Apush ch. 31 reagan 2


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Apush ch. 31 reagan 2

  1. 1. Chapter 31: From the "Age of Limits" to the Age of ReaganBy: Justinne Bentain and Ynnah Lagunda :)
  2. 2. After Watergate• Ford granted Nixon a "full, free, and absolute pardon" to spare the country years of litigation• Caused a decline in Fords popularity• Recession in 1974 and 1975 - Energy crisis - Arab Oil Embargo of 1973
  3. 3. 1976 Presidential Elections Gerald Ford Jimmy CarterPopular vote: 47.9% Popular vote: 50%Electoral Vote: 240 Electoral vote: 297
  4. 4. The Trials of Jimmy Carter • Campaigned for the presidency as an "outsider" • Entered office during a recession • Mainly focused on energy and economy problems • High interest rates and energy prices
  5. 5. Continuing Energy Crisis• 1979: Second major fuel shortage in the Middle East - OPEC announced another price increase• Carter retreated to Camp David for 10 days• Delivered a television address - "Malaise Speech"• Complained of a "crisis of confidence"
  6. 6. Camp David Accords • Arranged a peace treaty between Egypt & Israel • Invited Sadat and Begin to Camp David in September 1978 (2 weeks) • Camp David Egyptian President Anwar Sadat Accords wasand Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin signed on March 26, 1979
  7. 7. Carters Achievements• Turned over control of the Panama Canal to the government of Panama• Also tried to improve relations with China and the Soviet Union• SALT II (Strategic Arms Limitation Talks) - arms control - set limits on the number of long-range missiles, bombers, and nuclear warheads for the U.S. and Soviet Union
  8. 8. Iran Hostage Crisis• The U.S. provided support to the Shah of Iran• Caused a powerful revolutionary movement and the Shah fled country in January 1979• The Shah had cancer and was treated in New York• Days later, American Embassy in Teheran was invaded: - seized diplomats and military personnel• 53 american hostages for over a year
  9. 9. American Hostages
  10. 10. The Sun Belt• Mainly California, Texas, & • Sagebrush Rebellion: centered Florida on the use of federal lands in the• Strong opposition to the growth western portions of the United of government States• Believed government was imposing standards of behavior • Westerners felt that they were just caretakers for the federal government • Ranchers want grazing, miners want access, conservation people want wilderness, campers want roads, etc. • Tension died down when Reagan took office (Sagebrush
  11. 11. Religious Politics• 1970s - America experienced a major religious revival (since the Second Great Awakening)• Pseudo faiths: Church of Scientology, Unification Church of Reverend Sun Myung Moon, and Peoples Temple• 70+ million "born-again" Christians• Moral Majority Movement & the Christian Coalition• Roe v. Wade legalized abortion
  12. 12. Jim Jones
  13. 13. The New Right• A combination of Christian religious leaders and conservative business bigwigs• Started in 164 when Senator Barry Goldwater claimed that the New Deal should be reversed• Highly organized and better funded than opponents• Leadership under Ronald Reagan
  14. 14. The Tax Revolt• Started with California Proposition 13 - drastically limited property tax• Focused on the issue of what taxes supported• Since the New Howard Jarvis Deal, Republicans
  15. 15. The Campaign of 1980 • Jimmy Carters popularity was lowest in history Jimmy Carter • Republican Party Popular Vote: 41% rallied behind Reagan Electoral Votes: 49 - represented American "strength" & "pride"Ronald ReaganPopular vote: 51%Electoral votes: • Republicans also won489 control of the Senate and House since 1952
  16. 16. The "Reagan Revolution"• Ronald Reagan - January 1981• moderate success in redefining public policy• great success in American politics
  17. 17. The Reagan Coalition• disillusionment• small group of wealthy Americans and "neo- conservatives"• redistributive and antibusiness• reaffirm democratic and anticommunist values• joined the New Right• distrust in eastern establishment• appeal to both sides
  18. 18. Reagan in the White House• past occupations• energetic• attempted assassination• ignorance of own policies• fusing proposalshttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=i3kpYiWdVWYhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mN3z3eSVG7Ahttp://www.imdb.com/name/nm0001654/http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iqNDWEwP92o
  19. 19. Reaganomics• high taxes --> inadequate capital --> no growth• lowering taxes --> lower government revenue --> less government expenses• proposals: $40 billion budget and 30% tax reductions (decreased to 25%)• Republican dominance• deregulation leading up to economic revival• 1982 recession, 11% unemployment• Federal Reserve Board
  20. 20. Views on Reaganomics
  21. 21. The Fiscal Crisis• federal budget deficits and national debt• entitlement programs• policies of Reagan administration• cuts in "discretionary" domestic spending aimed at the poorest• balanced budget
  22. 22. Reagan and the World• friendly governments• relations with Soviet Union and Russians were deteriorating o "evil empire" o Solidarity- independent labor organization• Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI)• nuclear freeze• Reagan Doctrine• 1983 terrorist bombing• terrorism
  23. 23. Beruit, Lebanon
  24. 24. The Election of 1984 • Democrat: Walter Mondale • Reagans campaign phrases: "Its Morning in America" and "America is Back" • Reagans decisive victory: 59% of vote • Democratic advancement
  25. 25. Mondale vs. Reagan
  26. 26. The Fall of the Soviet Union• Gorbachev o glasnost: openness o perestroika: reform• Tiananmen Square: June 3, 1989 in Beijing, China• South Africa --> apartheid• fall of communism (1991)
  27. 27. Reagan and Gorbachev• reform• nuclear power• intermediate-range nuclear forces (INF)
  28. 28. The Fading of the ReaganRevolution• personal popularity hid political scandals• savings and loan crisis• weapons to Iran• Iran-Contra Scandal
  29. 29. The Election of 1988 Michael Dukakis George Bush Democrat Republican
  30. 30. Michael Dukakis vs. George Bush The Election of 1988
  31. 31. The Bush Presidency• developments in international affairs• working with Gorbachev = positive• domestic issues = negative• 1990 budget package• 1990 recession
  32. 32. The First Gulf War• 1989-1991• U.S. had 2 options: o reduce military strength and concentrate on domestic problems o continue to use its power actively to defend its regional and economic interests• invasion of Panama (1989)• invasion of Kuwait• United Nations-sanctioned trade embargo• February 28, cease-fire
  33. 33. Ross PerotThe Election of 1992 19% Independent 38% 43% 370 168 Bill Clinton George Bush Democrat Republican
  34. 34. The Election of 1992 Clinton vs. Bush