Chapter 27:The Cold War Farina, Airene, Charlyn (Period 1)
Origins of the Cold WarSources of Soviet-American Tension • Soviet Union vs. United States • Atlantic Charter 1941 (first vision): o both nations would abandon beliefs in military alliances o they could only affiliate with each other through democratic procedures o an "intermediary" (international organization) would regulate agreements and conflicts and secure all nations self-determination • Great Britain vs. Soviet Union (second vision) o GB and USSR did not comply to the Atlantic Charter o GB= NO self-determination ; USSR= expand to European territories
Origins of the Cold War Wartime Diplomacy• Teheran Conference 1943: o Churchill and Roosevelt wanted the Axis powers to completely surrender o America stayed out of USSRs battle against Germany; USSR assisted US in war of the Pacific; Roosevelt agreed to second front in Western Europe• Fight for Poland: o Roosevelt & Churchill- government-in-exile o Stalin- communist exiled government
Origins of the Cold WarYalta (1945)• United Nations (former League of Nations): o General Assembly o Security Council o every nation allowed to veto and are represented equally; United States charter was passed by Senate• Poland- government was divided- pro-communist & pro- Western• US imposed high reparations on Germany; Berlin was split into 4 sections- each controlled by a member of the United Nations
The Collapse of the PeaceThe Failure of Potsdam• Potsdam/ Berlin Conference• President Harry S. Truman was not much aware of US international relations o permitted Polish-German boundary to be adjusted o Russia not allowed to get reparations from the United Nations o "Get Tough" Policy depicted divided Germany between United Nations and Russia
The Collapse of the PeaceThe China Problem• Chiang Kai-shek (nationalist)- led a poor and immoral government of China that was challenged by Mao Zedongs communist ideals• Civil War- US assisted Chinese with armaments and $$$ (communist= victorious)• US resorted to Japan- helped strengthen economy, cancelled restrictions on industrial manufacturing
The Collapse of the PeaceThe Containment Doctrine• containment- control/prevent Soviet Union expansion instead of uniting the world• Truman Doctrine- March 12, 1947: stop Stalin from taking over Europe countries; stop communists from overruling the pro- Western government
The Collapse of the Peace The Marshall Plan• Secretary of State George C. Marshall o United Nations would financially support European nations• Czechoslovakia became a Soviet-dominated communist country after being attacked• Economic Cooperation Administration managed the Marshall Plan
The Collapse of the PeaceMobilization at Home• revived Selective Security System of 1948- military draft• Atomic Energy Commission of 1946- managed nuclear weapon research and development o hydrogen bomb• National Security Act (NSA) of 1947: o Department of Defense o National Security Council o Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)
The Collapse of the PeaceThe Road toNATO • 4 western zones of Berlin • Stalins blockade around Berlin • West: Federal Republic • East: Democratic Republic • North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) • Warsaw Pact
The Collapse of PeaceReevaluating Cold War Policy• Sept 1949: Soviets 1st drop of atomic weapon• Chiang Kai-Sheks attempt to spread communism in Formosa (Taiwan)• US relied to Japan to prevent communism in the rest of Asia• 1950: National Security Council Report (NSC-68) o USs self-reliance to stop global communism
Post-War American Society and PoliticsProblems of Reconversion• Bombing of Hiroshima + Nagasaki• Servicemen Readjustment Act of 1944 o "GI Bill of Rights"• John L. Lewis: led United Mine Workers out on strike (Apr 1946)• Reconversion hurt women and minorities
Post-War American Society and PoliticsFair Deal Rejected• 21-point domestic program that dealt with social issues• Robert Taft unhappy with Trumans Fair Deal• Taft-Hartley Act (slave labor bill) o in response to Wagner Act
Post-War American Society and PoliticsThe Election of 1948• Truman was re-nominated for another term.• Nominated Governor Strom Thurmond of South Carolina - States Rights ("Dixiecrat").• Henry A. Wallace - Progressive Party• Thomas E. Dewey - re-nominated (Republican Party).
Post-War American Society and PoliticsThe Election of 1948Truman reigned victorious with 49.5% of the popular vote and an electoral margin of 303 to 109.
Post-War American Society and PoliticsThe Fair Deal Revived • The Congress partially approved some of Trumans Fair Deal. • Truman battled several forms of racial discrimination. • The Shelley v. Kraemer (1948)
Post-War American Society and PoliticsThe Nuclear Age • Birth of atomic bomb • The Twilight Zone - portrayed the aftermath of nuclear war. • America was a nation filled with anxiety.
The Korean WarThe Divided Peninsula• US x USSR intersection at Korea• North Korea wanted to invade South Korea o S. Korea not within USs "defense perimeter"• Pres. Truman appealed to United Nations -> US gave assistance to S. Korean government• Gen. Douglas MacArthur commanded UN operations in Korea• Sept 1950: Surprise American invasion at Inchon -> pushed N. Koreans to 38th parallel
The Korean WarFrom Invasion to Stalemate• Dec 1950: Americans vs. Chinese divisions• Mar 1951: Return of Americans -> stalemate• MacArthurs letter to Joseph W. Martin: o "there is no substitute for victory" other than to attack• MacArthur got dismissed (Apr 11, 1951) but returned (later in 1951)• Korean stalemate (-> 1953)
The Korean WarLimited Mobilization• Office of Defense Mobilization o no inflation + wage demands• Government control of railroads (1951)• Trumans control of steel mills (1952)• Korean stalemate -> campaign against domestic communism
The Crusade Against SubversionHUAC and Alger Hiss• House Un-American Activities Committee o targeted Hollywood writers + producers• Disloyalty of Alger Hiss o testified by Whittaker Chambers o "pumpkin papers"
The Crusade Against SubversionThe Federal Loyalty Programand the Rosenberg Case• Aug 1950: Trumans instruction to fire "bad security risks"• Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI)• McCarran Internal Security• Atomic bomb conspiracy o Julius & Ethel Rosenberg
The Crusade Against SubversionMcCarthyism• Feb 1950: Joseph McCarthy and his list of 205 communists in American State Department o anti-communist investigations o solid evidences o public adoration o intimidation
The Crusade Against SubversionThe Republican Revival