2. Apply Gestalt Design Theory to Influence How the Viewer “Reads” the Visual • Similarity/Anomaly • Figure/Ground Relationship • Continuation • Closure • Proximity and Alignment • Common Fate
3. Gestalt Design Theory: How the Mind Organizes Visual DataThe triangle is notreally drawn, butwe see it becauseof the cut-outsand placement of Stare at this picture, and you will begin to see athe circles. spotted dog sniffing the ground.
4. Similarity / AnomalySimilarity occurs when objects look similar to one another. People oftenperceive them as a group or pattern. Anomaly uses the principle ofsimilarity but alters one figure to draw attention to difference.
5. Figure and Ground The dark background encourages your eye to see the square as an opening.The eye differentiates an object from its surrounding area. A form, silhouette, orshape is naturally perceived as figure (object), while the surrounding area isperceived as ground (background).
7. ContinuationContinuation occurs when the eye is compelled to move through one object andcontinue to another object. Continuation creates movement and depth.
8. Example of Continuation and Depth
9. Image placement can also createdepth as in this flyer.So much centeredtext, however, is difficult to read.Limit centered text to majortitles.Use the principle of proximityand alignment for other textualinformation.
10. ClosureClosure occurs when an object is incomplete or a space is notcompletely enclosed. If enough of the shape is indicated, peopleperceive the whole by filling in the missing information.Although the photograph the Panda on the right providesrealism, the graphic design of the Panda on the left creates anemphasis by using closure.Most of us notice the graphic Panda first or even if we notice itsecond, it stands out to us more than the photograph.
11. Closure can also be used to reinforce a concept in a clever way. Noticehow the brand “Spartan” is presented in the graphic as both a Greekwarrior, complete with helmet, and a man swinging a golf club.
12. Proximity and AlignmentProximity occurs when elements are placed close together and/or useshape, color, font, and alignment to create unity. Notice how these blocks wouldtend to be perceived as a group.
13. Proximity can be governed by alignment that is symmetrical.
14. Visual Hierarchy: when we look at visual information, we look for hierarchy because it helps us sort what is most important. The size of objects, shape, and color, and placement provide cues that help us notice those things that are most important and others that are supplemental. Which circle did you notice first? Which one draws your attention more? What conclusions can you draw based on your response to the two circles?
15. We also look for patterns as well as similarity and difference to make sense of what we are seeing.Most of us will view the square as more important than the circles.The focal point in a design governs the visual hierarchy and should draw the viewersinterest while it also helps them understand what they are looking at.
16. Focal point: heading and figurecreate a t-shaped focal point.Color Choice and Values: colors arelimited and different values createeffective contrast.Continuation: the flames areshaped to create movement infront of the figure --- as if he iswalking into the fire.Typography: one font style addstexture.The minimalist nature of this filmposter works because the subjectmatter would be instantlyrecognizable to most viewers.
17. Focal Point: the two actors create afocal point that divides the poster inhalf diagonally.The actors expressions as they lookback are aimed directly at the viewerof the flyer.Their eyes invite us to pay attentionto the poster because they are“noticing us.”
18. Examples of Bad Design
19. The three column layout of this flyer is fine, but the competing type styles, shadows, andbolding are all competing for our attention in a way that is jarring. The backgroundgradient color makes it difficult to read the text even though much of the text is bolded.The result is a flyer that is not visually inviting.
20. There is so much going wrong in this flyerthat it is hard to know where to begin. The circle’s placement creates the effect that this dancer is pregnant. Hardly what the designer intended I’m sure. What’s up with these diamonds sprinkled everywhere? Notice the misspelled words and the information about hours is not consistent.
21. Examples of Good Design
22. Notice how the text is alignedin this flyer and how the barsof color move our eyes towardthe textual information.The designer has also used acolor and pattern of circles inthe background, but these usea lower color value, so they donot compete with the textualinformation.
23. Less is often morewhen it comes todesigning a flyer.Notice the use ofspace and lines todraw our attentionto the textualinformation andhow the visualanchors this text.
24. Notice the monochromatic colorscheme, focal point, use ofalignment, and the lines of whiteand color all working together tocreate a visually appealing design.
25. The image of the dog and thestandard obedience commandscreate a strong focal point.Our eyes are drawn downwardto the text below thecommands, and word“training” combined with thefocal point helps us tounderstand, almostimmediately, that this flyer isadvertising dog training.
26. Design TipsThe design tips that follow were adapted from gomediazine tutorials. Links to the full tutorialsare in bblearn.
27. Limit the Number of Colors and Use a Range of ValuesValue is the level of brightness or Limit the number of colors, but choose alevel of color saturation. range of values in these.
28. Create Contrast by Changing Color Values not Color Difference Color Difference: The red and blue colors have the same value, and the effect is jarring to the eyes. The text seems to vibrate. Color Value: Same color in the background and text, but the values are different, so it does not vibrate but creates an easy to read text.
29. Limit Number of Fonts to Two:One for headings and one for text copy.
30. Use Grids to Design a Balanced Composition
31. Tips for Working with Grids• Don’t confine page elements to individual grid units. Text and images can span several grid units. You can also make some grid lines visible to help balance the composition.• Leave some grid units empty, or use them for accents such as small photos, adjacent caps, headlines, and so on.• Use your gutters and margins. Extending some images and headlines into the bleed area can add interest to a layout.• If you are not using a tool that allows you to create a grid and make it visible as you design the layout, try drawing lines after you have done a layout to check if you have a balanced composition.
32. I’ve drawn a few gridlines on this flyer toshow you how thedesigner used grids tocreate a balancedcomposition.You can do the samewith your flyer tocheck if the layout isbalanced.
33. Again, I’ve drawn a fewgrid lines to reveal howthe designer createdbalance in the flyer’slayout of text and images.
34. Here, the designer has made some of the gridlines visible andsome of the images are spilling outside of these lines.