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CAMBRIDGE, UK, 9 DEC 2008

                     Explanation Capabilities of the Open Source
                     Case-Base...
Basic explanation scenario
Samstag, 18. Juli 2009
„TRUST ME. I KNOW WHAT I AM DOING!“
      SLEDGE HAMMER
Samstag, 18. Juli 2009
„TRUST ME. I KNOW WHAT I AM DOING!“
      SLEDGE HAMMER
Samstag, 18. Juli 2009
What are
                explanations?




Samstag, 18. Juli 2009
What are
                explanations?




Samstag, 18. Juli 2009
What are
                explanations?
                Explanations
                are answers to
                questio...
• Plug-in for popular ontology editor Protégé (Version 3.x)
              • Extensions provided by myCBR (Version 2.6.1):
...
Example domain:
                   Used Cars




Samstag, 18. Juli 2009
Example domain:
                   Used Cars
                            Body

                               Model

     ...
Samstag, 18. Juli 2009
Samstag, 18. Juli 2009
Samstag, 18. Juli 2009
Local similarity measure




                         VISUAL FEEDBACK: COLOURING OF SIMILARITY VALUES




Samstag, 18. Jul...
Global similarity measure
                                    • Feature match:
                                     local ...
Global similarity measure
                                    • Feature match:
                                     local ...
Important attributes




Samstag, 18. Juli 2009
Important attributes




Samstag, 18. Juli 2009
Important attributes




Samstag, 18. Juli 2009
Searching for a car




Samstag, 18. Juli 2009
Searching for a car




Samstag, 18. Juli 2009
Searching for a car




Samstag, 18. Juli 2009
Searching for a car




Samstag, 18. Juli 2009
Searching for a car




Samstag, 18. Juli 2009
Questions


              • about domain concepts
              • about retrieval results
              • during modelling...
Question about
                   domain concepts


              • What is meant by this concept?




Samstag, 18. Juli 2...
Conceptual Explanations
          • The goal of conceptual explanations is to build links
                between unknown ...
Knowledge sources
Samstag, 18. Juli 2009
Problem solving
                                           knowledge


                         Knowledge sources
Samstag,...
Explanation
                                           knowledge




                                      Problem solving...
Conceptual explanations




Samstag, 18. Juli 2009
Samstag, 18. Juli 2009
Samstag, 18. Juli 2009
Questions about
                   retrieval results




Samstag, 18. Juli 2009
Questions about
                   retrieval results


              • How did the system come to the similarity
         ...
Questions about
                   retrieval results


              • How did the system come to the similarity      Acti...
Questions about
                   retrieval results


              • How did the system come to the similarity      Acti...
Action explanations
              • Action explanations explain the activities of the
                    respective syste...
Samstag, 18. Juli 2009
Samstag, 18. Juli 2009
• Conceptual Explanations provide
                          links to known concepts.




Samstag, 18. Juli 2009
• Conceptual Explanations provide
                          links to known concepts.




Samstag, 18. Juli 2009
• Conceptual Explanations provide
                          links to known concepts.




Samstag, 18. Juli 2009
• Conceptual Explanations provide
                          links to known concepts.




Samstag, 18. Juli 2009
• Conceptual Explanations provide
                          links to known concepts.
                         • Action exp...
Most / least important
                   aspects of a case




Samstag, 18. Juli 2009
Most / least important
                   aspects of a case




Samstag, 18. Juli 2009
Explanation config panel




Samstag, 18. Juli 2009
Explanation config panel




Samstag, 18. Juli 2009
Questions during modelling
                   and maintenance


              • Are some problem types underrepresented in...
Samstag, 18. Juli 2009
Samstag, 18. Juli 2009
How many cases use a
                   given attribute?




Samstag, 18. Juli 2009
How many cases use a
                   given attribute?




Samstag, 18. Juli 2009
Distribution of cases
                   regarding ‚manufacturer‘




Samstag, 18. Juli 2009
Distribution of cases
                   regarding ‚manufacturer‘




Samstag, 18. Juli 2009
General system approach




Samstag, 18. Juli 2009
Samstag, 18. Juli 2009
Take home messages




Samstag, 18. Juli 2009
Take home messages
              • Explanations are important and
                    need to be considered while
        ...
Take home messages
              • Explanations are important and             Explainer
                    need to be con...
Take home messages
              • Explanations are important and             Explainer
                    need to be con...
Take home messages
              • Explanations are important and             Explainer
                    need to be con...
Take home messages
              • Explanations are important and               Explainer
                    need to be c...
Thank you!

                         CAMBRIDGE, UK, 9 DEC 2008

                         Explanation Capabilities of the O...
Invitation to participate

              • ExaCt mailing list:
                    http://groups.yahoo.com/group/explanati...
Publications of ExaCt
                    research group
              2008                                               ...
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Explanation Capabilities of the Open Source Case-Based Reasoning Tool myCBR

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This paper describes the various explanation capabilities of the open source case-based reasoning tool myCBR. myCBR features conceptual explanations, which provide information about concepts of the application domain, backward explanations, which explain results of the retrieval process, and forward explanations, which support in the modelling of similarity measures. myCBR has been developed as a rapid prototyping tool with a general purpose interface as well as a similarity-based retrieval engine for easy integration in other applications where the explanations can be further adapted to the application’s requirements.

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Transcript of "Explanation Capabilities of the Open Source Case-Based Reasoning Tool myCBR"

  1. 1. CAMBRIDGE, UK, 9 DEC 2008 Explanation Capabilities of the Open Source Case-Based Reasoning Tool myCBR Thomas Roth-Berghofer Senior researcher, trb@dfki.de German Research Centre for Artificial Intelligence DFKI GmbH Samstag, 18. Juli 2009
  2. 2. Basic explanation scenario Samstag, 18. Juli 2009
  3. 3. „TRUST ME. I KNOW WHAT I AM DOING!“ SLEDGE HAMMER Samstag, 18. Juli 2009
  4. 4. „TRUST ME. I KNOW WHAT I AM DOING!“ SLEDGE HAMMER Samstag, 18. Juli 2009
  5. 5. What are explanations? Samstag, 18. Juli 2009
  6. 6. What are explanations? Samstag, 18. Juli 2009
  7. 7. What are explanations? Explanations are answers to questions. Samstag, 18. Juli 2009
  8. 8. • Plug-in for popular ontology editor Protégé (Version 3.x) • Extensions provided by myCBR (Version 2.6.1): • Easy import of raw data (csv-files) • GUIs for modelling knowledge-intensive similarity measures • Similarity-based retrieval functionality • Export of domain model and similarity measures in XML format • Stand-alone retrieval engine for separate use or integration with other systems • Built-in explanation capabilities MORE INFORMATION AND DOWNLOAD: HTTP://MYCBR-PROJECT.NET Samstag, 18. Juli 2009
  9. 9. Example domain: Used Cars Samstag, 18. Juli 2009
  10. 10. Example domain: Used Cars Body Model Color Mileage Manufacturer Samstag, 18. Juli 2009
  11. 11. Samstag, 18. Juli 2009
  12. 12. Samstag, 18. Juli 2009
  13. 13. Samstag, 18. Juli 2009
  14. 14. Local similarity measure VISUAL FEEDBACK: COLOURING OF SIMILARITY VALUES Samstag, 18. Juli 2009
  15. 15. Global similarity measure • Feature match: local similarity measures • Class similarity: aggregate local similarities • Weighted sum • Maximum • Minimum • Euclidian distance Samstag, 18. Juli 2009
  16. 16. Global similarity measure • Feature match: local similarity measures • Class similarity: aggregate local similarities • Weighted sum • Maximum • Minimum • Euclidian distance Samstag, 18. Juli 2009
  17. 17. Important attributes Samstag, 18. Juli 2009
  18. 18. Important attributes Samstag, 18. Juli 2009
  19. 19. Important attributes Samstag, 18. Juli 2009
  20. 20. Searching for a car Samstag, 18. Juli 2009
  21. 21. Searching for a car Samstag, 18. Juli 2009
  22. 22. Searching for a car Samstag, 18. Juli 2009
  23. 23. Searching for a car Samstag, 18. Juli 2009
  24. 24. Searching for a car Samstag, 18. Juli 2009
  25. 25. Questions • about domain concepts • about retrieval results • during modelling and maintenance Samstag, 18. Juli 2009
  26. 26. Question about domain concepts • What is meant by this concept? Samstag, 18. Juli 2009
  27. 27. Conceptual Explanations • The goal of conceptual explanations is to build links between unknown and known concepts. • Variations: • Definition: “What is a bicycle?” – “A bicycle is a land vehicle with two wheels in line. Bicycles are a form of human powered vehicle.” • Theoretical proposition: “What is force?” – “Force is Mass times Acceleration.” • Prototypical usage of individual things or actions: “What is a bicycle?” – “The thing, that man over there just crashed with.” • Functional mapping: “What is a bicycle?” – “A bicycle serves as a means of transport.” Samstag, 18. Juli 2009
  28. 28. Knowledge sources Samstag, 18. Juli 2009
  29. 29. Problem solving knowledge Knowledge sources Samstag, 18. Juli 2009
  30. 30. Explanation knowledge Problem solving knowledge Knowledge sources Samstag, 18. Juli 2009
  31. 31. Conceptual explanations Samstag, 18. Juli 2009
  32. 32. Samstag, 18. Juli 2009
  33. 33. Samstag, 18. Juli 2009
  34. 34. Questions about retrieval results Samstag, 18. Juli 2009
  35. 35. Questions about retrieval results • How did the system come to the similarity assessment of a particular case? Samstag, 18. Juli 2009
  36. 36. Questions about retrieval results • How did the system come to the similarity Action assessment of a particular case? explanations Samstag, 18. Juli 2009
  37. 37. Questions about retrieval results • How did the system come to the similarity Action assessment of a particular case? explanations • Which are the most similar aspects of a case? Which are the least? Samstag, 18. Juli 2009
  38. 38. Action explanations • Action explanations explain the activities of the respective system. • Action explanations: “Why was this seat post selected?” – “For the given price, only one other seat post was available. But this was too short. • Negative action explanations: “Why was no carrier chosen?” – “A carrier is only available for touring bikes. The user did not choose a touring bike.” Samstag, 18. Juli 2009
  39. 39. Samstag, 18. Juli 2009
  40. 40. Samstag, 18. Juli 2009
  41. 41. • Conceptual Explanations provide links to known concepts. Samstag, 18. Juli 2009
  42. 42. • Conceptual Explanations provide links to known concepts. Samstag, 18. Juli 2009
  43. 43. • Conceptual Explanations provide links to known concepts. Samstag, 18. Juli 2009
  44. 44. • Conceptual Explanations provide links to known concepts. Samstag, 18. Juli 2009
  45. 45. • Conceptual Explanations provide links to known concepts. • Action explanations provide information about the similarity calculation process. Samstag, 18. Juli 2009
  46. 46. Most / least important aspects of a case Samstag, 18. Juli 2009
  47. 47. Most / least important aspects of a case Samstag, 18. Juli 2009
  48. 48. Explanation config panel Samstag, 18. Juli 2009
  49. 49. Explanation config panel Samstag, 18. Juli 2009
  50. 50. Questions during modelling and maintenance • Are some problem types underrepresented in the case base? • Is there an imbalance of cases in the case base? Samstag, 18. Juli 2009
  51. 51. Samstag, 18. Juli 2009
  52. 52. Samstag, 18. Juli 2009
  53. 53. How many cases use a given attribute? Samstag, 18. Juli 2009
  54. 54. How many cases use a given attribute? Samstag, 18. Juli 2009
  55. 55. Distribution of cases regarding ‚manufacturer‘ Samstag, 18. Juli 2009
  56. 56. Distribution of cases regarding ‚manufacturer‘ Samstag, 18. Juli 2009
  57. 57. General system approach Samstag, 18. Juli 2009
  58. 58. Samstag, 18. Juli 2009
  59. 59. Take home messages Samstag, 18. Juli 2009
  60. 60. Take home messages • Explanations are important and need to be considered while developing a software system. Samstag, 18. Juli 2009
  61. 61. Take home messages • Explanations are important and Explainer need to be considered while User developing a software system. Originator • Explanations are part of communication scenario Samstag, 18. Juli 2009
  62. 62. Take home messages • Explanations are important and Explainer need to be considered while User developing a software system. Originator • Explanations are part of communication scenario • Conceptual explanations support domain understanding. Samstag, 18. Juli 2009
  63. 63. Take home messages • Explanations are important and Explainer need to be considered while User developing a software system. Originator • Explanations are part of communication scenario • Conceptual explanations support domain understanding. • Action explanations counteract encapsulation and information hiding. Samstag, 18. Juli 2009
  64. 64. Take home messages • Explanations are important and Explainer need to be considered while User developing a software system. Originator • Explanations are part of communication scenario • Conceptual explanations support domain understanding. • Action explanations counteract encapsulation and information hiding. • Explanation manager provides access to conceptual and action explanations. Samstag, 18. Juli 2009
  65. 65. Thank you! CAMBRIDGE, UK, 9 DEC 2008 Explanation Capabilities of the Open Source Case-Based Reasoning Tool myCBR Thomas Roth-Berghofer Senior researcher, trb@dfki.de German Research Centre for Artificial Intelligence DFKI GmbH Samstag, 18. Juli 2009
  66. 66. Invitation to participate • ExaCt mailing list: http://groups.yahoo.com/group/explanation-research/ • ExaCt 2009 @ IJCAI 2009 http://exact2009.workshop.hm Samstag, 18. Juli 2009
  67. 67. Publications of ExaCt research group 2008 2007 (contd.) [Bahls, 2008] Bahls, D. (2008). Explanation support for the case-based [Roth-Berghofer et al., 2007] Roth-Berghofer, T. R., Schulz, S., and Leake, reasoning tool myCBR. Project thesis, University of Kaiserslautern. D. B., editors (2007). Proceedings of the AAAI-07 workshop on [Forcher et al., 2008] Forcher, B., Adrian, B., and Roth-Berghofer, T. (2008). Explanation-aware Computing ExaCt2007. AAAI Press. Technical Report Explanations in the information extraction system iDocument. Künstliche WS-07-06. Intelligenz, 22(2). 2006 [Mittag, 2008] Mittag, F. (2008). ReduxExp: A justification-based [Richter et al., 2006] Richter, M. M., Roth-Berghofer, T., and Schulz, S., explanation-support server. Project thesis, University of Kaiserslautern. editors (2006). Explanation-aware Computing, volume 25. SAP - Slovak [Roth-Berghofer and Bahls, 2008] Roth-Berghofer, T. R. and Bahls, D. Academic Press Ltd., Bratislava. (2008). Code tagging and retrieval with myCBR. In Petridis, M., Coenen, F., 2005 and Bramer, M., editors, Research and Development in Intelligent Systems [Roth-Berghofer et al., 2005a] Roth-Berghofer, T., Cassens, J., and Sørmo, XXV, London, UK. Springer Verlag. F. (2005a). Goals and kinds of explanations in case-based reasoning. In [Roth-Berghofer and Mittag, 2008] Roth-Berghofer, T. R. and Mittag, F. Althoff, K.-D., Dengel, A., Bergmann, R., Nick, M., and Roth-Berghofer, T., (2008). ReduxExp: A justification-based explanation-support server. editors, WM 2005: Professional Knowledge Management, pages 264–268, Proceedings of AI-2008. the twenty-eighth SGAI international conference Kaiserslautern, Germany. DFKI GmbH. on artificial intelligence. In Petridis, M., Coenen, F., and Bramer, M., editors, [Roth-Berghofer and Cassens, 2005] Roth-Berghofer, T. R. and Cassens, J. Research and Development in Intelligent Systems XXV, London, UK. (2005). Mapping goals and kinds of explanations to the knowledge Springer Verlag. containers of case-based reasoning systems. In Muñoz-Avila, H. and Ricci, [Roth-Berghofer and Richter, 2008a] Roth-Berghofer, T. R. and Richter, M. F., editors, Case-Based Reasoning Research and Developmen, pages 451– M., editors (2008a). Künstliche Intelligenz—Topic: Explanation, volume 22, 464, Heidelberg. Springer Verlag. Bremen. BöttcherIT Verlag. [Roth-Berghofer et al., 2005b] Roth-Berghofer, T. R., Schulz, S., and [Roth-Berghofer and Richter, 2008b] Roth-Berghofer, T. R. and Richter, M. Woody, A., editors (2005b). Proceedings of the AAAI Fal l Symposium on M. (2008b). On explanation. Künstliche Intelligenz, 22(2):5–7. Explanation-aware Computing ExaCt2005. AAAI Press. Technical Report 2007 FS-05-04. [Bahls and Roth-Berghofer, 2007] Bahls, D. and Roth-Berghofer, T. (2007). 2004 Explanation support for the case-based reasoning tool myCBR. In [Roth-Berghofer, 2004] Roth-Berghofer, T. R. (2004). Explanations and Proceedings of the Twenty-Second AAAI Conference on Artificial Case-Based Reasoning: Foundational issues. In Funk, P. and González- Intelligence. July 22–26, 2007, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada., Calero, P. A., editors, Advances in Case-Based Reasoning, pages 389–403. pages 1844–1845. The AAAI Press, Menlo Park, California. Springer-Verlag. [Eppert, 2007] Eppert, M. (2007). Generating provenance explanations for the gnowsis rebirth machine - a first pass. Pro ject thesis, University of Kaiserslautern. Samstag, 18. Juli 2009
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