Ci6112 week 8 - curriculum implementation

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  • 1. Curriculum Implementation CI6112 Week 8
  • 2. Agenda• Final Project• Homework• Definition of Curriculum Implementation• Factors that Influence Curriculum Implementation• Learning resources required to deliver the curriculum• Monitoring the curriculum• Week 11 Learning Activities
  • 3. Final Project, First Announcement1. Create a Comprehensive, Descriptive Overview of a Recent/Current Curriculum Initiative or Movement 1. Identify a clearly defined curriculum movement that is currentl in educational settings or has been within recent decades. Describe its foundational roots, the breadth of its influence in the field, results of its implementation, and the current and future status of the curriculum movement.2. Develop an Original Curriculum or Curriculum Strand – Present a rationale for the curriculum; identify its foundational characteristics (e.g., philosophical, historical, etc.); develop and describe a conceptual structure for it; provide outcomes (the level to be determined by the scope of the curriculum); explicate its major component elements; and address any implications for instructional strategies and assessment practices associated with the curriculum. Develop and explain recommendations for implementation and evaluation of the curriculum.
  • 4. Final Project, First Announcement3. Conduct an Evaluation of a Current Curriculum – Describe the curriculum, including its foundational elements (e.g., philosophical, historical, etc.) and purpose; identify the curricular aims, goals, and objectives; explain the rationale for evaluating the curriculum; and present an overview of the curriculum evaluation process. Conduct the evaluation and provide the results.4. Design and Complete an Original Project of Your Choice • To be determined in advance in collaboration with me.• The result will be a written paper (no more than 10 pages long, font size 12, double-spaced, paginated, with cover page). In weeks 15-17 you will present your paper to the class using PPT. You will have no more than 10 minutes for your presentation. The paper will be submitted during the last class meeting in Week 17. Late submissions WILL NOT be accepted.
  • 5. Week 8 Learning ActivitiesI. Online Learning Activities 1. Go to the following URL and open the PDF document entitled – Thailand: Curriculum Development, Planning and Reform. http://www.ibe.unesco.org/curriculum/Asia%20Networkpdf/ndrepth.pdf – Scan the entire article to get a sense of the process of primary and secondary curriculum development processes in Thailand, but then, read closely the last page CURRICULA ADAPTATION: OUTCOMES AND ISSUES in order to answer the following questions: • What was (is) the most important problem faced by the Thai curriculum developers? • What were (are) the reasons behind this problem? • What are the goals of the post-reform Thai education system? • What will the post-reform curriculum focus on? • What will be the main post-reform curriculum orientations? • What will be the post-reform teaching/learning approach? 2. How can we successfully implement and integrate technology into the classroom? Go to the following site and note down the 10 suggestions given. Can you suggest other ways to implement technology based upon your own experience?http://homeschoolsoftwareguide.com/ten-effective-ways-to-implement-technology-in-the- classroom
  • 6. Week 8 Learning ActivitiesII. Readings On the class web site, download and read the following 6 documents in the Week 9 Folder: -Backward Design.doc -Curriculum Implementation Processes.doc -Curriculum Implementation.doc -Deciding What Students Should Learn.doc -Overview of the Curriculum Development Process.doc -Principals as Curriculum Leaders.doc• As always be prepared to ASK QUESTIONS in class about anything you don’t understand or that isn’t clear to you in these articles.
  • 7. Online Learning Activities 1• Thailand: Curriculum planning, development and reform by Kiat Ampra and Chadjane Thaithae• Who published the article? – UNESCO Statistical Yearbook -http://www.unesco.org/new/en/unesco/ http://www.unesco.org/new/en/unesco/worldwide/asia-and-the- pacific/thailand/• When was the article published? – 1998
  • 8. Week 8 Learning Activities• Activity 1 – Form 6 small groups. Each group will answer one of the questions. 1. What was (is) the most important problem faced by the Thai curriculum developers? 2. What were (are) the reasons behind this problem? 3. What are the goals of the post-reform Thai education system? 4. What will the post-reform curriculum focus on? 5. What will be the main post-reform curriculum orientations? 6. What will be the post-reform teaching/learning approach?
  • 9. Online Learning Activities 11. What was (is) the most important problem faced by the Thai curriculum developers? – How to change learning & teaching behaviors. – The teacher-centred approach still dominates - teachers still dictate to students and still place emphasis on textbook content. Few teaching materials are used.1. What were (are) the reasons behind this problem? – Current teachers are afraid that students cannot obtain the necessary fundamental knowledge through activities; – Assessment techniques still emphasize knowledge and understanding; – Entrance examinations to the secondary level and higher education are still based (mainly) on summative knowledge, as opposed to other abilities; – It takes more time to prepare and teach according to the designated teaching/learning curriculum orientations.
  • 10. Online Learning Activities 1• “It is anticipated that all these problems will be solved in the forthcoming process of reforming curriculum and learning activities.”• What should teachers be doing? Teachers should be – integrating content from daily life; – making greater use of activities, rather than textbooks; – using different learning materials in a variety of ways; – making students the centre of learning activities; – reducing explanation and helping students knowledge from various sources.
  • 11. Online Learning Activities 13. What are the goals of the post-reform Thai education system? 1. Providing basic education for all (especially the equality of being); 2. Providing education for adjusting oneself placidly to the changing society and creating social learning; 3. Providing education that embraces international norms (i.e. using high technology, respecting human rights; being generous to children, women; facing new problems, etc.).4. What will the post-reform curriculum focus on? – developing the learners’ emotional, physical, social and mental capacities, resulting in the following characteristics for each individual: 1. high ethical conduct and values, and the ability to work and live happily in both Thai and global society; 2. good health, well-rounded personality and a sense of aesthetics; 3. the ability to think, solve problems and adopt a very broad vision; 4. knowledge, good skills and capacity for lifelong learning; 5. a sense of nationalism and good citizenship (for a system based on a democratic monarchy); 6. creativity, ability to participate competently in the global society.
  • 12. Online Learning Activities 15. What will be the main post-reform curriculum orientations? a. learning details: self-development, art education, social studies, Thai language, mathematics, science and technology, work-oriented experiences, foreign languages; b. organizing learning details: focused on basic and selected local needs— also on knowledge, skills ethics and values; c. projects—this is a key component consisting of project work for learning and meeting students’ interests; d. social activities focused on social development.
  • 13. Online Learning Activities 16. What will be the post-reform teaching/learning approach? – Effectively using the child/student-centred approach. Teachers will design relevant activities by which students can themselves construct and follow up knowledge. This will include activities designed:• to cater to individual students’ needs and abilities (differentiated instruction);• to permit students to select options according to their own interests (motivation);• to organize extra-school and classroom-based teaching and learning activities (supplemental);• to facilitate student-lead learning activities with teachers acting as advisors and facilitators;• to evaluate individual student progress (based on authentic assessment, as well as student self-assessments.
  • 14. What is the Correct Balance?
  • 15. Relationship AmongTeaching-Learning-Assessment
  • 16. Week 8 Learning Activities• Activity 2 - In the same groups, discuss and answer these questions: – How can we successfully implement and integrate technology into the classroom? – Go to the following site and note down the 10 suggestions given. Can you suggest other ways to implement technology based upon your own experience? – http://homeschoolsoftwareguide.com/ten-effective-ways-to-implement- technology-in-the-classroom
  • 17. Online Learning Activities 2• How can we successfully implement and integrate technology into the classroom? 1. Have your students use the internet for research and projects. Make sure that they are using web sites that are respected and trusted authorities on the subjects that they are researching. 2. Allow your students to use different websites to learn math, science or other interactive type activities. 3. Watch documentaries, this can be on DVD, Youtube, or any other medium for that matter. Teach kids how to find information on subjects that they are interested in. 4. Play video games. Games can be educational, interactive, connected over the internet, or just for fun. Games can be used as rewards or to snap a kid out of a mid afternoon lull. 5. Allow your students to interact on social networks. Monitor their interactions and educate them on the perils that are present.
  • 18. Online Learning Activities 2• How can we successfully implement and integrate technology into the classroom? 6. Have your student do a power point presentation as part of a report. 7. Use a video camera to make presentations and document science experiments or other activities. 8. Do a section on web design or computer programming. 9. Teach your kids how to use the standard programs on a computer, like word programs or photo management software. Have them do their work on the computer and start to move towards a paperless classroom. It is the way of the future. 10. Go outside and geocache. This is fun and active and uses a hand held gps unit. http://www.geocaching.com/
  • 19. Recommended Online Journal• The MERLOT Journal of Online Learning and Teaching (JOLT) is a peer-reviewed, open-access, online publication addressing the scholarly use of multimedia resources in online higher education. JOLT is published quarterly in March, June, September, and December.• http://jolt.merlot.org/
  • 20. What is the Process of Curriculum Development?• The process of curriculum development can be divided into six stages. Can you remember what they are? 1. Curriculum Planning - Aims, Goals and Objectives 2. Curriculum Design – Content & Subject Matter 3. Curriculum Development - Content & Subject Matter 4. Curriculum Implementation - Experience 5. Curriculum Evaluation - Assessment 6. Curriculum Maintenance – Change & Innovation
  • 21. Definition of Curriculum Implementation• Curriculum Implementation? – entails putting into practice the officially prescribed courses of study, syllabuses and subjects. – involves helping the learner acquire knowledge or experience. The learner is the central figure in the curriculum implementation process. – Viewed from this perspective, curriculum implementation also refers to the stage when the curriculum itself, as an educational program, is put into effect.
  • 22. Curriculum Implementation• Putting the curriculum into operation requires an implementing agent. The teacher is the key agent in the curriculum implementation process.• Implementation is the manner in which the teacher selects and mixes the various aspects of knowledge contained in a curriculum document or syllabus.
  • 23. Curriculum Implementation• Implementation takes place when the teacher-constructed syllabus, the teacher’s personality, the teaching materials and the teaching environment interact with the learner .• Curriculum implementation therefore refers to how the planned or officially designed course of study is translated by the teacher into syllabuses, schemes of work and lessons to be delivered to students.• NOTE: This is a PROCESS definition of curriculum.
  • 24. Curriculum Implementation• Implementation is an interaction between those who have created the program and those who are charged to deliver it.• Implementation – requires teachers to shift from the current program which they are familiar with to the new or modified program; – involves changes in the knowledge, actions and attitudes of people; – can be seen as a process of professional development and growth involving ongoing interactions, feedback and assistance;
  • 25. Curriculum Implementation • Implementation – is a process of clarification whereby individuals and groups come to understand and practice a change in attitudes and behaviours; often involving using new resources; – involves change which requires effort and will produce a certain amount of anxiety and to minimize these, it is useful to organise implementation into manageable events and to set achievable goals; – requires a supportive atmosphere in which there is trust and open communication between administrators, teachers educators, and where risk-taking is encouraged.
  • 26. Curriculum Implementation as a Change Process• “Effective implementation of innovations requires time, personal interaction and contacts, in-service training and other forms of people-based support” (Fullan and Pomfret,1977, p.391). Curriculum implementation requires winning people over and it takes time. Teachers need to feel appreciated and their efforts recognised.
  • 27. Curriculum Implementation as a Change Process• How do you bring about change? In other words, how do you ensure that the curriculum brings about the desired changes. Before you can bring about change, you need to know what change is.
  • 28. Curriculum Implementation as a Change Process• What is change in relation to curriculum? – Change is doing something differently. Change results from new knowledge. However, the presence of new knowledge is not sufficient for change. People generally are reluctant to change because they are comfortable with what they are currently doing. So, to change, they must recognise the need for change. People are more likely to recognise the need for change if they understand change and how it works.
  • 29. Curriculum Implementation as a Change Process• Kurt Lewin (1951), considered to be the father of social psychology, suggested a model explaining change. According to him, all persons are faced with two competing forces: 1. Driving Forces: These are forces that that are driving or pushing you to do something and change in a particular direction. They tend to initiate a change and keep it going. In the workplace, pressure from your boss, financial incentives and competition for promotion may be examples of driving forces. 2. Restraining Forces: These are forces restraining or preventing you from doing something and changing. In the workplace, apathy, hostility, obsolete equipment may be examples of restraining forces.
  • 30. Curriculum Implementation as a Change Process• Equilibrium: – When these two forces (driving and restraining) are equal, the status quo is maintained. In other words, there is no effort towards change and so you do the same thing you did before.
  • 31. Curriculum Implementation as a Change ProcessDriving Forces Restraining Forcesa) Government intervention a) Fear of the unknownb) Society’s values b) Threats to powerc) Technological changes c) Obsolete knowledge/skillsd) Knowledge explosion d) Traditional valuese) Administrative processes e) Limited resources
  • 32. Types of Curriculum Change• Curriculum change is a complex and difficult process and requires careful planning, adequate time, funding, support and opportunities for teacher involvement. McNeil (1990) categorised curriculum change as follows: 1. Substitution 2. Alteration 3. Perturbations 4. Restructuring 5. Value Orientation
  • 33. Types of Curriculum Change1. Substitution: One element may be substituted for another already present. For example, the substituting of a new textbook for an old one.2. Alteration: This occurs when a change is introduced into existing material in the hope that it will appear minor and thus be readily adopted. For example, introducing new content such as road safety in the primary school curriculum; use of new materials such as the graphing calculator in mathematics teaching.3. Perturbations: These are changes that are disruptive but teachers adjust to them within a fairly short time. For example, the assistant principal changes the timetable or schedule to allow for longer teaching time.
  • 34. Types of Curriculum Change4. Restructuring: These are changes that lead to a modification of the whole school system. For example, the introduction of an integrated curriculum requiring team teaching, or involving the local community in deciding what is to be taught.5. Value Orientation: These are shifts in the fundamental value orientations of school personnel. For example, if the new teachers who join the school place more emphasis on personal growth of students than academic performance, then the value orientations or fundamental philosophies of the school changes.
  • 35. Resistance to Curriculum Change• Bringing about change is not an easy task. There are many barriers to the successful implementation of a curriculum. The following are the main reasons why people resist change 1. People resist because they do not understand it – they simply do not follow what is being introduced. They do not understand where they are going. They are not clear as to what is required of them. • Overcome - The key is ‘communication’. You have to explain to them “Why”. You have to answer the Why, What, When, How and Where questions. Remember, the effectiveness of communication is not the ‘message sent’ but of the ‘message received’
  • 36. Resistance to Curriculum Change• The following are the main reasons why people resist change 2. People resist because of lack of ownership – Individuals will not accept change if they consider it coming from outside or imposed on them. Unfortunately, most curriculum reform efforts are initiated from the outside which may be at the national, state or district level. • Overcome - You have to convince teachers that even though it comes from the outside, their view and opinions have been considered at the planning and design stages of curriculum development. Involve teachers in exploring the relevance of the new curriculum and give them the freedom to explore the new skills needed for utilising or implementing the curriculum. This will get them to feel that they are an important part of the curriculum implementation process.
  • 37. Resistance to Curriculum Change3. People resist if they do not have the competencies to cope with the changes – It is natural for persons to resist if they do not have the knowledge and skills to cope with the changes. Nobody wants to be told that they are incompetent. There is the likelihood that the implementation of the new curriculum has been rushed or due to budgetary constraints, the training period has been greatly reduced and teachers are not adequately equipped. – Overcome: Adequate time and resources have to be set aside for the training of teachers involved in implementing the new curriculum.
  • 38. Resistance to Curriculum Change 4. People resist if there is a lack of incentives or benefits – If teachers are unconvinced that the new programme will make things better for students (in terms of learning) or themselves (such as greater recognition, respect or reward), they are likely to resist the suggested change. – Overcome: Make sure that teachers who are actively involved in curriculum change are rewarded. The reward need not necessarily be financial, but their efforts need to be given due recognition.
  • 39. Resistance to Curriculum Change5. People resist if they do not have the time to engage with the change – Teachers find it difficult having to juggle between bringing about change handling their current responsibilities. Focusing their energy on change activities, may run the risk of neglecting their current responsibilities. – Overcome: Lighten their workload so they can participate in the change. Re- prioritise their work. Do not expect people to have the energy to change when this means failing on the tasks for which they are held responsible.
  • 40. Factors That Influence Curriculum Implementation• List what you consider to be the most important elements in the curriculum implementation process. 1. _____________ 2. _____________ 3. _____________ 4. _____________ 5. _____________ 6. _____________ 7. _____________ 8. _____________
  • 41. Factors That Influence Curriculum Implementation• List what you consider to be the elements in curriculum implementation. 1. Teachers 2. Learners 3. Resource Materials and facilities 4. Interest Groups 5. The School Environment 6. Culture & Ideology 7. Instructional Supervision 8. Assessment
  • 42. Factors That Influence Curriculum Implementation1. The Teacher – The most important person in the curriculum implementation process is the teacher. With their knowledge, experience and competencies, teachers are central to any curriculum improvement effort. Teachers are the most knowledgeable about the practice of teaching and are responsible for introducing the curriculum in the classroom. – Since implementation takes place through the interaction of the learner and the planned learning opportunities, the role and influence of the teacher in the process is indisputable.
  • 43. Factors That Influence Curriculum Implementation1. The Teacher – If the teacher is to be able to translate curriculum intentions into reality, it is imperative that the teacher understand the curriculum document or syllabus well in order to implement it effectively. – If the curriculum is what teachers and students create together, the teacher must play a more significant role in designing the curriculum. Teachers must be involved in curriculum planning and development so that they can implement and modify the curriculum for the benefit of their learners.
  • 44. Factors That Influence Curriculum Implementation• How to get teachers committed – The key is to enhance their knowledge of the program. This means teachers need be trained and workshops have to be organised for professional development. – Below are some topics to be addressed in designing professional development opportunities for teachers who are implementing a new program. • Program philosophy: It is important for teachers to understand both the philosophy behind the programme as well as how the new programme may impact students, parents, administrators and other stakeholders. • Content: Teachers may find the curriculum introduces content with which they are unfamiliar, which they have not taught in a while, or is familiar but presented in an unfamiliar way. For example, using a problem-solving approach rather than a topical approach.
  • 45. Factors That Influence Curriculum Implementation • Pedagogy: – Teachers need opportunities to become familiar with the new programme’s pedagogical approach. They may need to work on particular teaching skills emphasised in the new programme, such as teaching of values, or perhaps to become familiar with a tool such as the internet. • Components of the program: – Teachers will need opportunities to learn about the components of the new programme early in the implementation phase. For example, the new programme might place greater emphasis on school-based assessment while teachers are more accustomed to national or centralised assessment
  • 46. Friedenberg & Teacher ConformityAccording to Friedenberg, people who go into teaching tend to be conformist innature and reluctant to innovate. These people have succeeded in the school systemas it has existed. They have learned to play it safe and to keep a low profile in abureaucratic system run by administrators who do not like to create waves. Theyhave found success and fulfilment as students and now as teachers in this system,and for this reason many see no reason to change it. [source: Edgar Friedenberg,1965. Coming of Age in America. New York: Random House]1.To what extent do you agree with Friedenberg’s views about teachers andcurriculum change?2.Is this characteristic of other professions?
  • 47. Implementing Curriculum in the Classroom• The final destination of any curriculum is the classroom. In the classroom, decision making is the responsibility of the teacher. Initially, curriculum implementation is at the program level and decision making is of a programmatic nature. Now classroom teachers take over and make decisions of a methodological nature. They will be answering questions like: – What objectives do I hope to accomplish as a result of instruction? – What topics or content will I have to cover? – What teaching methods or strategies should I use to direct learning and achieve the objectives? – How do I evaluate instruction to determine whether I have successfully achieved the objective?
  • 48. Instructional Alignment
  • 49. Factors That Influence Curriculum Implementation2. The Learners – Learners are also a critical element in curriculum implementation. While teachers control classroom practice, the learners hold the key to what is actually transmitted and adopted from the official curriculum. The official curriculum can be quite different from the curriculum that is actually implemented. The learner factor influences teachers in their selection of learning experiences.
  • 50. Factors That Influence Curriculum Implementation3. Resource Materials and Facilities – No meaningful teaching and learning take place without adequate resource materials. The government or MOE should supply schools with adequate resource materials such as textbooks, teaching aids and stationery in order to enable teachers and learners to play their roles satisfactorily in the curriculum implementation process. The appropriate authority must also provide physical facilities such as classrooms, laboratories, workshops, libraries and sports fields in order to create an environment in which implementation can take place. The availability and quality of resource material and the availability of appropriate facilities have a great influence on curriculum implementation.
  • 51. Factors That Influence Curriculum Implementation4. Interest Groups – Can you identify interest groups that could influence the implementation of curricula? – These groups can influence implementation in the following ways: – Provide schools with financial resources to purchase required materials. – Demand the inclusion of certain subjects in the curriculum. – Influence learners to reject courses they consider detrimental to the interests of the group. – It is therefore important to involve these groups at the curriculum planning stage.
  • 52. Factors That Influence Curriculum Implementation5. The School Environment – Another factor that influences curriculum implementation concerns the particular circumstances of each school. – Schools located in rich socio-economic environments and those that have adequate human and material resources can implement the curriculum to an extent that would be difficult or impossible for schools in poor economic environments.
  • 53. Factors That Influence Curriculum Implementation6. Culture and Ideology – Cultural and ideological differences within a society or country can also influence curriculum implementation. Some communities may resist a domineering culture or government ideology and hence affect the implementation of the centrally planned curriculum.
  • 54. Factors That Influence Curriculum Implementation7. Instructional Supervision - Leadership – Curriculum implementation cannot be achieved unless it has been made possible through the supervisory function of the school principal. The principal does this through: • deploying staff, • allocating time to subjects taught at the school, • providing teaching and learning materials, and • creating an atmosphere conducive to effective teaching and learning. – The principal monitors and guides curriculum implementation through ensuring that schemes of work, lesson plans and records of marks are prepared regularly. The principal maintains a school tone and culture that create the climate of social responsibility. Effective curriculum implementation does not take place in a school where the principal is incapable of executing supervisory functions.
  • 55. Factors That Influence Curriculum Implementation8. Assessment – Assessment in the form of examinations influences curriculum implementation tremendously. Due to the great value given to public examination certificates by communities and schools, teachers have tended to concentrate on subjects that promote academic excellence and little else. This action by the teacher obviously can affect the achievement of the broad goals and objectives of the curriculum.
  • 56. Learning resources required to deliver the curriculum• Teachers, technical and administrative staff – There should be sufficient staff to deliver and support the delivery and assessment of the curriculum. Staff should be appropriately skilled (in pedagogical as well as technical areas) and qualified and should be aware not only of their own areas of the curriculum but also of the curriculum as a whole in order that they can contextualize the learners’ learning experiences• Equipment – including IT and AV equipment, models and simulators, laboratory and clinical equipment, whiteboards, flip charts
  • 57. Learning resources required to deliver the curriculum• Finances – the school will require adequate funding to sustain its activities• Books, journals and multimedia resources – lists of core textbooks for each part of the curriculum and other resources including reference texts should be identified by teachers and purchased for use by learners. These should be supported by other resources such as journals (printed and online) and multimedia packages. The library will be the main support structure for these resources but additional resources may also be delivered through an Intranet or via departmental ‘libraries’
  • 58. Learning resources required to deliver the curriculum• Teaching rooms, office space, social and study space – there should be adequate provision to accommodate learners at all stages of the program as well as social and study space for students to spend time outside the classroom. There should also be sufficient space for teachers to prepare teaching and meet with students.
  • 59. Factors influencing the implementation of a curriculum Factors DescriptionAdequacy of resources Adequacy of equipment, facilities and general resources required for implementing a new curriculumTime Time available for preparing and delivering the requirements of the new curriculum. e.g. teachers need enough time to develop their own understanding of the subject they are required to teach.School ethos Overall school beliefs towards the new curriculum. Status of the curriculum as viewed by staff, administrators and community. e.g. school administration recognises the importance of the subject in the overall school curriculum.Professional support Support for teachers from both within the school and outside. e.g. opportunities to receive ongoing curriculum professional supportProfessional adequacy Teachers’ own ability and competence to teach the curriculum. i.e. confidence in teachingProfessional knowledge Knowledge and understandings teachers possess regarding the new curriculum. e.g. different ways of teaching to foster student learning.Professional attitude and Attitudes and interest of teachers toward the new curriculum e.g. keeninterest to teach the subject
  • 60. Monitoring the curriculum• Monitoring can be defined as a continuous or periodic check and overseeing by those responsible for the course at every level.• It should focus attention on processes and performance with the objective of drawing attention to particular features that may require corrective action.• It includes putting activities in place to ensure that input deliveries, work plans, expected output and other actions are proceeding according to plans.• Monitoring should enable curriculum planners to detect serious setbacks or bottlenecks of the implementation process that may cause the program not to achieve expected learning outcomes.
  • 61. What should be monitored?• Student recruitment and selection processes – do the candidates meet the selection criteria? – do the criteria provide students who are appropriate for the course?• Teaching staff – are the teachers available, motivated and capable of teaching the new curriculum – Have any training needs for teachers been identified and addressed?• The teaching and learning process – how is the written curriculum translated into practice? – Are the teaching and learning methods appropriate? – Is the balance between different types of learning mode appropriate in achieving the stated outcomes?
  • 62. What should be monitored?• Assessment – are the assessments appropriate in terms of level, reliability and validity and do they discriminate between assessing skills, knowledge and attitudes? – Are the regulations and procedures appropriate and are they being followed?• Learning resources – are the recommended books and journals and other teaching materials available? – Is access to the library and other resources adequate?• Performance standards – are the minimum performance standards being reflected and achieved?
  • 63. Methods of monitoring curriculum implementation• Observation – The teaching and learning process can be observed in a variety of settings and forms can be used to record the information in a standardized way. This is a time- consuming method of monitoring and can be subject to observer bias.• Feedback questionnaires – questionnaires can be used to collect information from staff, students and external people or groups involved with the curriculum. Questionnaires are useful to collect a large amount of information and, if both open and close questions are used, can be a rich source of data. Response rates can be low and care must be taken not to overload people with questionnaires and also to seek out ways in which responses can be encouraged, e.g., handing out questionnaires at the end of teaching sessions and giving time for students to complete these.
  • 64. Methods of monitoring curriculum implementation• Focus groups/meetings/interviews – structured or semi-structured meetings (with individuals or groups) and focus groups can be another useful source of detailed information about a program.• Student assessment results – Results from both formative and summative assessments should be analyzed regularly in order to evaluate whether individual assessments are performing reliably and validly and also whether minimum set standards are being achieved. The reports from external examiners are also a very useful source of external information about the course.• Reports – reports which the institution has to provide for internal use (e.g., absence statistics) or external agencies can be useful sources of information about the program.
  • 65. Week 11 Learning Activities – January 11• Mid-term Exam (20%) – It will consist of an out-of-class and an in-class portion. Outside of class, you will develop an original conceptual model of curriculum development. This will consist of a diagram, flowchart, or other visual representation of the curriculum development process. For the in-class portion of the exam, you will present your conceptual model to class using PPT and explain the model, including all major components and the interrelationships among them.
  • 66. Week 12 Learning Activities• Online Activity – 1. Go to the Curriculum Evaluation document at http://www.ssmrae.com/admin/images/1c8882d30618 1f62401a4ff18fc6bfd6.pdf Download and read the article. Then prepare 6 questions based on it. Imagine you are an instructor preparing a quiz for your students who have read the article as a homework assignment.
  • 67. Week 12 Learning Activities • Readings – On the class web site, download and read the following 6 documents in the Week 11 Folder: -Basic Education Core Curriculum B.E. 2551[1].pdf -Curriculum Evaluation.doc -Evaluating Curriculum.doc -EVALUATING THE CURRICULUM.doc -Frameworks to Use in Evaluating a Curriculum.doc-Leist Curriculum Evaluation.doc • As always be prepared to ASK QUESTIONS in class about anything you don’t understand or that isn’t clear to you in these articles. • Be prepared to announce your final paper topic.
  • 68. New Class Schedule• Week 08 (21 Dec) – Curriculum Implementation - Final Project, First Announcement• Week 09 (28 Dec) – Christmas Week – No Class• Week) 10 (04 Jan) – New Year’s Week – No Class• Week 11 (11 Jan) - Midterm Exam –Final Project Final Announcement• Week 12 (18 Jan) - Curriculum Evaluation• Week 13 (25 Jan) – APA Style – Review – Paper Workshop• Week 14 (01Feb) - Open – Work on Final Paper• Week 15-17 (08, 15, 22 Feb) – Final Paper Presentations