Day 1 Lectures Review, Vocabulary, Short Stories
Review Elements of a Story
Elements of a Story <ul><li>Plot, Character, Setting, Theme </li></ul><ul><li>In written texts, access to these elements c...
Narrative Point of View <ul><li>1 st  Person: “I,” “me,” “my” </li></ul><ul><li>- Narrator is a participant in the events ...
Narrative Point of View <ul><li>3 rd  Person Omniscient </li></ul><ul><li>- all-knowing narrator conveys information about...
Plot <ul><li>Plot (“Action”) </li></ul><ul><li>What happens & why </li></ul><ul><li>A series of related events which outli...
Plot <ul><li>Plot </li></ul><ul><li>Graph </li></ul>
Character <ul><li>Who the “people” in the story are, and their characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Protagonist: the “main” c...
Setting <ul><li>Setting: where and when the story takes place </li></ul><ul><li>- typically established early in the story...
Theme <ul><li>Theme: an insightful statement about the true nature of life as revealed through a story </li></ul><ul><li>T...
Developing a Common Vocabulary Denotation & Connotation, Reference & Allusion
Denotation & Connotation <ul><li>Denotation: </li></ul><ul><li>-The most specific, direct meaning of a word (or function o...
Denotation & Connotation <ul><li>Example: “Hollywood” </li></ul><ul><li>Denotation: </li></ul><ul><li>A suburb of  </li></...
Denotation & Connotation <ul><li>Example: “Hollywood” </li></ul><ul><li>Connotation: </li></ul><ul><li>Fame, fortune, </li...
Figurative Language <ul><li>Metaphor: literary comparison </li></ul><ul><li>Simile: comparison using “like” or “as” </li><...
Reference & Allusion <ul><li>Reference:  something clearly attributed to an original source </li></ul><ul><li>eg: “As Shak...
Reference & Allusion <ul><li>Reference:  requires knowledge on behalf of the speaker </li></ul><ul><li>Allusion:  requires...
Reference & Allusion <ul><li>Allusion  comes in different categories: </li></ul><ul><li>- Biblical allusion </li></ul><ul>...
Short Story Study “ She Unnames Them”
“ She Unnames Them” <ul><li>Read; jot questions / observations </li></ul><ul><li>Questions: </li></ul><ul><li>- Why is she...
“ She Unnames Them” <ul><li>Biblical Allusion: Adam naming animals </li></ul><ul><li>(Genesis 2: 18-23) </li></ul>
“ She Unnames Them” <ul><li>Biblical Allusion: Adam naming animals </li></ul>
“ She Unnames Them” <ul><li>Biblical Allusion: </li></ul><ul><li>Tower of Babel  (Genesis 11: 9) </li></ul>
“ She Unnames Them” <ul><li>Literary Allusion: T.S. Eliot </li></ul>
“ She Unnames Them” <ul><li>Literary Allusion: Jonathan Swift </li></ul>
She Unnames Them Final thoughts / comments?
Naming & Language Communication,  representation, & thought…
Language determines the way we think <ul><li>Edward Sapir (1884-1939) & </li></ul><ul><li>Benjamin Lee Whorf (1897-1941) <...
Examples: <ul><li>Hopi: one word [ masa'ytaka ]   for  everything  that  flies (except birds), including insects,  planes ...
Examples: <ul><li>English: “ snow ”   vs. Inuit which has 13 different words for falling snow, snow on the ground, snow pa...
Examples: <ul><li>Hopi: language lacks a concept of time seen as a linear dimension; there are no forms corresponding to t...
Examples: <ul><li>Colours: </li></ul><ul><li>Q) What colour is this shirt? </li></ul><ul><li>A) Mauve or Lavender </li></u...
Examples: <ul><li>All languages have terms for “black” and “white,” but because there are no distinct colours in nature (v...
Examples: <ul><li>Colours </li></ul><ul><li>In a study of 110 different  languages around the world it  was found that mos...
Examples: <ul><li>Directions: </li></ul><ul><li>The Guugu Timithirr language (Cape York Peninsula) does not have words for...
Why we study language & literature <ul><li>Understand & use your language fully </li></ul><ul><li>Better comprehend yourse...
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Day 1 Lectures

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Thomson's 12 U English @ L.B.

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Day 1 Lectures

  1. 1. Day 1 Lectures Review, Vocabulary, Short Stories
  2. 2. Review Elements of a Story
  3. 3. Elements of a Story <ul><li>Plot, Character, Setting, Theme </li></ul><ul><li>In written texts, access to these elements comes through the narrative voice: </li></ul><ul><li>- direct description </li></ul><ul><li>- presentation of a character in action </li></ul><ul><li>- representation of a character’s inner self </li></ul>
  4. 4. Narrative Point of View <ul><li>1 st Person: “I,” “me,” “my” </li></ul><ul><li>- Narrator is a participant in the events </li></ul><ul><li>3 rd Person: “he,” “she,” “they” </li></ul><ul><li>Omniscient (all-knowing, all-seeing) </li></ul><ul><li>Limited Omniscient </li></ul><ul><li>Objective </li></ul>
  5. 5. Narrative Point of View <ul><li>3 rd Person Omniscient </li></ul><ul><li>- all-knowing narrator conveys information about the actions, thoughts & feelings of all characters </li></ul><ul><li>3 rd Person Limited Omniscient </li></ul><ul><li>- narrator conveys information about the actions of all characters, but the thoughts & feelings of only one </li></ul><ul><li>3 rd Person Objective </li></ul><ul><li>- narrator only conveys those things that can be seen or heard </li></ul>
  6. 6. Plot <ul><li>Plot (“Action”) </li></ul><ul><li>What happens & why </li></ul><ul><li>A series of related events which outline the protagonist’s conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Can be mapped in a “Plot Graph” </li></ul><ul><li>Conflict: - Internal / External </li></ul><ul><li>- Person vs. … </li></ul>
  7. 7. Plot <ul><li>Plot </li></ul><ul><li>Graph </li></ul>
  8. 8. Character <ul><li>Who the “people” in the story are, and their characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Protagonist: the “main” character; the character the reader follows with the greatest interest </li></ul><ul><li>Antagonist: character or force that works against the protagonist </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary characters: important in relation to primary characters </li></ul><ul><li>Tertiary characters: “filler” </li></ul>
  9. 9. Setting <ul><li>Setting: where and when the story takes place </li></ul><ul><li>- typically established early in the story </li></ul><ul><li>- can be used to establish mood </li></ul>
  10. 10. Theme <ul><li>Theme: an insightful statement about the true nature of life as revealed through a story </li></ul><ul><li>The “moral” of the story </li></ul><ul><li>(Not merely a topic!) </li></ul><ul><li>“This story shows us that…” </li></ul>
  11. 11. Developing a Common Vocabulary Denotation & Connotation, Reference & Allusion
  12. 12. Denotation & Connotation <ul><li>Denotation: </li></ul><ul><li>-The most specific, direct meaning of a word (or function of a thing) </li></ul><ul><li>- The “literal” meaning (real, factual) </li></ul><ul><li>Connotation: </li></ul><ul><li>- An idea or meaning suggested by a word (or thing) </li></ul><ul><li>- The “figurative” meaning (comparison, exaggeration, association) </li></ul>
  13. 13. Denotation & Connotation <ul><li>Example: “Hollywood” </li></ul><ul><li>Denotation: </li></ul><ul><li>A suburb of </li></ul><ul><li>Los Angeles </li></ul>
  14. 14. Denotation & Connotation <ul><li>Example: “Hollywood” </li></ul><ul><li>Connotation: </li></ul><ul><li>Fame, fortune, </li></ul><ul><li>stars, glamour, </li></ul><ul><li>movies, etc… </li></ul>
  15. 15. Figurative Language <ul><li>Metaphor: literary comparison </li></ul><ul><li>Simile: comparison using “like” or “as” </li></ul><ul><li>Personification: when human qualities are associated with non-human things </li></ul><ul><li>Hyperbole: over-exaggeration to make a point </li></ul>
  16. 16. Reference & Allusion <ul><li>Reference: something clearly attributed to an original source </li></ul><ul><li>eg: “As Shakespeare’s Hamlet says, to be or not to be, that is the question!” </li></ul><ul><li>Allusion: an indirect or non-attributed reference </li></ul><ul><li>eg: “When it comes to this course, to pass or not to pass, that is the question!” </li></ul>
  17. 17. Reference & Allusion <ul><li>Reference: requires knowledge on behalf of the speaker </li></ul><ul><li>Allusion: requires a shared knowledge on behalf of both speaker & listener </li></ul><ul><li>ie: if the listener doesn’t know what the speaker knows, the allusion is lost </li></ul>
  18. 18. Reference & Allusion <ul><li>Allusion comes in different categories: </li></ul><ul><li>- Biblical allusion </li></ul><ul><li>- Classical allusion </li></ul><ul><li>- Cinematic allusion </li></ul><ul><li>- etc. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Short Story Study “ She Unnames Them”
  20. 20. “ She Unnames Them” <ul><li>Read; jot questions / observations </li></ul><ul><li>Questions: </li></ul><ul><li>- Why is she unnaming everything? </li></ul><ul><li>- What is the theme of the story? </li></ul><ul><li>- Who is this person? Allusion(s)? </li></ul>
  21. 21. “ She Unnames Them” <ul><li>Biblical Allusion: Adam naming animals </li></ul><ul><li>(Genesis 2: 18-23) </li></ul>
  22. 22. “ She Unnames Them” <ul><li>Biblical Allusion: Adam naming animals </li></ul>
  23. 23. “ She Unnames Them” <ul><li>Biblical Allusion: </li></ul><ul><li>Tower of Babel (Genesis 11: 9) </li></ul>
  24. 24. “ She Unnames Them” <ul><li>Literary Allusion: T.S. Eliot </li></ul>
  25. 25. “ She Unnames Them” <ul><li>Literary Allusion: Jonathan Swift </li></ul>
  26. 26. She Unnames Them Final thoughts / comments?
  27. 27. Naming & Language Communication, representation, & thought…
  28. 28. Language determines the way we think <ul><li>Edward Sapir (1884-1939) & </li></ul><ul><li>Benjamin Lee Whorf (1897-1941) </li></ul><ul><li>We experience reality along the lines laid down by our native language </li></ul><ul><li>The way we divide things is not &quot;natural,&quot; but cultural: agreed upon by all the speakers of a language </li></ul><ul><li>We cannot successfully talk to each other unless we share the division of the world / our language </li></ul>
  29. 29. Examples: <ul><li>Hopi: one word [ masa'ytaka ] for everything that flies (except birds), including insects, planes and pilots </li></ul>
  30. 30. Examples: <ul><li>English: “ snow ” vs. Inuit which has 13 different words for falling snow, snow on the ground, snow packed hard like ice, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Aztec: a single word for snow, cold, and ice </li></ul>
  31. 31. Examples: <ul><li>Hopi: language lacks a concept of time seen as a linear dimension; there are no forms corresponding to the English tenses of past, present & future </li></ul><ul><li>Hopi time view = a cyclic ever-recurrence of the same sequence of seasons, which are never accumulated into years and decades </li></ul>
  32. 32. Examples: <ul><li>Colours: </li></ul><ul><li>Q) What colour is this shirt? </li></ul><ul><li>A) Mauve or Lavender </li></ul><ul><li>(If you are female raised in North America, you have a much better chance of answering correctly!) </li></ul>
  33. 33. Examples: <ul><li>All languages have terms for “black” and “white,” but because there are no distinct colours in nature (visible light is an analog spectrum) different cultures divide up and name the colours differently: </li></ul>
  34. 34. Examples: <ul><li>Colours </li></ul><ul><li>In a study of 110 different languages around the world it was found that most languages do not make a distinction between green and blue.  The closer the homeland of a language group is to the equator the less likely they are to distinguish between green and blue.  </li></ul>
  35. 35. Examples: <ul><li>Directions: </li></ul><ul><li>The Guugu Timithirr language (Cape York Peninsula) does not have words for left, right, front, or back (“relative directions”).  When speakers refer to people or objects in their environment, they use (“absolute”) compass directions.  They would say &quot;I am standing southwest of my sister&quot; rather than &quot;I am standing to the left of my sister.&quot;  </li></ul>
  36. 36. Why we study language & literature <ul><li>Understand & use your language fully </li></ul><ul><li>Better comprehend yourself / your world </li></ul><ul><li>Develop thinking skills & cultural literacy </li></ul><ul><li>Gain greater sensitivity to artistic thought </li></ul><ul><li>Be intelligent, well-read, and get allusions </li></ul>

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