Can affect which interventions they can do on their own
Overall health status
Severely poor diet, low weight, more elderly, broken bones, and doesn’t exercise you would treat differently than someone without these conditions
Want to identify primary dysfunction in order to direct intervention
For osteoporosis it could be:
Lack of education
According to the APTA, the range of visits for skeletal demineralization is 3-18
Factors that modify frequency of visits:
Accessibility/availability of resources
Adherence to intervention program
Chronicity/severity of current condition
Comorbidities, secondary impairments
Decline in functional status
Stability of condition
General Plan of Care: Patient/Client will reduce the risk of skeletal demineralization through strength-training and weight bearing therapeutic exercise programs and through lifestyle modifications.
General Goals of Intervention
Ability to perform physical actions, tasks, or activities is improved.
Awareness and use of community resources are improved.
Behaviors that foster healthy habits, wellness, and prevention are acquired.
Decision making is enhanced regarding patient/client health and the use of health care resources by patient/client, family, significant others, and caregivers.
Health status is improved.
Patient/client, family, significant other, and caregiver knowledge and awareness of the diagnosis, prognosis, interventions, and anticipated goals and expected outcomes are increased.
Patient/client knowledge of personal and environmental factors associated with the condition is increased.
Performance levels in self-care, home management, work (job/school/play), community, or leisure actions, tasks, or activities are improved.
Physical function is improved.
Risk of recurrence of condition is reduced.
Safety of patient/client, family, significant others, and caregivers is improved.
Utilization and cost of health care services are decreased.
Aerobic capacity/endurance conditioning or reconditioning
Balance, coordination , and agility training
Body mechanics and postural stabilization
Gait and locomotion training
Strength, power, and endurance training for head, neck, limb, pelvic-floor, trunk, and ventilatory muscles
Barrier accommodations or modifications
Injury prevention or reduction
How many times per week are weight bearing endurance activities preferred by the ACSM for bone health?
Weight-bearing endurance activities
Moderate to high intensity required for bone loading
Weight-bearing endurance activities 3-5 times a week at least, 5-7 times preferred
Resistance exercise at least 2 times/week
30-60 min combined weight-bearing endurance activities, jumping, and resistance training that targets all major muscle groups
Which is the most common and most accurate way to determine Bone Mineral Density testing:
a) densitometry scale
b) Spine CT
c) Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry
A bone mineral density (BMD) test measures how much calcium and other types of minerals are present in a section of your bone. Your health care provider uses this test, along with other risk factors, to predict your risk of bone fractures in the future and detect osteoporosis.
Bone fracture risk is highest in people with osteoporosis.
Bone mineral density testing (specifically a densitometry or DEXA scan) measures how much bone you have.
Your health care provider uses this test to predict your risk for bone fractures in the future.
A special type of spine CT that can show loss of bone mineral density, quantitative computed tomography (QCT) , may be used in rare cases.
In severe cases, a spine or hip x-ray may show fracture or collapse of the spinal bones.
However, simple x-rays of bones are not very accurate in predicting whether someone is likely to have osteoporosis.
You may need other blood and urine tests if your osteoporosis is thought to be due to a medical condition, rather than simply the usual bone loss seen with older age.
Kyphosis is common in a person with Osteoporosis and often associated with the term:
a) Milwaukee hump
b) Cobb’s hump
c) Postural hump
d) Dowagers hump
Bone pain or tenderness
Fractures with little or no trauma
Loss of height (as much as 6 inches) over time
Low back pain due to fractures of the spinal bones
Neck pain due to fractures of the spinal bones
Stooped posture or kyphosis-"dowager's hump”
***There are no symptoms in the early stages of the disease!!!***
Orthopedic Center of Central Virginia
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Which food is lowest in calcium?
Get at least 1,200 milligrams per day of calcium and 800 - 1,000 international units of vitamin D3.
Vitamin D helps your body absorb calcium.
Your doctor may recommend a supplement to give you the calcium and vitamin D you need.
Follow a diet that provides the proper amount of calcium, vitamin D, and protein.
While this will not completely stop bone loss, it will guarantee that a supply of the materials the body uses to form and maintain bones is available.
Caffeine in high amounts can cause bone loss. It interferes with calcium absorption and causes a slight increase in the amount of calcium in the urine.
Some studies suggest that too much phosphorous can reduce the amount of calcium that the body absorbs.
Be careful not to substitute caffeinated drinks for milk and calcium-fortified juices. When drinks that have caffeine take the place of milk and other sources of calcium, bone health may be affected.
Which of the following activities would be contraindicated for an individual with osteoporosis?
A. reaching up in the cupboard
B. bending over to tie a shoe
C. arm exercises with a 3 lb. weight
Consult physician prior to beginning a program
Dynamic abdominal exercises like sit-ups and excessive trunk flexion can cause vertebral crush fractures.
Twisting movements such as a golf swing can also cause fractures
Exercises that involve abrupt or explosive loading, or high-impact loading, are contraindicated.
If you participate in Yoga or Pilates inform the instructor so that positions can be modified
Bending can cause vertebral fracture and should be avoided
Some exercises are not suitable for people with osteoporosis because they exert very strong force on relatively weak bones
Avoid high impact: running, jogging
Medical Conditions: Obesity, High Blood, Pressure , Heart Disease may affect participation
Walking (outside, treadmill)
Dancing (good warm up)
Elliptical training machines
Low-impact aerobics: step aerobics
Free weights or weight machines at home or in the gym
Resistance tubing that comes in a variety of strengths