The Affluent Society CHAPTER 28 By Emely Navarro Monica Zhang Jessica Clemente Alexis Montilla
Sources of Economic Growth1. Government spending -public funding of; schools housing, veterans benefits, welfare, and the $100 billion interstate highway program2. Military spending -Economic growth was at its peak during the first half of the 1950s, when military spending was highest because of the Korean War.3. Baby Boom -The national birth rates reversed a long pattern of decline with the so-called baby boom.4. Suburban Growth White Flight: the move of white people into the suburbs
The Rise of the Modern West• The West experienced dramatic changes as a result of the new economic growth.• Population expanded dramatically; cities boomed; industrial economy flourished.• By the 1960s, some parts of the West were among the most important industrial and cultural centers of the nation in their own right.• What contributed to this growth were federal spending, military contacts, an increase in automobile use giving a large boost to the petroleum industry, and the climate.
The New Economics• The exciting discovery of the power of the American economic system was a major cause of the confident tone of much American political life in the 1950s.• The belief that Keynesian economics made it possible for government to regulate and stabilize the economy without intruding directly into the private sector.• The British economist John Maynard Keynes had argued as early as the 1920s that by varying the flow of government spending and taxation and managing the supply of currency, the government could stimulate the economy to cure recession, and dampen growth to prevent inflation.• By the mid-1950s, Keynesian theory was rapidly becoming a fundamental article of faith—not only among professional economists but also among much of the public.
Capital and Labor• Over 4,000 corporate mergers took place in the 1950s and a relatively small number of large scale organizations controlled the nations economic activity.• Business leaders made concessions to unions in order to prevent strikes from interfering with growth.• By the 1950s, large labor unions had developed a new kind of relationship with employers known as the “post-war contract”• Workers in large unionized industries received increases in wages and in return the union agreed to refrain from raising other issues.• The success led to the reunification of the labor movement with the American Federation of Labor and the Congress of Industrial Organizations merging to create the AFL-CIO.
Medicine• Antibiotics: more ordinary bacteria that can defeat virulent bacterial infection• Sulfa drugs: derived from sulfanilamide• Penicillin: organism with antibacterial properties• Immunization: protection against bacterial disease o TB vaccine: Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG)• Vaccines against viral/virus infection o yellow fever vaccine (1930s) o influenza vaccine (1945)• Salk Vaccine (1954): effective against polio (injection) o 1960- oral vaccine as sugar cube developed•• Decline in mortality/death rates for infants & youth Avg life expectancy rose by 5 yrs, to 71.
Pesticide• Chemical pesticides: used to protect crops from destruction by insects and protect humans from insect- carried diseases• Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroetha ne (DDT!) o discovered by Paul Muller o used in Pacific islands during WWII o saved thousands of lives
Electronics & Computers1. TV- 1940s • broadcast programming • color tv (1950s)2. Transistors- 1948 • amplified electrical signals • mini devices • aviation, weaponry, & satellites3. Integrated circuitry- late 1950s • combined electronic elements into 14.Computers • UNIVAC • IBM
Rockets & Missiles & Bombs, OH MY!• In 1952, the U.S successfully detonated the first hydrogen• The development of the hydrogen bomb gave considerable bomb. impetus to a stalled scientific project in both the U.S. and the• Soviet Union. American & Soviet leaders struggled to build longer-range• missiles (ICBMs) The Minuteman & The Polaris missiles
The American Space Program• The Shock of Sputnik o Americans very alarmed o massive failure for U.S.• National Aeronautics & Space Administration (NASA)• first American space pilots or “astronauts” o nation’s most revered heroes• Mercury Missions o Alan Shepherd- 1st American in space o John Glenn- 1st American to orbit Earth• Apollo program- purpose to land men on the moon o July 20, 1969: Neil Armstrong, Edwin Aldrin, and Michael Collins successfully traveled in a space capsule into orbit around the moon o then they detached a smaller craft from the capsule, landed on the surface of the moon, and became the first men to walk on a body other than earth
The Consumer Culture: • The Walt Disney- • Consumers also reallyProsperity fueled the produced TV show the liked new products Mickey Mouse Club was a automobile industry like; • craze. dishwashers, garbage Public interest in this TV disposals, television show contributed to and stereos. The Disneylands sucess prosperity was consumer driven
The Landscape and the AutomobileEffects of the AutoMobile and • Between 1950 and 1980, the nations Highway. population increased by 50• Reduced the time to travel percent, but the numbers• Trucking was more of automobiles owned by convenient Americans increased by• Long, steady decline in 400 percent. railroads• Travel by automobile a lot faster• Encouraged economic activities Creation of fast food restaurants
Suburbia• by 1960, a third of U.S. population living in suburbs• Suburbanization: result of home- building innovations, which made single family homes available & affordable• William Levitt creates "Levittowns"• Young couples rushed to purchase the inexpensive homes Why move to suburbs? 1. importance of family life 2. community life 3. race/ethnicity
Suburbia (cont.)• prevailing gender roles reinforced o working men o prejudice against working women• women pressured to be stay at home mothers• HOWEVER, by 1960, a third of all married women were part of the paid workforce... why?
Television Culture• 1946: 17,000 tv sets in the U.S.• 1957: 40 million tv sets in the U.S.• National Broadcasting Co. (NBC), Colombia Broadcasting System (CBS), & American Broadcasting Co. (ABC) started out as radio companies• driven by advertising; sponsors had direct/powerful role in programs• televised news, sports, entertainment programs• most programs created ideal image of American life o white, middle-class, suburban family o again, reinforced gender roles o e.g. Leave it to Beaver, Father Knows Best, I Love Lucy, etc.• but there also shows that conveyed the opposite of the "ideal" image o e.g. The Honeymooners, My Little Margie, Amos n Andy
Travel, Outdoor Recreation, andEnvironmentalism• Paid vacation for American workers and the association of the idea with travel had entered American culture.• Travel and recreation were popular especially in the nations national parks --> permanent surge in attendance in the 1950s.• Battle over development of wilderness areas--> Echo Park. o Cause: The federal governments Bureau of Reclamation proposed building a dam across the Green River, so as to create a lake for recreation and a source of hydroelectric power. o In 1950, "Shall We Let Them Ruin Our National Parks?" o Result: Congress blocked the project and preserved Echo Park in its natural state in 1956.
Organized Society and Its Detractors.• Increasing proportion of White-collar workers worked in corporate settings with rigid hierarchical structures.• Americans were becoming convinced that the key to a successful future lay in acquiring the specialized training and skills necessary for work in large organizations.• The American educational system changed curriculum and philosophy. o Elementary and secondary schools: science, mathematics, and foreign languages. o Universities: expand their curricula. o "Multiversity"• William H. Whyte Jr, The Organization Man (1956); David Riesman, The Lonely Crowd (1950).• Saul Bellow, The Adventures of Augie March (1953); J. D.
The Beats and the Restless Cultureof Youth• Beats: a group of young poets, writers, and artists who wrote harsh critiques of what they considered the sterility and conformity of American live, the meaninglessness of American politics, and the banality of popular culture.• The restlessness was a result of.. o prosperity itself o Limitless possibilities o declined power of such traditional values as thrift, discipline, and self-restraint.
Cont.• Phenomenon of "juvenile delinquency"• Many young people began to mimicked popular images of juvenile criminal gangs.• James Dean, in such movies as Rebel WIthout a Cause (1955), East of Eden (1955), and Giant (1956), conveyed a powerful image of youth culture in the 1950s.
- Rock n Roll was one of the most powerful signs of therestiveness of the American youth.- Elvis Presley became the symbol of a youth determination topush at the borders of the conventional and acceptable.- The rise of rock n roll was due to radio and televisionprogramming. -Radio and television were important to the recording business because they encouraged the sales of records.- Record promoters were so eager to get their music on the air thatthey made secret payment to station owners. These paymentswere called "payolas" and they created many scandals.http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tFtAOltn7iw
The "Other America"• 1962, The Other America was published; about the continuing existence of• poverty in America great economic expansion of the postwar years reduced poverty•• dramatically but did not eliminate it most of the poor experience poverty intermittently and temporarily this poverty was a poverty that the growing prosperity of the postwar era• seemed to affect hardly at all among those on the margins of the affluent society was many rural• Americans; not all farmers were poor but the agrarian economy did produce substantial numbers of genuinely• impoverished people migrant farm workers and coal miners fell to the same kind of poverty
Inner Cities • As white families moved from cities to suburbs in vast numbers, more and more inner-city neighborhoods became vast repositories for•the poor ghettos from which there was no easy escape o African Americans helped this growth o similar migrations from Mexico and Puerto Rico expanded poor Hispanic barrios• in many American cities at the same time “urban renewal”: the effort to tear down buildings in the poorest and most degraded areas
The Rise of the Civil Rights MovementThe Brown Decision and "Massive Resistance" What was it? The Brown Decision: • Brown v. Board of Education of Involved lawyers that spent Topeka (May 17, 1954)- years looking at the "separate considering the legal but equal" doctrine. These separation of public schools in Kansas led to the Courts lawyers filed a suit against the rejection of Plessy v. Ferguson school boards of (1896): ruled that communities Topeka, Kansas and several could provide blacks with other cities that became the separate facilities as long as basis of the Brown decision. there were equal white facilities.
How did the case begin? The Conclusion: • The doctrine of "separate but equal" had no place because• It all started because an anything separated, especially schools is inherently unequal. African American girl had to travel several miles to attend a • The following year the court issued a decision called the Brown black school although she lived II (1954) which said that schools next door to a white school. should be desegregated "with all• When this case appeared in deliberate speed". court they came to the o This left specific decisions up to conclusion that school lower courts. segregation had lots of damage to the people it affected regardless of the quality of segregation.
"Massive Resistance"• Strong local opposition in the South was known as Massive Resistance.• This produced long delays and bitter conflicts. o More than 100 southern member of Congress signed a "manifesto" in 1956 denouncing the Brown decision and urging their constituents to defy it.• Southern officials worked to obstruct desegregation, enacting "pupil placement laws" allowing school officials to place students in schools according to their scholastic abilities and social behavior.
The Effect of Desegregation The Brown decision didnt end segregation but launched a battle between the federal, state and local government authority.
The Expansion Movement:• Rosa Parks arrested on December 1, 1955 in Montgomery Alabama for refusing to give her seat to a white passenger.• Her arrest produced outrage in the African American community & helped leaders organize a bus boycott in hopes of ending seat segregation.• The boycott would have failed if the Supreme Court didnt state that segregation in public transportation is illegal.• Martin Luther King Jr.- important leader in the civil rights movement . He was also chosen to lead the Montgomery Bus Boycott.• Kings approach to black protest was based on a doctrine of nonviolence.• He wanted African Americans to engage in peaceful demonstrations, to allow themselves to be arrested or beaten and to respond to hate with love.
What led to the Civil Rights Movement? Cause: Effect: African Americans realized after - Jackie Robinson signed to WWII that they had more power Brooklyn Dodgers. and potential, but their broader view - President Eisenhower attempted of the world made their place in it to desegregate the workplace. smaller. They speeded the pace for Passed the civil rights act- racial change. protection for Africans who• The growthurban black communities encouraged a civil rights movement. wanted to vote.• Leaders of of an urban black middle class flourished after WWII. o men and women who were more educated realized how much they had to lose compared to• Television & other forms of culture showed racism towards blacks. those who were uneducated. o reminded the blacks that the whites were majority. Black- minority
"What Was Good for ... GeneralMotors"• Many business leaders had reconciled themselves to at least the broad outlines of the Keynesian welfare.• Charles Wilson, president of General Motors, was certain that "What was good for our country was good for General Motors, and vice versa."• Eisenhowers consistent inclination: o he supported the private development of natural resources; lowered federal support for farm prices; removed last limited wage and price controls; opposed the creation of new social service program; reduced federal expenditures; balance the budget.
The Survival of the Welfare State• President resisted to dismantle welfare policies of the New Deal.
Cont.• Federal Highway Act of 1956 o The largest public works project in American history. o It vastly accelerated the growth of suburbia.• In 1956, Eisenhower ran for a second term, and received nearly 57 percent of the popular vote and 457 electroal votes to Stevensons 73.
The Declineof• By 1954, the crusade against subversion was beginning to produce significant popular opposition >> anticommunist passion was beginning to abate.• Signal: political demise of Senator Joseph McCarthy.• Army-McCarthy Hearings.• McCarthy died as a victim of complications arising from alcoholism.
Dulles and "Massive Retaliation"• Dulles argued that the United States should pursue an active program of "liberation," which should lead to a• "rollback" of communist expansion. Dulles was incredibly anticommunist and wanted to stop communist expansion through the process of “massive retaliation”, which was the use of nuclear• weaponry. The motivation was partially economic because many people thought nuclear John Foster Dulles warfare would be cheaper than traditional weaponry.
France, America, and Vietnam•Frances fall in Dien Bien Phu further pushed France out of Vietnam, and pulled America towards it.•Americas alliance with Israel caused strife with the Middle East. The CIA and Iranian military leaders worked to elevate the Shah, Muhammad Reza Pahlevi to a high position. He ruled closely to the United States.•America had less luck with Egypt. Dulles withdrew American aid when Egypt formed a trade alliance with the Soviet Union. When Israel attacked Egypt Eisenhower encouraged a truce for fear of another world war.
Cold War Crisis• The Eisenhower administration confronted were a series of crises in the Middle East, a region in which the US had been little involved until after WWII.• Israel proclaimed its independence on May 14, 1948• American policy was less effective in dealing with the nationalist government of Egypt, under the leadership of General Gamal Abdel Nasser, which began to develop a trade relationship with the Soviet Union.• Cold War concerns affected the American relations in Latin America as well when the Eisenhower administration ordered the CIA to help topple the new leftist government of Jacobo Arbenz Guzman in Guatemala, a regime that Dulles argued was potentially communist.• In 1957 resistance to Batista, Cuba’s leader, began to gather strength under the leadership of Fidel Castro. Castro created a new government and cemented an alliance with the Soviet Union.
Europe and the Soviet Union• The direct relationship with the Soviet Union and the effort to resist communist expansion in Europe remained the principal concerns of the Eisenhower administration.• Relations between the Soviet Union and the West soured further in 1956 in response to the Hungarian Revolution. o Hungarian dissidents had launched a popular uprising in November to demand democratic reforms.
The U-2 Crisis• On November 1958, Nikita Khrushchev renewed the demands of the predecessors that the NATO powers abandon West Berlin.• Only days before it had the scheduled begining of the Paris meeting, however, the Soviet Union announced that it had shot down an American U-2, a high -altitude spy plane over Russian territory.
Eisenhower Leaves• After eight years in office Eisenhower failed to resolve the tensions between the US and the Soviet Union.• In his farewell address in January 1961 he warned of the "unwarranted influence" of a vast "military- industrial complex".