimFreitag, 1. Juli 2011
  43. 43. Semantic search process 21 AG Erklärungsfähige Softwaresysteme Universität Kassel — 2011-06-30 Folie Stiftung Universität HildesheimFreitag, 1. Juli 2011
  44. 44. Medico project: Annotate and Search with RadSem Goal: Support medical doctors (esp. radiologists) in annotating and searching for medical images (and text) with controlled vocabulary. AG Erklärungsfähige Softwaresysteme Universität Kassel — 2011-06-30 Folie 22 Stiftung Universität HildesheimFreitag, 1. Juli 2011
  45. 45. Medico project: Annotate and Search with RadSem Goal: Support medical doctors (esp. radiologists) in annotating and searching for medical images (and text) with controlled vocabulary. AG Erklärungsfähige Softwaresysteme Universität Kassel — 2011-06-30 Folie 22 Stiftung Universität HildesheimFreitag, 1. Juli 2011
  46. 46. Medico project: Annotate and Search with RadSem Goal: Support medical doctors (esp. radiologists) in annotating and searching for medical images (and text) with controlled vocabulary. AG Erklärungsfähige Softwaresysteme Universität Kassel — 2011-06-30 Folie 22 Stiftung Universität HildesheimFreitag, 1. Juli 2011
  47. 47. Medico project: Annotate and Search with RadSem Goal: Support medical doctors (esp. radiologists) in annotating and searching for medical images (and text) with controlled vocabulary. Acknowledgement: RadSem was part of the MEDICO project (funded by BMWi in the research programme THESEUS) AG Erklärungsfähige Softwaresysteme Universität Kassel — 2011-06-30 Folie 22 Stiftung Universität HildesheimFreitag, 1. Juli 2011
  48. 48. Medico ontology hierarchy AG Erklärungsfähige Softwaresysteme Universität Kassel — 2011-06-30 Folie 23 Stiftung Universität HildesheimFreitag, 1. Juli 2011
  49. 49. Medico ontology hierarchy AG Erklärungsfähige Softwaresysteme Universität Kassel — 2011-06-30 Folie 23 Stiftung Universität HildesheimFreitag, 1. Juli 2011
  50. 50. Foundational Model of Anatomy (FMA) Developed and maintained by Structural Informatics Group at University of Washington Contains more than 70.000 anatomical entities (classes) More than 1.5 million relations between entities Most comprehensive human ontology AG Erklärungsfähige Softwaresysteme Universität Kassel — 2011-06-30 Folie 24 Stiftung Universität HildesheimFreitag, 1. Juli 2011
  51. 51. International Classification of Diseases ICD-10 Established standard of WHO, but only available in semi- structured formats Formalisation approach: Crawler for online version of ICD-10 generates light-weight OWL ontology AG Erklärungsfähige Softwaresysteme Universität Kassel — 2011-06-30 Folie 25 Stiftung Universität HildesheimFreitag, 1. Juli 2011
  52. 52. AG Erklärungsfähige Softwaresysteme Universität Kassel — 2011-06-30 Folie 26 Stiftung Universität HildesheimFreitag, 1. Juli 2011
  53. 53. „Region of Interest“ AG Erklärungsfähige Softwaresysteme Universität Kassel — 2011-06-30 Folie 26 Stiftung Universität HildesheimFreitag, 1. Juli 2011
  54. 54. „Region of Interest“ AG Erklärungsfähige Softwaresysteme Universität Kassel — 2011-06-30 Folie 26 Stiftung Universität HildesheimFreitag, 1. Juli 2011
  55. 55. „Region of Interest“ AG Erklärungsfähige Softwaresysteme Universität Kassel — 2011-06-30 Folie 26 Stiftung Universität HildesheimFreitag, 1. Juli 2011
  56. 56. „Region of Interest“ AG Erklärungsfähige Softwaresysteme Universität Kassel — 2011-06-30 Folie 26 Stiftung Universität HildesheimFreitag, 1. Juli 2011
  57. 57. Example search AG Erklärungsfähige Softwaresysteme Universität Kassel — 2011-06-30 Folie 27 Stiftung Universität HildesheimFreitag, 1. Juli 2011
  58. 58. Example search AG Erklärungsfähige Softwaresysteme Universität Kassel — 2011-06-30 Folie 27 Stiftung Universität HildesheimFreitag, 1. Juli 2011
  59. 59. Example search AG Erklärungsfähige Softwaresysteme Universität Kassel — 2011-06-30 Folie 27 Stiftung Universität HildesheimFreitag, 1. Juli 2011
  60. 60. Communication scenario for RadSem User model Explainer Frequency classes U I Semantic Originator FMA Query extended with Search ICD-10 ontology concepts Ranking based on path length between searched for and found concept AG Erklärungsfähige Softwaresysteme Universität Kassel — 2011-06-30 Folie 28 Stiftung Universität HildesheimFreitag, 1. Juli 2011
  61. 61. Communication scenario for RadSem Dijkstra algorithm approximating the semantic User model search algorithm Explainer Frequency classes U I Semantic Originator FMA Query extended with Search ICD-10 ontology concepts Ranking based on path length between searched for and found concept AG Erklärungsfähige Softwaresysteme Universität Kassel — 2011-06-30 Folie 28 Stiftung Universität HildesheimFreitag, 1. Juli 2011
  62. 62. Reconstructive explanation Explainer Semantic Originator Search AG Erklärungsfähige Softwaresysteme Universität Kassel — 2011-06-30 Folie 29 Stiftung Universität HildesheimFreitag, 1. Juli 2011
  63. 63. Reconstructive explanation Explainer line of reasoning Semantic Originator Search AG Erklärungsfähige Softwaresysteme Universität Kassel — 2011-06-30 Folie 29 Stiftung Universität HildesheimFreitag, 1. Juli 2011
  64. 64. Reconstructive explanation Explainer line of reasoning Semantic Originator Search AG Erklärungsfähige Softwaresysteme Universität Kassel — 2011-06-30 Folie 29 Stiftung Universität HildesheimFreitag, 1. Juli 2011
  65. 65. Reconstructive explanation Explainer line of explanation line of reasoning Semantic Originator Search AG Erklärungsfähige Softwaresysteme Universität Kassel — 2011-06-30 Folie 29 Stiftung Universität HildesheimFreitag, 1. Juli 2011
  66. 66. Reconstructive explanation Explainer line of explanation line of reasoning Semantic Originator Search AG Erklärungsfähige Softwaresysteme Universität Kassel — 2011-06-30 Folie 29 Stiftung Universität HildesheimFreitag, 1. Juli 2011
  67. 67. Reconstructive explanation Explainer line of explanation line of reasoning Semantic Originator Search AG Erklärungsfähige Softwaresysteme Universität Kassel — 2011-06-30 Folie 29 Stiftung Universität HildesheimFreitag, 1. Juli 2011
  68. 68. „Bridge concepts“ Search concept Bridge concepts Annotation concept AG Erklärungsfähige Softwaresysteme Universität Kassel — 2011-06-30 Folie 30 Stiftung Universität HildesheimFreitag, 1. Juli 2011
  69. 69. Predict understandability of term Hypothesis: The degree of medical knowledge correlates with frequency classes. Relation between a word and most frequent word of a text corpus. Frequency class Definition: Let C be a text corpus and let f(t) denote the frequency of a term t ∈ C. The frequency class c(t) of a term t ∈ C is defined as , where t∗ denotes the most frequently used term in C. Examples: c(‘Brain‘) = c16, c(‘Encephalon‘) = c22 zu Eissen, S.M. and Stein, B. (2006) ‘Intrinsic plagiarism detection’, in ECIR, pp.565–569. AG Erklärungsfähige Softwaresysteme Universität Kassel — 2011-06-30 Folie 31 Stiftung Universität HildesheimFreitag, 1. Juli 2011
  70. 70. Users of RadSem AG Erklärungsfähige Softwaresysteme Universität Kassel — 2011-06-30 Folie 32 Stiftung Universität HildesheimFreitag, 1. Juli 2011
  71. 71. Users of RadSem Medical IT specialists Medical doctors Patients and Citizens AG Erklärungsfähige Softwaresysteme Universität Kassel — 2011-06-30 Folie 32 Stiftung Universität HildesheimFreitag, 1. Juli 2011
  72. 72. When do RadSem users need explanations? AG Erklärungsfähige Softwaresysteme Universität Kassel — 2011-06-30 Folie 33 Stiftung Universität HildesheimFreitag, 1. Juli 2011
  73. 73. When do RadSem users need explanations? Test whether the Search Engine works correctly. Test whether the ontologies are correctly modelled. Medical IT specialists AG Erklärungsfähige Softwaresysteme Universität Kassel — 2011-06-30 Folie 33 Stiftung Universität HildesheimFreitag, 1. Juli 2011
  74. 74. When do RadSem users need explanations? Test whether the Search Engine works correctly. Test whether the ontologies are correctly modelled. Medical IT specialists Learn about the medical domain. Justify results in order to increase trust. Learn how to use the engine concerning ontologies. Patients and Citizens AG Erklärungsfähige Softwaresysteme Universität Kassel — 2011-06-30 Folie 33 Stiftung Universität HildesheimFreitag, 1. Juli 2011
  75. 75. Even doctors have the need for explanations from time to time! Reassurance: Activate passive knowledge. Medical doctors AG Erklärungsfähige Softwaresysteme Universität Kassel — 2011-06-30 Folie 34 Stiftung Universität HildesheimFreitag, 1. Juli 2011
  76. 76. Example 2: myCBR AG Erklärungsfähige Softwaresysteme Universität Kassel — 2011-06-30 Folie 35 Stiftung Universität HildesheimFreitag, 1. Juli 2011
  77. 77. Open-source case-based reasoning tool Main features (Version 3.x): Easy import of raw data (csv-files) GUIs for modelling knowledge-intensive similarity measures Similarity-based retrieval functionality myCBR Software Development Kit (SDK) for easy integration with other systems Built-in explanation capabilities More information and download: http://mycbr-project.net AG Erklärungsfähige Softwaresysteme Universität Kassel — 2011-06-30 Folie 36 Stiftung Universität HildesheimFreitag, 1. Juli 2011
  78. 78. Case-Based Reasoning (CBR) is a problem solving approach. In short: New problems are solved based on the solutions of similar past problems. Basic assumption: Similar problems have similar solutions. Agnar Aamodt and Enric Plaza. Case-based reasoning: Foundational issues, methodological variations, and system approaches. AI Communications, 7(1):39–59, 1994. AG Erklärungsfähige Softwaresysteme Universität Kassel — 2011-06-30 Folie Stiftung Universität Hildesheim 37Freitag, 1. Juli 2011
  79. 79. How do you compare cars? AG Erklärungsfähige Softwaresysteme Universität Kassel — 2011-06-30 Folie 38 Stiftung Universität HildesheimFreitag, 1. Juli 2011
  80. 80. How do you compare cars? Body Model Color Mileage Manufacturer AG Erklärungsfähige Softwaresysteme Universität Kassel — 2011-06-30 Folie 38 Stiftung Universität HildesheimFreitag, 1. Juli 2011
  81. 81. AG Erklärungsfähige Softwaresysteme Universität Kassel — 2011-06-30 Folie 39 Stiftung Universität HildesheimFreitag, 1. Juli 2011
  82. 82. AG Erklärungsfähige Softwaresysteme Universität Kassel — 2011-06-30 Folie 39 Stiftung Universität HildesheimFreitag, 1. Juli 2011
  83. 83. AG Erklärungsfähige Softwaresysteme Universität Kassel — 2011-06-30 Folie 39 Stiftung Universität HildesheimFreitag, 1. Juli 2011
  84. 84. Local similarity measure AG Erklärungsfähige Softwaresysteme Universität Kassel — 2011-06-30 Folie 40 Stiftung Universität HildesheimFreitag, 1. Juli 2011
  85. 85. Global similarity measure Feature match: local similarity measures Class similarity: aggregate local similarities Weighted sum Maximum Minimum Euclidian distance AG Erklärungsfähige Softwaresysteme Universität Kassel — 2011-06-30 Folie 41 Stiftung Universität HildesheimFreitag, 1. Juli 2011
  86. 86. Global similarity measure Feature match: local similarity measures Class similarity: aggregate local similarities Weighted sum Maximum Minimum Euclidian distance AG Erklärungsfähige Softwaresysteme Universität Kassel — 2011-06-30 Folie 41 Stiftung Universität HildesheimFreitag, 1. Juli 2011
  87. 87. Important attributes AG Erklärungsfähige Softwaresysteme Universität Kassel — 2011-06-30 Folie 42 Stiftung Universität HildesheimFreitag, 1. Juli 2011
  88. 88. Searching for a car AG Erklärungsfähige Softwaresysteme Universität Kassel — 2011-06-30 Folie 43 Stiftung Universität HildesheimFreitag, 1. Juli 2011
  89. 89. Searching for a car AG Erklärungsfähige Softwaresysteme Universität Kassel — 2011-06-30 Folie 43 Stiftung Universität HildesheimFreitag, 1. Juli 2011
  90. 90. Searching for a car AG Erklärungsfähige Softwaresysteme Universität Kassel — 2011-06-30 Folie 43 Stiftung Universität HildesheimFreitag, 1. Juli 2011
  91. 91. Searching for a car AG Erklärungsfähige Softwaresysteme Universität Kassel — 2011-06-30 Folie 43 Stiftung Universität HildesheimFreitag, 1. Juli 2011
  92. 92. Searching for a car AG Erklärungsfähige Softwaresysteme Universität Kassel — 2011-06-30 Folie 43 Stiftung Universität HildesheimFreitag, 1. Juli 2011
  93. 93. Concept explanations AG Erklärungsfähige Softwaresysteme Universität Kassel — 2011-06-30 Folie 44 Stiftung Universität HildesheimFreitag, 1. Juli 2011
  94. 94. AG Erklärungsfähige Softwaresysteme Universität Kassel — 2011-06-30 Folie 45 Stiftung Universität HildesheimFreitag, 1. Juli 2011
  95. 95. AG Erklärungsfähige Softwaresysteme Universität Kassel — 2011-06-30 Folie 45 Stiftung Universität HildesheimFreitag, 1. Juli 2011
  96. 96. ➡ Concept explanations provide links to known concepts. AG Erklärungsfähige Softwaresysteme Universität Kassel — 2011-06-30 Folie 45 Stiftung Universität HildesheimFreitag, 1. Juli 2011
  97. 97. ➡ Concept explanations provide links to known concepts. AG Erklärungsfähige Softwaresysteme Universität Kassel — 2011-06-30 Folie 45 Stiftung Universität HildesheimFreitag, 1. Juli 2011
  98. 98. ➡ Concept explanations provide links to known concepts. AG Erklärungsfähige Softwaresysteme Universität Kassel — 2011-06-30 Folie 45 Stiftung Universität HildesheimFreitag, 1. Juli 2011
  99. 99. ➡ Concept explanations provide links to known concepts. AG Erklärungsfähige Softwaresysteme Universität Kassel — 2011-06-30 Folie 45 Stiftung Universität HildesheimFreitag, 1. Juli 2011
  100. 100. ➡ Concept explanations provide links to known concepts. ➡ Action explanations provide information about the similarity calculation process. AG Erklärungsfähige Softwaresysteme Universität Kassel — 2011-06-30 Folie 45 Stiftung Universität HildesheimFreitag, 1. Juli 2011
  101. 101. Mining and Analysis Continuum of Explaining MACE Martin Atzmüller and Thomas Roth-Berghofer, Ready for the MACE? The Mining and Analysis Continuum of Explaining uncovered, Research Report RR-10-02, Deutsches Forschungszentrum für Künstliche Intelligenz DFKI GmbH, 2010, ISSN 0946-008X. AG Erklärungsfähige Softwaresysteme Universität Kassel — 2011-06-30 Folie 46 Stiftung Universität HildesheimFreitag, 1. Juli 2011
  102. 102. Mining and Analysis Continuum of Explaining Explanation Goals Conceptualisation MACE Transparency Justification Relevance Learning Martin Atzmüller and Thomas Roth-Berghofer, Ready for the MACE? The Mining and Analysis Continuum of Explaining uncovered, Research Report RR-10-02, Deutsches Forschungszentrum für Künstliche Intelligenz DFKI GmbH, 2010, ISSN 0946-008X. AG Erklärungsfähige Softwaresysteme Universität Kassel — 2011-06-30 Folie 46 Stiftung Universität HildesheimFreitag, 1. Juli 2011
  103. 103. Mining and Analysis Continuum of Explaining Explanation Goals Kinds of explanation Conceptualisation Concept explanation MACE Transparency Why explanation Justification How explanation Relevance Purpose explanation Learning Action explanation Martin Atzmüller and Thomas Roth-Berghofer, Ready for the MACE? The Mining and Analysis Continuum of Explaining uncovered, Research Report RR-10-02, Deutsches Forschungszentrum für Künstliche Intelligenz DFKI GmbH, 2010, ISSN 0946-008X. AG Erklärungsfähige Softwaresysteme Universität Kassel — 2011-06-30 Folie 46 Stiftung Universität HildesheimFreitag, 1. Juli 2011
  104. 104. Mining and Analysis Continuum of Explaining Explanation Goals Kinds of explanation Level of Details Conceptualisation Concept explanation MACE Transparency Why explanation Justification How explanation Relevance Purpose explanation Learning Action explanation Martin Atzmüller and Thomas Roth-Berghofer, Ready for the MACE? The Mining and Analysis Continuum of Explaining uncovered, Research Report RR-10-02, Deutsches Forschungszentrum für Künstliche Intelligenz DFKI GmbH, 2010, ISSN 0946-008X. AG Erklärungsfähige Softwaresysteme Universität Kassel — 2011-06-30 Folie 46 Stiftung Universität HildesheimFreitag, 1. Juli 2011
  105. 105. Mining and Analysis Continuum of Explaining Explanation Goals Kinds of explanation Level of Details Presentation styles Conceptualisation Concept explanation MACE Transparency Why explanation Justification How explanation Relevance Purpose explanation Learning Action explanation Martin Atzmüller and Thomas Roth-Berghofer, Ready for the MACE? The Mining and Analysis Continuum of Explaining uncovered, Research Report RR-10-02, Deutsches Forschungszentrum für Künstliche Intelligenz DFKI GmbH, 2010, ISSN 0946-008X. AG Erklärungsfähige Softwaresysteme Universität Kassel — 2011-06-30 Folie 46 Stiftung Universität HildesheimFreitag, 1. Juli 2011
  106. 106. Mining and Analysis Continuum of Explaining Explanation Goals Kinds of explanation Level of Details Presentation styles Conceptualisation Concept explanation MACE Transparency Why explanation Justification How explanation Relevance Purpose explanation Learning Action explanation Knowledge containers Martin Atzmüller and Thomas Roth-Berghofer, Ready for the MACE? The Mining and Analysis Continuum of Explaining uncovered, Research Report RR-10-02, Deutsches Forschungszentrum für Künstliche Intelligenz DFKI GmbH, 2010, ISSN 0946-008X. AG Erklärungsfähige Softwaresysteme Universität Kassel — 2011-06-30 Folie 46 Stiftung Universität HildesheimFreitag, 1. Juli 2011
  107. 107. Mining and Analysis Continuum of Explaining Explanation Goals Kinds of explanation Level of Details Presentation styles Conceptualisation Concept explanation MACE Transparency Why explanation Justification How explanation Relevance Purpose explanation Learning Action explanation Ontological knowledge Instance knowledge Pattern knowledge Context knowledge (Vocabulary) Knowledge containers Martin Atzmüller and Thomas Roth-Berghofer, Ready for the MACE? The Mining and Analysis Continuum of Explaining uncovered, Research Report RR-10-02, Deutsches Forschungszentrum für Künstliche Intelligenz DFKI GmbH, 2010, ISSN 0946-008X. AG Erklärungsfähige Softwaresysteme Universität Kassel — 2011-06-30 Folie 46 Stiftung Universität HildesheimFreitag, 1. Juli 2011
  108. 108. Mining and Analysis Continuum of Explaining Privacy Explanation Goals Kinds of explanation Level of Details Presentation styles Conceptualisation Concept explanation MACE Transparency Why explanation Justification How explanation Relevance Purpose explanation Learning Action explanation Ontological knowledge Instance knowledge Pattern knowledge Context knowledge (Vocabulary) Knowledge containers Martin Atzmüller and Thomas Roth-Berghofer, Ready for the MACE? The Mining and Analysis Continuum of Explaining uncovered, Research Report RR-10-02, Deutsches Forschungszentrum für Künstliche Intelligenz DFKI GmbH, 2010, ISSN 0946-008X. AG Erklärungsfähige Softwaresysteme Universität Kassel — 2011-06-30 Folie 46 Stiftung Universität HildesheimFreitag, 1. Juli 2011
  109. 109. Take home message AG Erklärungsfähige Softwaresysteme Universität Kassel — 2011-06-30 Folie 47 Stiftung Universität HildesheimFreitag, 1. Juli 2011
  110. 110. Take home message Explanation-aware Computing is a user-centred way of looking at software design and development. AG Erklärungsfähige Softwaresysteme Universität Kassel — 2011-06-30 Folie 47 Stiftung Universität HildesheimFreitag, 1. Juli 2011
  111. 111. Take home message Explanation-aware Computing is a user-centred way of looking at U Explainer software design and development. I Originator An ExaCt system consists of explainer and originator with different but overlapping knowledge bases. AG Erklärungsfähige Softwaresysteme Universität Kassel — 2011-06-30 Folie 47 Stiftung Universität HildesheimFreitag, 1. Juli 2011
  112. 112. Take home message Explanation-aware Computing is a user-centred way of looking at U Explainer software design and development. I Originator An ExaCt system consists of explainer and originator with different but overlapping knowledge bases. The annotation and search tool RadSem and myCBR are examples of such ExaCt design. AG Erklärungsfähige Softwaresysteme Universität Kassel — 2011-06-30 Folie 47 Stiftung Universität HildesheimFreitag, 1. Juli 2011
  113. 113. Take home message Explanation-aware Computing is a user-centred way of looking at U Explainer software design and development. I Originator An ExaCt system consists of explainer and originator with different but overlapping knowledge bases. The annotation and search tool RadSem and myCBR are examples of such ExaCt design. More resources and slides: http://on-explanation.net AG Erklärungsfähige Softwaresysteme Universität Kassel — 2011-06-30 Folie 47 Stiftung Universität HildesheimFreitag, 1. Juli 2011
  114. 114. Explanation-aware Computing: A new software paradigm? Dr. Thomas Roth-Berghofer University of Hildesheim, Germany Erklärungsfähige Softwaresysteme Kassel, Germany, 30 June 2011Freitag, 1. Juli 2011
  115. 115. Workshop series „Explanation-aware Computing“ ICJAI-11 workshop, Barcelona, Spain, July 2011, http://exact2011.workshop.hm ECAI-10 workshop, Lisbon, Portugal, July 2010, http://exact2010.workshop.hm IJCAI-09 workshop, Pasadena, California, USA July 2009, http://exact2009.workshop.hm ECAI-08 workshop, Patras, Greece, July 2008, http://exact2008.workshop.hm AAAI-07 workshop, Vancouver, Canada, July 2007, http://exact2007.workshop.hm AAAI Fall Symposium, Washington, DC, USA, November 2005, http://exact2005.workshop.hm AG Erklärungsfähige Softwaresysteme Universität Kassel — 2011-06-30 Folie 49 Stiftung Universität HildesheimFreitag, 1. Juli 2011
  116. 116. http://on-explanation.net AG Erklärungsfähige Softwaresysteme Universität Kassel — 2011-06-30 Folie 50 Stiftung Universität HildesheimFreitag, 1. Juli 2011
  117. 117. http://on-explanation.net AG Erklärungsfähige Softwaresysteme Universität Kassel — 2011-06-30 Folie 50 Stiftung Universität HildesheimFreitag, 1. Juli 2011
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