Chapter 29: Civil Rights and theOrdeal of Liberalism! By Louie Klemm, Shaina Jadormio, and IanKytlica
Presidential Campaign of 1960• Richard Nixon (Republican) vs. John Fitzgerald Kennedy (Democrat)• Kennedy won!
John Kennedy• "New Frontier" o promised domestic reforms• Kennedy remains ambitious o wins approval of tariff reductions o creating legislative agenda for a tax cut
Kennedys Assassination o Kennedy was murdered on the streets of Dallas Texas (Nov. 22, 1963)• Lee Harvey Oswald was later killed by a vigilante and his story was never heard by the public court system
Lyndon Johnson• Kennedys successor• 1963-1966: Impressive legislative record o Kennedys death resulted in an emotional tide allowing many Americans to support the New Frontier• Great Society o won approval by Congress
The Presidential Election of 1964• Lyndons first year as President o focused on the 1964 election• Senator Barry Goldwater of Arizona (Republican) vs. Johnson Lyndon (Democrat)• LBJ won!
Assaults on Poverty• Medicare o federal aid to the elderly for medical expenses• Medicaid o extended welfare recipients of Medicare to all ages• Office of Economic Opportunity o new educational, housing, healthcare, and employment programs• Community action o members of the community participating in the
Cities, Schools andImmigration• Housing Act of 1961 o gave federal grants to cities• Department of Housing and Urban Development o new cabinet agency• Model Cities Program o federal subsidies for urban redevelopment pilot programs.
Cities, Schools, andImmigration cont.• Kennedy faced two obstacles with education.• Secondary Education Act of 1965 o extended aid to private and Catholic schools based on the condition of the students• Immigration Act of 1965 o 170,000 immigrants each year o eliminated national origins that gave preference
Legacies of the GreatSociety• Loss of revenues• Competition with military costs and federal spending• Disillusionment grew• Americans were convinced that the program was failure• There were also benefits
Expanding the Protests• African American college students from Greensboro staged sit- in.• Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee o kept the spirit of resistance alive• Freedom Rides o forced desegregation of
Expanding the Protestscont.• SNCC and Southern Christian Leadership Conference• James Meredith o African American student enrolled in an all white school• Martin Luther King Jr. o nonviolent demonstrations• Police Commissioner Eugene Bull o made brutal efforts to stop march in Birmingham• Governor George Wallace won the 1962 election o hoped to prevent court enrollment of African
A National Commitment• Important television Address• Legislative proposals prohibiting: o segregation in public accommodations o barring discrimination in employment o increase government power to file suits on segregated schools
A National CommitmentCont.• Lincoln Memorial civil rights demonstration• Martin Luther King: "I have a dream."• Kennedys Assassination o June 1963, Kennedy proposed the civil rights legislation o postponed the civil rights legislation o Early 1964, Senate passed the civil right
The Battle for Voting Rights• "Freedom Summer" o produced violent responses from Southern whites• Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party o alternative to the regular state party• King organized demonstration in Selma, Alabama (treated same as in Birmingham)• Civil Rights Act of 1965 o provided federal protection
The Changing Movement• Govt view on racism changed from de jure to de facto• De Jure means "accepted by law"• De facto means "accepted by community"• Racism was no longer contained in the South• Watts Riots in Los Angeles (started with a white police officer hitting a black man with his club)• LBJ developed concept of "Affirmative Action" (pressuring employers and institutions to give up anti-minority practices and take up positive minority measures instead)
Urban Violence • Harlem disturbances • Race riots o police reaction • Additional outbreaks • Commission on Civil Disorders o eliminated bad conditions of the ghetto
Black Power"Black Power" was a social philosophy • Increased Racial PrideMany Civil Rights Org. • Tended to be dividedNon-Radicals • NAACP • Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) • Urban LeagueModerate/Strong Radicals • Black Panthers • Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee • Congress of Racial Equality
Malcolm X• Nation of Islam• Malcolm Little -> Malcolm X o once a pimp and drug addict• Speaker o influential to younger Americans• Autobiography of Malcolm X o spread his reputation after his death
Diversifying Foreign PolicyKennedy Administration Foreign Policies Wanted to repair relationship with South America through "An Alliance for Progress" Kennedy inaugurated the Agency for International Development for foreign aid BAY OF PIGS
Confrontations with theSoviet Union Nikita Khrushchev John F. Kennedy• Created Berlin wall to stop people from running away to • Bay of Pigs West Berlin • Quarantine Cuba• Cuban Missile Crisis during Cuban Missile Crisis
Johnson and the WorldLBJ DETERMINED TO STOP SOUTH AMERICAN COMMUNISTS• Communism is bad because it is the ultimate redistribution of wealth, usually making everyone below the poverty level and dependent on the govt• Suspected Pro-Communist regime stopped in the Dominican Republic after a Coup by 30,000 American troops• Shows LBJs strength and intimidation
The King and KennedyAssassinations The King and Kennedy Assassinations o April 4, MLK Jr. Shot o July 6, Robert Kennedy (Presidential Candidate and JFKs brother) Shot o ("Kennedy Legacy") Govt Should help the powerless
The ConservativeResponse Election of 1968 George Wallace (American Independent)-3rd Party candidate against segregation Richard Nixon (Republican)- Won and supported peace in Vietnam Hubert H. Humphrey (Democrat)- Tried to win with a last minute surge in unity the democratic party (Split with 3rd Party)