The Power ofthe Printed WordJessica Clemente, Alexis Montilla, EmelyNavarro, Monica ZhangAPUSH/P.2
Adam Smith,A Wealth of Nations. 1776Who were the 13colonies governedby?Whats mercantilism?What were theNavigation Acts?
Main Ideas & Significance:• Main Idea: About what kindof economy was neededfor a nation to thrivefinancially, which includeda totally free market andlaissez faire. Also statesthat taxes should be fairlylevied!• CAPITALISM?• Laissez-faire?• Unfair taxes?
Thomas Paine"Common Sense," 1776What the mainidea andsignificance of it?
Answer:• Main idea: it urged the colonists tobreak away from the Great Britain.• Significance: It was the first work thatopenly ask for independence fromGreat Britain, and it persuaded thegeneral population of Americancolonies to fight for Independence.
ThomasJefferson,Declaration ofIndependence,1776What is this about?Why is important?
Answer:• Main idea is to declare the separation of theAmerican colonies from Great Britain, allmen are equal and deserve to live a life offreedom.• Significance: It announced the thirteenAmerican colonies regarded themselves asindependent states, and a new nationformed.
Alexander Hamilton, JamesMadison, John Jay, The FederalistPapers 1787Main Purpose:Significance:
Answers:Background: Hamilton didn’t like the Articles ofConfederation and the weak central government itcreated. A lot of people felt this way so theConstitution was created, but people feared that itwouldn’t be ratified under the articles ofconfederation. When they tried to start ratifyingthe constitution there were people for and against it.
Alexander Hamilton,"The Report ofManufactures 1791What is the main point?Why it is so important?
Answer:• Main idea: the government shouldgive tariff protection to U.S. industries.• Significance: It stimulated economicpolicies to ensure independence, andhave advantage to the nation of ahealthy manufacturing base.
William Lloyd Garrison,The Liberator, 1831Main Purpose:Significance:
Answer:Background: The second great awakening played animportant role on bringing awareness on slaverybecause the 2nd. Unfortunately antislavery movementwas collapsing because there wasn’t enough money toback up the plans that organizations/ societies wantedto do like the ACS (America Colonization Society). SentAfricans to Liberia.Significance: The antislavery movement was becomingmore strong than it had been previously.
Henry David Thoreau"On Civil Disobedience"1849Main Purpose:Significane:
Answers:Main Purpose: In his essay “Resistance to CivilGovernment” he explained that he refused to pay thisbecause the government had no morality since they allowslavery.Significance of this: people didn’t have to obey laws thatwere unjust and people started to resist the governmentbecause of the belief of transcendentalism and it helpedspark a utopia.
Harriet Beecher StoweUncle Toms Cabin,1852Why she wrote thisbook, what is themain idea of itAND what was thesignificance of it?
Answer:• Response to the Fugitive Slave Actof 1850.• Main idea: the evil and immorality ofslavery and appeals the blacks tofight for their freedom.• It contributed to the rise ofabolitionists in the 1850s and thestart of the Civil War.
Henry George, Progressand Poverty. 1879What was the mainfocus for theProgressive Era?How were livingconditions during thistime?
Main Ideas:• Henry George examines various proposedstrategies to prevent depressions,unemployment and poverty, but finds themunsatisfactory.• He proposes hisown solution: asingle tax onland.• He promotedAnti-Poverty.
Helen Hunt Jackson, ACentury of Dishonor 1881Main Purpose:Significance:
Answer:Main purpose: Jackson wrote this to say “hey werehurting the Indians by doing this”-- to changegovernment ideas/ policies toward Native Americans atthe time. The book was sent to congress in hopes ofchanging their minds about what they’re doing to theIndians.Significance: brought public awareness of the federalgovernments long record of betraying and cheating NativeAmericans. Shook America’s morals and it inspired theDawes Act 1887- misguided attempt to reform thegovernments Native American Policy- make Natives likemainstream Americans (change them)
Edward Bellamy,Looking Backward. 1888What was this bookabout?Whats a utopia?Who were thePopulists?Whats nationalization(industry)?
Answers:• It told of a young Bostonian who fell asleepand woke up in the year 2000 to find aperfect social order.• Utopia: ideal & perfect state where everyonelives in harmony• Nationalization of industry: to have thenational govt control or regulate industry• Peoples Party: discontented farmers whowanted to improve their economic conditions
Andrew Carnegie, "The Gospel ofWealth" 1889Main Purpose:Significance:
Answer:Main purpose: the upper class has a responsibility tophilanthropy. Since the rich were the guardians of societythe rich needed to serve society by giving money toorganizations and societies. The rich need to make surethat their money reaches communities in a way that couldimprove living conditions.Significance: Carnegie Libraries-- provide knowledge andeducation for the poor
Jacob Riis, How the Other HalfLives 1890Who is Jacob Riis?What is the book about?Why did he write about this?what was the result of this?
Answers:1. Journalist/social documentary photographer2. The living conditions in the New York Slums3. He believed that if we were more aware, wewould be motivated to help eradicate it.4. The tearing down of some of the worsttenements.
Alfred Thayer Mahan, The Influenceof Sea Power upon History: 1660-1783, 1890Main Idea?Significance?
Answer:• Main idea: support and achieve sea powerwith emphasis on having the largest andmost powerful fleet.• Significance: its policies were quicklyadopted by most navies, and led to the WWInaval arms race.
Frederick Jackson Turner,"The Significance of theFrontier in AmericanHistory," 1893Main idea?Significance?
Answer:• Main idea: moving western frontier shapedAmerican democracy and the Americancharacter, and given rise to individualism,independence and self-confidence.• Significance: advanced the Frontier Thesisof American history.
Booker T. Washington,"The Atlanta Compromise" 1895Who was Booker T.Washington?What was the AtlantaCompromise?
Main Ideas:• speech about how Blacks should bewilling to cooperate and submit tosegregation as long as they were giventhe opportunity to grow economically• called on African Americans to seekeconomic opportunities rather thanpolitical rights• Gradualism• Vocational education
W.E.B DuBois, The Souls of BlackFolk 1903who is W.E.B. DuBois?what was this book about?
Answers:1. W.E.B. DuBois = American Activist2. Contained several essays about equaltreatment.
Lincoln Steffens, The Shames ofthe Cities 1904Main Purpose:Significance:
Answer:Main Purpose: reports on the workings of corrupt politicalmachines in several major U.S cities. – Considered one of theearly major pieces of muckraking.Significance: Steffens work helped usher the muckraking era.It also helped rise him to political prominence inMissouri—helped change political climate
Answer:• Main idea: the evil of capitalism, andabuses in the meatpacking industry.• Significance: The book helpedconvince Congress to pass the MeatInspection Act of 1906 and the PureFood and Drug Act.
Herbert Croly, The Promise ofAmerican Life. 1909What was TeddyRoosevelts politicalparty in 1912?What was his "NewNationalism"speech about?
Main Ideas:• PROGRESSIVE ERABIBLE!• opposed aggressiveunionization andsupported economicplanning to raise generalquality of life• about how to change thefact that the govt favoredwealthy & big businesses• Nationalization of political
Jane Addams,Twenty Years at Hull House, 1910Who was Jane Addams?What was Hull House?
Answers & Main Ideas:• Addams was one of themost prominentprogressive reformers.• Settlement movement:recreational centers thathelped poor families in thecities• Provided daycare to helpworking mothers• Provided education andsocialization for immigrants• Women serving community
Fredrick Taylor, Principles ofScientific Management 1911who is Fredrick Taylor?what is scientific management?
Answers:1. Fredrick Taylor: american mechanicalengineer who sought to improve industrialefficiency.2. theory of management of workflow.
Alain LeRoy Locke,The New Negro. 1925What was the HarlemRenaissance?What wasGarveyism?
Main Ideas:• anthropology of African-American art and literatureedited by Alain Locke• encouraging blacks to adoptthe arts• contrasted the "Old Negro"with the "New Negro"• stressed African Americanassertiveness and self-confidence during the yearsfollowing World War I and theGreat Migration
John Steinbeck, the Grapes ofWrath 1939Main Significance:Purpose:
Answers:Main Purpose: novel about the journey of a migrant farmworker of the dust bowl and also to criticize the policiesthat had caused for them to move.Significance:
Michael Harrington, The OtherAmerica, 1961Main Purpose:Significance:
Answers:Main purpose: study of poverty in the U.S. The economicexpansion Post war reduced poverty dramatically butdidn’t eliminate it. Most of the poor were people who havebeen poor and can’t get out of it.Significance: brought attention to JFK that 25% of the nationwas in poverty.
Answers:• Main Purpose: Study of povertyin the U.S. The economicexpansion Post war reducedpoverty dramatically but it didnteliminate it.• Most of the people who werepoor stayed poor• Significance: Brought attentionto JFK that 25% of the nationwas in poverty
Rachel Carson, Silent Spring. 1961Who is Rachel Carson?What is the Book about?What was the result of it?
Answers:1. Rachel: Marine biologist and conservationist2. About the harmful effects pesticide has onthe environment.3. Influence president Kennedy to test allchemicals mentioned in her book.
Betty Friedan, The FeminineMystique, 1963Main Idea?Significance?
Answer:• Main idea: the widespreadunhappiness of women in the 1950sand early 1960s.• Significance: the book is seens asthe beginning of the second-wavewomens liberation movement.
Martin Luther King Jr. "Letter fromBirmingham Jail" 1963Who is Martin Luther King Jr. ?What was the letter about?
Answers:1. MLK Jr.: an American clergyman, activist,and leader in the African-American CivilRights Movement.2. The letter defended the strategy ofnonviolent resistance to racism.
Daniel Ellsberg, The PentagonPapers, 1971Who is Daniel Ellsberg?What did the Pentagon Papers reveal?
Answers:1. Daniel Ellsberg: a former United Statesmilitary analyst2. Revealed the real reason the US stayed inthe Vietnam War
Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein,All the Presidents Men 19741. Who are Woodward and Bernstein?2. What are they investigating on in this book?3. It also talks about the revelation of whattapes in 1973?
Answers:1. They are two journalist working for theWashington Post2. They investigate on the first Watergatebreak-in3. The revelation of the Nixon Tapes